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This was carried out by a high rolling gambler, a card dealer, and someone working in security for the gambling den. The dealer had been fired and the card player had been banned from the premises for life. These rooms are outfitted with more sophisticated surveillance than the rest of the casino due to the millions of dollars that change hands there. The gaming regulator in Melbourne also believe the dealer was in on the heist, ensuring his cards could be seen by the cameras.

Here are the 10 biggest casino robberies in history. This multi million casino robbery have been made famous in many different books and movies. Over the course of their long career, the MIT crew nabbed millions at high-stakes blackjack tables.

These math wizards employed an advanced method for counting cards and raked in millions of dollars 9 Reel Pokies Workout Equipment winnings. The Crown was cagey about the exact nature of the scam, but has allegedly captured the inside man, though the hacker remains at large. The device would interfere with the wheel and read its movements so one player could wear the shoe while the other would have the information relayed on his own show and bet accordingly.

Unfortunately the computer would short circuit, causing an electric shock and setting their socks on fire. The two were able to keep up the gag for few months but were eventually caught and charged. She stayed on the run until her arrest in All was fair in love and robbery for this couple. Ramos held and gagged three workers and barged another 7 at gunpoint.

Aguilera drove the getaway car. Incredibly, although all three men were arrested, the judge presiding over their trial determined that no crime had been committed and the accused were let off scot-free. But things are not easy to let go at the casinos. They were given a life time ban. The Stardust casino is no longer on the scene but the famous story of a sportsbook cashier Pokies Bonus $ Jspaluch got a little greedy is still talked about today.

One of the bandits used a miniature camera hidden in his sleeve to film cards as they were dealt, feeding images to an accomplice in a van outside. The footage was reviewed in slow motion and wagering instructions were fed to the inside man via a small ear piece.

All three of these greedy gentlemen were arrested for their crimes.

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Vigoa was a known bank robber and his face was caught on camera, giving the authorities a clear lead. Then, Sanchez confessed to police and gave up Vigoa and Suarez.

Vigoa was sentenced to life in prison and Sanchez committed suicide in jail with Suarez a lighter sentence. Treasure Island, Las Vegas This Las Vegas casino was actually subject to multiple robberies at the turn of millennium, though only one was Pokies 2018 Zx10r Integrated. This followed two previous hits on the establishment, during which Johnson failed to nab any dough and wounded a security guard.

This psychopathic klutz was eventually sentenced to years behind bars. This robbery was superfast and took place in the afternoon of March 11 Two men came up to the change booth and held up the casino cashier at gunpoint. No one knows which entry and robbers came in from or what booth they robbed. Leaving the casino embarrassed till date one can only imagine such a robbery which was so swift and fast. Playing Casino games on a cruise is a wonderful experience and great fun to enjoy.

The casinos at cruise ships offer variety of games to play and provide opportunity to win big too. Whether you are an experienced player or a newbie you will find playing casino games on cruise exciting as these casinos provide guidance as how to play the games as well as many ships run games tournaments for you to practice your skill and compete with other players.

Here are the 5 best casino cruise ships where you can have a feel of games at sea and will give you a memorable 9 Reel Pokies Workout Equipment. Royal Caribbean also offers Club Royale, a rewards programme for high rollers. You can join Club Royale on invitation from casino managers who judge you on your level of play and once you become a member you can enjoy complimentary drinks and discounts off future cruises.

Royal Caribbean also offers casino games tournaments on such voyage for both pro punters as well as new players. Norwegian Cruise Line offers casinos with variety of exciting games and rewards for cruisers and players on board. This cruise has won a number of awards including Best of Gaming Winner from Casino Player Magazine for twelve years in a row.

You can enjoy reel pokies, video pokies or hybrids available 9 Reel Pokies Workout Equipment all types of budget players. The unique thing is you do not need to take a break in between your ongoing game as you can also play video poker while sat at the casino bar.

You can enjoy weekly blackjack, poker and pokies tournament. For new players who do not know how to play any of the casino games the cruise provides free gaming lessons for players. Also you will find casino tournaments on board with some great prizes to win.

Holland America offers a casino experience for both new players and pro players. This is because they have a great range of pokies for all levels of players and if you do not have any experience you will be offered free guide and lessons to learn the game from their friendly casino staff. You can enjoy table games that include blackjack, roulette, three card poker, Texas and craps. To become a member at Club 21 you do not have to do anything as you automatically join when you put your cruise key card into a pokies machine or show it to a dealer at one of the tables.

As a member of the club, you can benefit from cruise offers and cashback rewards. Like the other cruise lines, Holland America also offers pokies and blackjack tournaments. The other thing is that they also run a cruise lottery on all of their ships, giving you the opportunity to enjoy and win all the time when you are on cruise.

Some games are available on select ships by request, including Baccarat and Let It Ride. Like other cruise ships the players have royalty programs and cubs to enjoy. If you are a High roller you can join the Blue Chip club which is by invitation. You need to be 18 years and above to play at casino. Gaming operations are performed in U. Celebrity Cruise also have Fortune casino app. You know about Floyd Mayweather Pokies Asu Online Graduate of the most famous boxers in the world.

His superb understanding and inside knowledge of sports gave him a special place in sports betting. He is well-informed and through careful calculating Mayweather knows how to place safe bets.

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He being a wealthy player and knew exactly what he was doing, by placing a well-informed bet. The Heat lost the sixth playoff game in the series to the Indiana Pacers in Indianapolis, and prepared for game 7 against the Pacers again, but this time in Miami.

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Pokies for real money, also known as online slots, are big in Australia and they deliver fun gaming experience and the option to win real money. Lottery games contain large sums of money that players can win.

He applied for a loan with General Dynamics and was turned down. Either he paid the fuel bill, or FedEx will have to shut down. When he got what he needed for the fuel bill he stopped. FedEx was saved from bankruptcy, and the rest is shipping history. Now this story is very special as it dates back to Location the Beaux-Arts casino at Monte Carlo, the grand winning happened.

Joseph Jagger was fed up from his work as a mechanical engineer in the cotton industry. His professional experience taught him many things about machines, one thing in particular: He applied this understanding to a surprising conclusion — some roulette wheels must have a bias, must not be perfectly balanced.

This tool him off Monte Carlo, six helpers he hired, and sent them to the Beaux-Arts casino to watch and record every winning number on all six roulettes in the house. When he looked at the results it was obvious that one of the six wheels had a bias. Nine specific numbers on one side of the wheel won over and over again, more often than chance can support. Remember that this feat of clever conclusion-drawing was in Jagger placed a well-informed bet, almost risk-free.

Careful observation and some basic math dealt him a winning card. Phil Ivey is the best poker player in the world. He has won 10 World Series of Poker bracelets in just 14 years of time frame. Ivey is a master of his own craft. He 9 Reel Pokies Workout Equipment the Tiger Woods of poker as Pokies Bonus $1234 5678 Steps many can beat him, but everyone wants to play against him.

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One memorable such game was in in The Wynn Resort hotel in Vegas. The Dallas billionaire Andy Beal just had to play against Ivey. Beal said after that he had a blast, and that Ivey is indeed an amazing poker player. So what you learnt with these stories. They were well informed of the games they played and knew when to use their bets and proper strategy.

Also most important they all had the will power to fight for win.

Which story you liked? Do you love playing casino games? Which casino game you like the most and what game makes you a successful winner? The personality of yours speaks in answering all such questions. Tamburin has formulated an intelligent typology which is a system for classifying behaviour based on universal characteristics that casino players could employ in order to determine whether or not the game that they are playing is the one that most suits their personality.

He identifies ten personality 9 Reel Pokies Workout Equipment and matches them to the corresponding casino games. Extroverts are usually outgoing, enjoy being noticed and interacting with other in a social games and they love to play Craps. They have got the stamina to fight for the Big Win. They focus on their goal and determine to succeed. Introverts are shy, quiet and prefers to play solitary games like pokies, video poker, roulette and mini baccarat.

They work hard 9 Reel Pokies Workout Equipment follow the game rules and though seems tensed while at play but they keep their smile on. They are generous by nature and are care free and can grow from rags to riches with their confidence.

Risk taker personality loves living and playing on the edge, when it comes to betting they put in significant amounts of money if they feel there is a good chance of winning. They love to even end with a tie for winnings and love to speculate too. Frugal personality hates spending money and wants as much value as possible.

As this type of personality is sophisticated they take Vegas games like storm and like to bet on odds just as with their confidence they hope for great wins. For those who like to attract their stylish appearance they love to play Blackjack, Baccarat and Craps. Sometimes they can be called as too hyper as they are easily bored easily and want new challenges.

And even if they lose they forget easily and are back to their table again focusing on next deal. Intuitives love to play pokies and poker games a lot. Be it, Let it ride, Caribean stud three card poker and new generation pokies they always go with their hut feeling to predict the outcomes of bets in these games. Thinking type personalities enjoy poker games, Blackjack and video poker like discerning game play outcomes and employ strategies to win. Insightful personality players enjoys putting Free Spins Pokie Assistant Teacher and skill into action in order to win in the games like Blackjack and Video Poker.

This personality flows with their emotions as to what games to pick and bets to make and they love to play Pokies and video poker. Competitive personality is quite thrilling and betting is their hobby as they gather strength and skill against any game you give them to play for winning. They will never say no and will definitely take part or think to get involved in casino tournament games too. Among these personality types you will find some types do overlap and can have more than one traits and love for games.

Now next time when playing at the casino do watch out your personality and choose the game that best suits you and may be you are destined for a millionaire win. The 5 reel, 25 payline has the softest and the most adorable images, Wild Symbols and Scatters with free spins. Do you love puppies? This pokies game has big-eyed canines, look like they will come out of the screen to shower you with love.

The 3 D style game has 5 reels and 25 paylines full of cute shape of additional Wild and Scatter symbols. Glutters is very friendly and adorable pokies to play.

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To customise your bet, just click on the bet button on the bottom of the reels and use the plus and minus symbols to increase or decrease the size of your wager. When ready, hit the spin button, or select auto-play to have the computer play up to spins on your behalf. Reel Spinner is available for both instant-play and via downloadable Microgaming casino software, and has also been customised for mobile use with iOS, Android and Windows Phone.

The standard symbols in Reel Spinner are made up of all kinds of things to do with fishing, from the boating equipment, to the rods, to five different kinds of fish.

Microgaming has used lots of bright colours to make this game as visually appealing as possible, and the reels sit against a twinkling, calm ocean to set things off. Although Reel Spinner lacks any notably incredible special features, there are some good bonuses which have been tweaked a bit to boost some excitement from the norm:. During free spin rounds, the wild symbol becomes stacked on all reels for the possibility of bigger wins.

Free spins — Free spins are triggered by three or more marlin scatter symbols anywhere across the reels. The biggest bonus you can get is 20 free spins with a 5X multiplier, which provides a nice boost indeed. When it comes to the safest, most reliable online casinos for real money play, we recommend these reputable sites to play Reel Spinner and hundreds of other Microgaming slots:.

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The payback percentage in most casino machines is much higher than the minimum -- often in the to percent range. Casinos don't want their machines to be a lot tighter than their competitors' machines or the players will take their business elsewhere. The odds for a particular slot machine are built into the program on the machine's computer chip.

In most cases, the casino cannot change the odds on a machine without replacing this chip. Despite popular opinion, there is no way for the casino to instantly "tighten up" a machine. Machines don't loosen up on their own either.

That is, they aren't more likely to pay the longer you play. Since the computer always pulls up new random numbers, you have exactly the same chance of hitting the jackpot every single time you pull the handle.

The idea that a machine can be "ready to pay" is all in the player's head, at least in the standard system. When you hit the slot machines in a casino, you'll have dozens of gaming options. Machines come with varying numbers of reels , for example, and many have multiple pay lines. Most machines with multiple pay lines let players choose how many lines to play. For the minimum bet, only the single line running straight across the reels counts. If the player puts more money in, he or she can play the additional horizontal lines above and below the main pay line or the diagonal lines running across the reels.

For machines with multiple bet options, whether they have multiple pay lines or not, players will usually be eligible for the maximum jackpot only when they make the maximum bet. For this reason, gambling experts suggest that players always bet the maximum. There are several different payout schemes in modern slot machines. A standard flat top or straight slot machine has a set payout amount that never changes. The jackpot payout in a progressive machine, on the other hand, steadily increases as players put more money into it, until somebody wins it all and the jackpot is reset to a starting value.

In one common progressive setup, multiple machines are linked together in one computer system. The money put into each machine contributes to the central jackpot. In some giant progressive games, machines are linked up from different casinos all across a city or even a state. Some slot-machine variations are simply aesthetic. Video slots operate the same way as regular machines, but they have a video image rather than actual rotating reels. When these games first came out, players were very distrustful of them; without the spinning reels, it seemed like the games were rigged.

Even though the reels and handles in modern machines are completely irrelevant to the outcome of the game, manufacturers usually include them just to give players the illusion of control. Do you have a twitter or a facebook? I recommended it on stumbleupon. However thank you for this blog.

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Conversely, we could state that as for every dollar played, the casino will retain 1. These percentages only hold true over very long-term play consisting of hundreds of thousands or even millions of plays. There are a couple of things wrong with this line of thinking.

First, theoretical percentages will be attained only over long periods of play. Over a few dozen, or even a few hundred rolls, the payback percentage will vary greatly. Most people will buy twenty dollars worth of tokens and continue to play with this money until it is gone. After inserting the first round of coins in the machine, they will continue playing with any coins left in the tray, and they will continue this pattern until no coins are left.

And then they wonder how it was possible for a The answer is that the casino continues to extract its percentage on every coin inserted into the machine. The player will not limit his play to twenty dollars or one hundred dollars but will continue to redeposit coins.

The machine will, at least over the long-term, continue to grind away at all money played. Table 6 shows the devastating effect the house edge can have on the player's bankroll. Amount Retained Per Round of Play. Even though we have gradually lost some money on this machine, we can see that hitting a single higher payoff would put us ahead and that we have gained much more playing time to do so.

If you never cared what the casino hold was before, this should open your eyes. It is imperative that you always seek and play machines with lower hold percentages.

Unfortunately, casinos do not label their machines with the hold or payback percentages. However, the player's win rates are available for different locations.

If we were seeking to play the highest payback slots, we might begin our search with this information. The highest average payback in the U. The average for all Nevada casinos is The next best place to play is in Colorado, with an average rate of Moving east, we find that the Illinois river boats offer the third best choice at We also notice that the win rates increase with the size of coin accepted, with the nickel slots paying out the lowest percentages and the five dollar slots the highest.

Conversely, if we limit our play to nickel slots on the Illinois river boats, we will average a measly In a typical weighted slot machine, the top jackpot stop the one with the highest-paying jackpot image for each reel corresponds to only one virtual stop. This means that the chance of hitting the jackpot image on one reel is 1 in If all of the reels are set up the same way, the chances of hitting the jackpot image on all three reels is 1 in 64 3 , or , For machines with a bigger jackpot, the virtual reel may have many more stops.

This decreases the odds of winning that jackpot considerably. The losing blank stops above and below the jackpot image may correspond to more virtual stops than other images. Consequently, a player is most likely to hit the blank stops right next to the winning stop. This creates the impression that they "just missed" the jackpot, which encourages them to keep gambling, even though the proximity of the actual stops is inconsequential.

A machine's program is carefully designed and tested to achieve a certain payback percentage. The payback percentage is the percentage of the money that is put in that is eventually paid out to the player. With a payback percentage of 90, for example, the casino would take about 10 percent of all money put into the slot machine and give away the other 90 percent. With any payback percentage under a and they're all under , the casino wins over time. In most gambling jurisdictions, the law requires that payback percentages be above a certain level usually somewhere around 75 percent.

The payback percentage in most casino machines is much higher than the minimum -- often in the to percent range. Casinos don't want their machines to be a lot tighter than their competitors' machines or the players will take their business elsewhere.

The odds for a particular slot machine are built into the program on the machine's computer chip. In most cases, the casino cannot change the odds on a machine without replacing this chip. A hand pay could also be necessary as a result of a short pay.

Hopper fill slip is a document used to record the replenishment of the coin in the coin hopper after it becomes depleted as a result of making payouts to players. The slip indicates the amount of coin placed into the hoppers, as well as the signatures of the employees involved in the transaction, the slot machine number and the location and the date.

MEAL book M achine e ntry a uthorization l og is a log of the employee's entries into the machine. Low Level or Slant Top slot machines include a stool so the player has sitdown access. Stand Up or Upright slot machines are played while standing. Optimal play is a payback percentage based on a gambler using the optimal strategy in a skill-based slot machine game.

Payline is a line that crosses through one symbol on each reel, along which a winning combination is evaluated. Classic spinning reel machines usually have up to nine paylines, while video slot machines may have as many as one hundred. Paylines could be of various shapes horizontal, vertical, oblique, triangular, zigzag, etc. Rollup is the process of dramatizing a win by playing sounds while the meters count up to the amount that has been won.

Short pay refers to a partial payout made by a slot machine, which is less than the amount due to the player. This occurs if the coin hopper has been depleted as a result of making earlier payouts to players.

The remaining amount due to the player is either paid as a hand pay or an attendant will come and refill the machine. Scatter Symbol It is required to place at least two of the same symbols on a pay line to get paid in slot games. However, scatter symbols work differently and award a prize whether they are placed on a pay line or not. But the player still needs to get at least two of them in modern slot games. The more, the better. Scatter symbols are usually used to award a number of free spins.

The number of free spins differs from game to game; i. They can also award coin prizes, based on their number. The prizes are usually small, but they are paid in addition to other winnings. Scatter symbol is a special symbol, which means the wild symbol cannot replace it. Slot variance is a measure of risk associated with playing a slot machine.

A low variance slot machine has regular but smaller wins and a high variance slot machine has fewer but bigger wins. Taste is a reference to the small amount often paid out to keep a player seated and continuously betting. Only rarely will machines fail to pay out even the minimum placed a bet over the course of several pulls.

Tilt Electromechanical slot machines usually include an electromechanical " tilt switch ", which makes or breaks a circuit if the machine is tilted or otherwise tampered with, and so triggers an alarm. While modern machines no longer have tilt switches, any kind of technical fault door switch in the wrong state, reel motor failure, out of paper, etc. Theoretical Hold Worksheet A document provided by the manufacturer for all slot machines, which indicates the theoretical percentage that the slot machine should hold based on the amount paid in.

The worksheet also indicates the reel strip settings, number of coins that may be played, the payout schedule, the number of reels and other information descriptive of the particular type of slot machine.

Weight count is an American term, referring to the dollar amount of coins or tokens removed from a slot machine's drop bucket or drop box and counted by the casino's hard count team through the use of a weigh scale. Wild Symbol Wild symbols act like joker cards in a slot game. Basically, they substitute for all other symbols in the game, usually except for other special symbols, such as scatter and jackpot. They can appear on any of the reels. However, this is not mandatory and can be changed from game to game.

In some games, wild symbols can appear only on certain reels. Or, they can appear only during the bonus rounds. The player must refer to the rules and paytable of the game to learn about the landing rules.

Mobile is when the slot machine is hosted for online gambling and it is usually available for use on a phone, tablet, or other portable device. These are often standalone mobile casino applications but are also found as part of the online casino site.

Each machine has a table that lists the number of credits the player will receive if the symbols listed on the pay table line up on the pay line of the machine. Some symbols are wild and can represent many, or all, of the other symbols to complete a winning line. Especially on older machines, the pay table is listed on the face of the machine, usually above and below the area containing the wheels.

Most video machines display the pay table when the player presses a "pay table" button or touches "pay table" on the screen; some have the pay table listed on the cabinet as well. Historically, all slot machines used revolving mechanical reels to display and determine results. Although the original slot machine used five reels, simpler, and therefore more reliable, three reel machines quickly became the standard. This limited the manufacturer's ability to offer large jackpots since even the rarest event had a likelihood of 0.

Although the number of symbols eventually increased to about 22, allowing 10, combinations, [20] this still limited jackpot sizes as well as the number of possible outcomes.

In the s, however, slot machine manufacturers incorporated electronics into their products and programmed them to weight particular symbols. Thus the odds of losing symbols appearing on the payline became disproportionate to their actual frequency on the physical reel. A symbol would only appear once on the reel displayed to the player, but could, in fact, occupy several stops on the multiple reel.

With microprocessors now ubiquitous, the computers inside modern slot machines allow manufacturers to assign a different probability to every symbol on every reel. To the player it might appear that a winning symbol was 'so close', whereas in fact the probability is much lower. In the s in the UK machines embodying microprocessors became common. These used a number of features to ensure the payout was controlled within the limits of the gambling legislation. As the coin was inserted into the machine it could go one of two routes, either direct into the cashbox for the benefit of the owner, or alternatively it would go into a channel that formed the payout reservoir, the microprocessor monitoring the number of coins in this channel.

The drums themselves were driven by stepper motors, controlled by the processor and with proximity sensors monitoring the position of the drums. A "look up table" within the software allows the processor to know what symbols were being displayed on the drums to the gambler. This allowed the system to control the level of payout by stopping the drums at positions it had determined. If the payout channel had filled up, the payout became more generous, if nearly empty, less so thus giving good control of the odds.

The video slot machine is a more recent innovation, with no moving parts at all — instead a graphical representation of one appears on screen. In addition, because there are no mechanical constraints on the design of video slot machines, most display five reels rather than three.

This greatly expands the number of possibilities: As there are so many combinations given by five reels, the manufacturers do not need to weight the payout symbols although some may still do so.

Instead, higher paying symbols will typically appear only once or twice on each reel, while more common symbols, earning a more frequent payout, will appear many times. Video slot machines typically encourage the player to play multiple "lines", so rather than simply taking the middle of the three symbols displayed on each reel, a line could go from top left to bottom right, or any of the other patterns specified by the manufacturer.

As each symbol is equally likely, there is no difficulty for the manufacturer in allowing the player to take any or all of the possible lines on offer — the long-term return to player will be the same. The difference for the player is that the more lines he plays the more likely he is to get paid on a given spin — though of course he is betting more in the first place. To avoid the feeling that the player's money is simply ebbing away whereas a payout of credits on a single line machine would be bets, and the player would feel they had made a substantial win, on a 20 line machine, it would only be 5 bets and would not seem significant , manufacturers commonly offer bonus games, which can return many times their bet.

The player is encouraged to keep playing to reach the bonus: All modern machines are designed using pseudo random number generators "PRNGs" , which are constantly generating a sequence of simulated random numbers, at a rate of hundreds or perhaps thousands per second. As soon as the "Play" button is pressed, the most recent random number is used to determine the result.

This means that the result varies depending on exactly when the game is played. A fraction of a second earlier or later, and the result would be different. It is important that the machine contains a high-quality RNG implementation, because all PRNGs must eventually repeat their number sequence, [23] and if the period is short, or the PRNG is otherwise flawed, an advanced player may be able to 'predict' the next result. Having access to the PRNG code and seed values, Ronald Dale Harris , a former slot machine programmer, discovered equations for specific gambling games like Keno that allowed him to predict what the next set of selected numbers would be based on the previous games played.

Most machines are designed to defeat this by generating numbers even when the machine is not being played, so the player cannot tell where in the sequence they are, even if he knows how the machine was programmed. This is known as the "theoretical payout percentage" or RTP, "return to player". The minimum theoretical payout percentage varies among jurisdictions and is typically established by law or regulation.

The winning patterns on slot machines — the amounts they pay and the frequencies of those payouts — are carefully selected to yield a certain fraction of the money played to the "house" the operator of the slot machine , while returning the rest to the players during play.

Within some EGM development organizations this concept is referred to simply as "par. A slot machine's theoretical payout percentage is set at the factory when the software is written.

Changing the payout percentage after a slot machine has been placed on the gaming floor requires a physical swap of the software or firmware , which is usually stored on an EPROM but may be loaded onto non-volatile random access memory NVRAM or even stored on CD-ROM or DVD , depending on the capabilities of the machine and the applicable regulations. Based on current technology, this is a time-consuming process and as such is done infrequently.

Other jurisdictions, including Nevada, randomly audit slot machines to ensure that they contain only approved software. Historically, many casinos, both online and offline, have been unwilling to publish individual game RTP figures, making it impossible for the player to know whether they are playing a "loose" or a "tight" game.

Since the turn of the century some information regarding these figures has started to come into the public domain either through various casinos releasing them - primarily this applies to online casino - or through studies by independent gambling authorities.

The return to player is not the only statistic that is of interest. The probabilities of every payout on the pay table is also critical. For example, consider a hypothetical slot machine with a dozen different values on the pay table.

However, the probabilities of getting all the payouts are zero except the largest one. Also, most people would not win anything, and having entries on the paytable that have a return of zero would be deceptive. As these individual probabilities are closely guarded secrets, it is possible that the advertised machines with high return to player simply increase the probabilities of these jackpots.

The added advantage is that these large jackpots increase the excitement of the other players. This game, in its original form, is obsolete, so these specific probabilities do not apply. He only published the odds after a fan of his sent him some information provided on a slot machine that was posted on a machine in the Netherlands. The psychology of the machine design is quickly revealed. There are 13 possible payouts ranging from 1: Most players assume the likelihood increases proportionate to the payout.

The one midsize payout that is designed to give the player a thrill is the It is programmed to occur an average of once every plays.

In contrast the The highest payout of 2, The player who continues to feed the machine is likely to have several midsize payouts, but unlikely to have a large payout. He quits after he is bored or has exhausted his bankroll. Despite the fact that they are confidential, occasionally a PAR sheet is posted on a website. They have limited value to the player, because usually a machine will have 8 to 12 different possible programs with varying payouts. In addition, slight variations of each machine e.

The casino operator can choose which EPROM chip to install in any particular machine to select the payout desired. The result is that there is not really such a thing as a high payback type of machine, since every machine potentially has multiple settings. Without revealing the proprietary information, he developed a program that would allow him to determine with usually less than a dozen plays on each machine which EPROM chip was installed.

Then he did a survey of over machines in 70 different casinos in Las Vegas. He averaged the data, and assigned an average payback percentage to the machines in each casino. The resultant list was widely publicized for marketing purposes especially by the Palms casino which had the top ranking.

One reason that the slot machine is so profitable to a casino is that the player must play the high house edge and high payout wagers along with the low house edge and low payout wagers. Other bets have a higher house edge, but the player is rewarded with a bigger win up to thirty times in craps. The player can choose what kind of wager he wants to make.

A slot machine does not afford such an opportunity. Theoretically, the operator could make these probabilities available, or allow the player to choose which one so that the player is free to make a choice. However, no operator has ever enacted this strategy. Different machines have different maximum payouts, but without knowing the odds of getting the jackpot, there is no rational way to differentiate. In many markets where central monitoring and control systems are used to link machines for auditing and security purposes, usually in wide area networks of multiple venues and thousands of machines, player return must usually be changed from a central computer rather than at each machine.

A range of percentages is set in the game software and selected remotely. In , the Nevada Gaming Commission began working with Las Vegas casinos on technology that would allow the casino's management to change the game, the odds, and the payouts remotely.

The change cannot be done instantaneously, but only after the selected machine has been idle for at least four minutes. After the change is made, the machine must be locked to new players for four minutes and display an on-screen message informing potential players that a change is being made. Often machines are linked together in a way that allows a group of machines to offer a particularly large prize, or "jackpot". Each slot machine in the group contributes a small amount to this progressive jackpot , awarded to a player who gets, for example, a royal flush on a video poker machine or a specific combination of symbols on a regular or nine-line slot machine.

The amount paid for the progressive jackpot is usually far higher than any single slot machine could pay on its own. In some cases multiple machines are linked across multiple casinos.

In these cases, the machines may be owned by the manufacturer, who is responsible for paying the jackpot. The casinos lease the machines rather than owning them outright. Casinos in New Jersey, Nevada, and South Dakota now offer multi-state progressive jackpots, which now offer bigger jackpot pools. Mechanical slot machines and their coin acceptors were sometimes susceptible to cheating devices and other scams.

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This occurs if the coin hopper has been depleted as a result of making earlier payouts to players. The remaining amount due to the player is either paid as a hand pay or an attendant will come and refill the machine. Scatter Symbol It is required to place at least two of the same symbols on a pay line to get paid in slot games.

However, scatter symbols work differently and award a prize whether they are placed on a pay line or not. But the player still needs to get at least two of them in modern slot games. The more, the better. Scatter symbols are usually used to award a number of free spins. The number of free spins differs from game to game; i. They can also award coin prizes, based on their number.

The prizes are usually small, but they are paid in addition to other winnings. Scatter symbol is a special symbol, which means the wild symbol cannot replace it.

Slot variance is a measure of risk associated with playing a slot machine. A low variance slot machine has regular but smaller wins and a high variance slot machine has fewer but bigger wins. Taste is a reference to the small amount often paid out to keep a player seated and continuously betting. Only rarely will machines fail to pay out even the minimum placed a bet over the course of several pulls. Tilt Electromechanical slot machines usually include an electromechanical " tilt switch ", which makes or breaks a circuit if the machine is tilted or otherwise tampered with, and so triggers an alarm.

While modern machines no longer have tilt switches, any kind of technical fault door switch in the wrong state, reel motor failure, out of paper, etc. Theoretical Hold Worksheet A document provided by the manufacturer for all slot machines, which indicates the theoretical percentage that the slot machine should hold based on the amount paid in.

The worksheet also indicates the reel strip settings, number of coins that may be played, the payout schedule, the number of reels and other information descriptive of the particular type of slot machine. Weight count is an American term, referring to the dollar amount of coins or tokens removed from a slot machine's drop bucket or drop box and counted by the casino's hard count team through the use of a weigh scale. Wild Symbol Wild symbols act like joker cards in a slot game. Basically, they substitute for all other symbols in the game, usually except for other special symbols, such as scatter and jackpot.

They can appear on any of the reels. However, this is not mandatory and can be changed from game to game. In some games, wild symbols can appear only on certain reels. Or, they can appear only during the bonus rounds.

The player must refer to the rules and paytable of the game to learn about the landing rules. Mobile is when the slot machine is hosted for online gambling and it is usually available for use on a phone, tablet, or other portable device. These are often standalone mobile casino applications but are also found as part of the online casino site.

Each machine has a table that lists the number of credits the player will receive if the symbols listed on the pay table line up on the pay line of the machine. Some symbols are wild and can represent many, or all, of the other symbols to complete a winning line. Especially on older machines, the pay table is listed on the face of the machine, usually above and below the area containing the wheels.

Most video machines display the pay table when the player presses a "pay table" button or touches "pay table" on the screen; some have the pay table listed on the cabinet as well. Historically, all slot machines used revolving mechanical reels to display and determine results. Although the original slot machine used five reels, simpler, and therefore more reliable, three reel machines quickly became the standard.

This limited the manufacturer's ability to offer large jackpots since even the rarest event had a likelihood of 0. Although the number of symbols eventually increased to about 22, allowing 10, combinations, [20] this still limited jackpot sizes as well as the number of possible outcomes. In the s, however, slot machine manufacturers incorporated electronics into their products and programmed them to weight particular symbols. Thus the odds of losing symbols appearing on the payline became disproportionate to their actual frequency on the physical reel.

A symbol would only appear once on the reel displayed to the player, but could, in fact, occupy several stops on the multiple reel. With microprocessors now ubiquitous, the computers inside modern slot machines allow manufacturers to assign a different probability to every symbol on every reel. To the player it might appear that a winning symbol was 'so close', whereas in fact the probability is much lower.

In the s in the UK machines embodying microprocessors became common. These used a number of features to ensure the payout was controlled within the limits of the gambling legislation. As the coin was inserted into the machine it could go one of two routes, either direct into the cashbox for the benefit of the owner, or alternatively it would go into a channel that formed the payout reservoir, the microprocessor monitoring the number of coins in this channel.

The drums themselves were driven by stepper motors, controlled by the processor and with proximity sensors monitoring the position of the drums. A "look up table" within the software allows the processor to know what symbols were being displayed on the drums to the gambler. This allowed the system to control the level of payout by stopping the drums at positions it had determined. If the payout channel had filled up, the payout became more generous, if nearly empty, less so thus giving good control of the odds.

The video slot machine is a more recent innovation, with no moving parts at all — instead a graphical representation of one appears on screen. In addition, because there are no mechanical constraints on the design of video slot machines, most display five reels rather than three. This greatly expands the number of possibilities: As there are so many combinations given by five reels, the manufacturers do not need to weight the payout symbols although some may still do so. Instead, higher paying symbols will typically appear only once or twice on each reel, while more common symbols, earning a more frequent payout, will appear many times.

Video slot machines typically encourage the player to play multiple "lines", so rather than simply taking the middle of the three symbols displayed on each reel, a line could go from top left to bottom right, or any of the other patterns specified by the manufacturer. As each symbol is equally likely, there is no difficulty for the manufacturer in allowing the player to take any or all of the possible lines on offer — the long-term return to player will be the same.

The difference for the player is that the more lines he plays the more likely he is to get paid on a given spin — though of course he is betting more in the first place. To avoid the feeling that the player's money is simply ebbing away whereas a payout of credits on a single line machine would be bets, and the player would feel they had made a substantial win, on a 20 line machine, it would only be 5 bets and would not seem significant , manufacturers commonly offer bonus games, which can return many times their bet.

The player is encouraged to keep playing to reach the bonus: All modern machines are designed using pseudo random number generators "PRNGs" , which are constantly generating a sequence of simulated random numbers, at a rate of hundreds or perhaps thousands per second. As soon as the "Play" button is pressed, the most recent random number is used to determine the result.

This means that the result varies depending on exactly when the game is played. A fraction of a second earlier or later, and the result would be different. It is important that the machine contains a high-quality RNG implementation, because all PRNGs must eventually repeat their number sequence, [23] and if the period is short, or the PRNG is otherwise flawed, an advanced player may be able to 'predict' the next result.

Having access to the PRNG code and seed values, Ronald Dale Harris , a former slot machine programmer, discovered equations for specific gambling games like Keno that allowed him to predict what the next set of selected numbers would be based on the previous games played. Most machines are designed to defeat this by generating numbers even when the machine is not being played, so the player cannot tell where in the sequence they are, even if he knows how the machine was programmed.

This is known as the "theoretical payout percentage" or RTP, "return to player". The minimum theoretical payout percentage varies among jurisdictions and is typically established by law or regulation.

The winning patterns on slot machines — the amounts they pay and the frequencies of those payouts — are carefully selected to yield a certain fraction of the money played to the "house" the operator of the slot machine , while returning the rest to the players during play. Within some EGM development organizations this concept is referred to simply as "par. A slot machine's theoretical payout percentage is set at the factory when the software is written.

Changing the payout percentage after a slot machine has been placed on the gaming floor requires a physical swap of the software or firmware , which is usually stored on an EPROM but may be loaded onto non-volatile random access memory NVRAM or even stored on CD-ROM or DVD , depending on the capabilities of the machine and the applicable regulations.

Based on current technology, this is a time-consuming process and as such is done infrequently. Other jurisdictions, including Nevada, randomly audit slot machines to ensure that they contain only approved software. Historically, many casinos, both online and offline, have been unwilling to publish individual game RTP figures, making it impossible for the player to know whether they are playing a "loose" or a "tight" game.

Since the turn of the century some information regarding these figures has started to come into the public domain either through various casinos releasing them - primarily this applies to online casino - or through studies by independent gambling authorities. The return to player is not the only statistic that is of interest.

The probabilities of every payout on the pay table is also critical. For example, consider a hypothetical slot machine with a dozen different values on the pay table. However, the probabilities of getting all the payouts are zero except the largest one. Also, most people would not win anything, and having entries on the paytable that have a return of zero would be deceptive. As these individual probabilities are closely guarded secrets, it is possible that the advertised machines with high return to player simply increase the probabilities of these jackpots.

The added advantage is that these large jackpots increase the excitement of the other players. This game, in its original form, is obsolete, so these specific probabilities do not apply. He only published the odds after a fan of his sent him some information provided on a slot machine that was posted on a machine in the Netherlands.

The psychology of the machine design is quickly revealed. There are 13 possible payouts ranging from 1: Most players assume the likelihood increases proportionate to the payout. The one midsize payout that is designed to give the player a thrill is the It is programmed to occur an average of once every plays.

In contrast the The highest payout of 2, The player who continues to feed the machine is likely to have several midsize payouts, but unlikely to have a large payout. He quits after he is bored or has exhausted his bankroll. Despite the fact that they are confidential, occasionally a PAR sheet is posted on a website.

They have limited value to the player, because usually a machine will have 8 to 12 different possible programs with varying payouts. In addition, slight variations of each machine e. The casino operator can choose which EPROM chip to install in any particular machine to select the payout desired. The result is that there is not really such a thing as a high payback type of machine, since every machine potentially has multiple settings.

Without revealing the proprietary information, he developed a program that would allow him to determine with usually less than a dozen plays on each machine which EPROM chip was installed. Then he did a survey of over machines in 70 different casinos in Las Vegas. He averaged the data, and assigned an average payback percentage to the machines in each casino. The resultant list was widely publicized for marketing purposes especially by the Palms casino which had the top ranking.

One reason that the slot machine is so profitable to a casino is that the player must play the high house edge and high payout wagers along with the low house edge and low payout wagers.

Other bets have a higher house edge, but the player is rewarded with a bigger win up to thirty times in craps. The player can choose what kind of wager he wants to make. A slot machine does not afford such an opportunity. Theoretically, the operator could make these probabilities available, or allow the player to choose which one so that the player is free to make a choice.

However, no operator has ever enacted this strategy. Different machines have different maximum payouts, but without knowing the odds of getting the jackpot, there is no rational way to differentiate. In many markets where central monitoring and control systems are used to link machines for auditing and security purposes, usually in wide area networks of multiple venues and thousands of machines, player return must usually be changed from a central computer rather than at each machine.

A range of percentages is set in the game software and selected remotely. In , the Nevada Gaming Commission began working with Las Vegas casinos on technology that would allow the casino's management to change the game, the odds, and the payouts remotely.

The change cannot be done instantaneously, but only after the selected machine has been idle for at least four minutes. After the change is made, the machine must be locked to new players for four minutes and display an on-screen message informing potential players that a change is being made.

Often machines are linked together in a way that allows a group of machines to offer a particularly large prize, or "jackpot". Each slot machine in the group contributes a small amount to this progressive jackpot , awarded to a player who gets, for example, a royal flush on a video poker machine or a specific combination of symbols on a regular or nine-line slot machine.

The amount paid for the progressive jackpot is usually far higher than any single slot machine could pay on its own. In some cases multiple machines are linked across multiple casinos.

In these cases, the machines may be owned by the manufacturer, who is responsible for paying the jackpot. The casinos lease the machines rather than owning them outright. Casinos in New Jersey, Nevada, and South Dakota now offer multi-state progressive jackpots, which now offer bigger jackpot pools. Mechanical slot machines and their coin acceptors were sometimes susceptible to cheating devices and other scams. One historical example involved spinning a coin with a short length of plastic wire.

The weight and size of the coin would be accepted by the machine and credits would be granted. However, the spin created by the plastic wire would cause the coin to exit through the reject chute into the payout tray. This particular scam has become obsolete due to improvements in newer slot machines. Another obsolete method of defeating slot machines was to use a light source to confuse the optical sensor used to count coins during payout.

Modern slot machines are controlled by EPROM computer chips and, in large casinos, coin acceptors have become obsolete in favor of bill acceptors. These machines and their bill acceptors are designed with advanced anti-cheating and anti-counterfeiting measures and are difficult to defraud. Early computerized slot machines were sometimes defrauded through the use of cheating devices, such as the "slider" or "monkey paw". Computerized slot machines are fully deterministic and thus outcomes can be sometimes successfully predicted.

Malfunctioning electronic slot machines are capable of indicating jackpot winnings far in excess of those advertised. In the United States, the public and private availability of slot machines is highly regulated by state governments. Many states have established gaming control boards to regulate the possession and use of slot machines.

Nevada is the only state that has no significant restrictions against slot machines both for public and private use. In New Jersey , slot machines are only allowed in hotel casinos operated in Atlantic City. Several states Illinois , Indiana , Louisiana and Missouri allow slot machines as well as any casino-style gambling only on licensed riverboats or permanently anchored barges.

Since Hurricane Katrina , Mississippi has removed the requirement that casinos on the Gulf Coast operate on barges and now allows them on land along the shoreline. Delaware allows slot machines at three horse tracks; they are regulated by the state lottery commission. In Wisconsin, bars and taverns are allowed to have up to five machines. These machines usually allow a player to either take a payout, or gamble it on a double-or-nothing "side game".

A player redeems his winnings by pressing a button to print a ticket, which the bartender redeems for cash. The territory of Puerto Rico places significant restrictions on slot machine ownership, but the law is widely flouted and slot machines are common in bars and coffeeshops. Conversely, in Connecticut , Hawaii , Nebraska , South Carolina , and Tennessee , private ownership of any slot machine is completely prohibited. The remaining states allow slot machines of a certain age typically 25—30 years or slot machines manufactured before a specific date.

For a detailed list of state-by-state regulations on private slot machine ownership, see U. Native American casinos located in reservations are not permitted to have slot machines unless the tribe first reaches a pact with the state in which it is located per Indian Gaming Regulatory Act.

Typically, a pact entitles the state to receive a fraction of the gross revenue from slot machines. Some states have restrictions on the type called "class" of slot machines that can be used in a casino or other gaming area.

The Indian Gaming Regulatory Act establishes three classes of games with a different regulatory scheme for each: Class I gaming is defined as 1 traditional Indian gaming, which may be part of tribal ceremonies and celebrations, and 2 social gaming for minimal prizes. Regulatory authority over class I gaming is vested exclusively in tribal governments and is not subject to IGRA's requirements. Class II gaming is defined as the game of chance commonly known as bingo whether or not electronic, computer, or other technological aids are used in connection therewith and, if played in the same location as the bingo , pull tabs, punch board, tip jars, instant bingo, and other games similar to bingo.

Class II gaming also includes non-banked card games , that is, games that are played exclusively against other players rather than against the house or a player acting as a bank. The Act specifically excludes slot machines or electronic facsimiles of any game of chance from the definition of class II games.

Tribes retain their authority to conduct, license, and regulate class II gaming, provided it complies with the Act - including the requirement that the Tribal government adopt a gaming ordinance approved by the National Indian Gaming Commission NIGC.

Tribal governments are the primary entity responsible for regulating class II gaming on its lands. Only Hawaii and Utah continue to prohibit all types of gaming.

The definition of class III gaming is broad. It includes all forms of gaming that are neither class I nor II. Games commonly played at casinos , such as slot machines , blackjack , craps , and roulette , clearly fall in the class III category, as well as wagering games and electronic facsimiles of any game of chance. Generally, class III is often referred to as casino-style gaming. The regulatory scheme for class III gaming is more complex than a casual reading of the statute might suggest.

Although Congress clearly intended regulatory issues to be addressed in Tribal-State compacts , it left a number of key functions in federal hands, including approval authority over compacts, management contracts, and Tribal gaming ordinances.

Congress also vested the Commission with broad authority to issue regulations in furtherance of the purposes of the Act. Many American casinos offer free memberships in "slot clubs", which return a fraction of the amount of money that is bet in the form of comps complimentary food, drinks, hotel rooms, or merchandise , or sometimes as cash or a promise to pay cash at a later date.

These clubs require that players use cards that are inserted into the slot machines, to allow the casinos to track the players' "action" how much each player bets and for how long , which is often used to establish levels of play that may make players eligible for additional comps. These fall under the jurisdiction of the province or territory without reference to the federal government. Thus no two provincial regulatory or operational regimes are the same. The 10 provinces all have gaming departments and slot machine play is available in venues across all.

Part of the revenues go to the local government which in turn gives a percentage to the federal government. Choice of slots available is a province by province negotiation with the local Gaming Department. Individual territories have such small populations that there are no dedicated departments or land based facilities to play.

The history of First Nation's gaming in Canada is short but contentious. Only 12 First Nation casinos exist scattered over five provinces. The Assembly of First Nations view jurisdiction over gaming on First Nation land as part of their constitutional rights protected by section 35 1 of the Constitution Act, However the Supreme Court of Canada has rejected First Nation's claims to a right to conduct gaming activities. Nevertheless, the First Nation casino's largest revenue driver is from slot machine play and the regulation of these is by agreement with an Indigenous Gaming Regulator, a delegated sub-group of each province Gaming Authority.

All provinces have dedicated problem gambling help lines and research, and the territories have health and social service support for individuals with gambling problems. In Australia "Poker Machines" or "pokies" [38] are officially termed "gaming machines". Australian-style gaming machines frequently use video displays to simulate physical reels, usually five. These machines have additional bonusing and second-screen features such as free games and bonus levels.

They also allow for multiple lines up to or multiple ways up to 3, to be played. Late in , there were , poker machines operating in Australia, which was 2. On multiway games, players play the entire position of each reel instead of fixed lines or patterns. For instance, if a player plays 1 reel on a way game, they receive three symbols in the first reel which pay anywhere in the three positions, while all other reels pay in the centre only, with unused areas darkened.

On the other end of the scale, if the player plays 5 reels, symbols can appear anywhere in the window and will pay as long as there is one in each reel. Most games however still require the symbols appearing left to right, sometimes this even includes scatters.

Other multiway games give you even more ways by using a 4x5 or 5x5 pattern, where there are up to 5 symbols in each reel, allowing for up to 1, and 3, ways to win respectively. These games typically cost more than their way Reel Power counterparts. Recently, IGT has also started to manufacture multiway games. Gaming machine manufacturer Konami Australia also made an alternative way of gaming by using patterns, where symbols pay adjacent to one another.

Most of these games have a hexagonal reel formation, and much like multiway games, any patterns not played are darkened out of use. On both systems, scatter symbols still pay in the darkened areas just like standard machines where scatters don't have to appear on a payline. The laws regulating the use of gaming machines in Australia are a matter for State governments, and as such they vary between States.

Gaming machines are found in casinos approximately one in each major city as well as pubs and clubs in some states usually sports, social, or RSL clubs. The first Australian state to legalize this style of gambling was New South Wales in when they were made legal in all registered clubs in the state.

There are suggestions that the proliferation of poker machines has led to increased levels of problem gambling ; however, the precise nature of this link is still open to research. The primary reason for this is that gaming machines have been legal in the state of New South Wales since and over that time the number of machines has grown to 97, at December , including the Australian Capital Territory. By way of comparison, the US State of Nevada which legalised gaming including slots several decades before NSW, had , slots operating.

This new law also banned machines which would automatically play with the button held. Except for the video slots, slot machines have wheels called reels with symbols printed on each wheel. Each reel symbol represents a stop which may come to rest on the payline, and may or may not be part of a combination of symbols resulting in a payoff. The likelihood of winning any payoff on any slot machine is related to the number of reels and the number of symbols on each reel.

The most common type of mechanical slot machine has three reels with twenty symbols on each reel. To calculate the total number of combinations of symbols on this machine, we multiple the number of stops symbols on each reel by the number of stops on each of the remaining reels. Likewise, we can calculate the probability of any combination of symbols hitting if we know the number of times each symbol appears on each reel.

When mechanical slots dominated, it was not too difficult to count the symbols on each reel and determine exactly the payoff of a given machine. With microprocessor controlled slots this task has become almost impossible, as the number of stops per reel can be as many as To determine the payoffs of such a machine would require significant reverse engineering and is beyond the scope of almost every player.

The number of reels has a greater effect on the probabilities than the number of symbols per reel. If we compare a machine with 32 stops per reel and 3 reels, with a 22 stop per reel machine and 4 reels, you will see the tremendous difference another reel makes: If we consider a 5 reel machine with 32 stops per reel, we find over 33 million combinations! Every slot machine has a predetermined payout percentage.

When you hear things like "our slots pay back Conversely, we could state that as for every dollar played, the casino will retain 1. These percentages only hold true over very long-term play consisting of hundreds of thousands or even millions of plays. There are a couple of things wrong with this line of thinking. First, theoretical percentages will be attained only over long periods of play.

Over a few dozen, or even a few hundred rolls, the payback percentage will vary greatly. Most people will buy twenty dollars worth of tokens and continue to play with this money until it is gone. After inserting the first round of coins in the machine, they will continue playing with any coins left in the tray, and they will continue this pattern until no coins are left. And then they wonder how it was possible for a The answer is that the casino continues to extract its percentage on every coin inserted into the machine.

The player will not limit his play to twenty dollars or one hundred dollars but will continue to redeposit coins.

The machine will, at least over the long-term, continue to grind away at all money played. Table 6 shows the devastating effect the house edge can have on the player's bankroll. Amount Retained Per Round of Play. Even though we have gradually lost some money on this machine, we can see that hitting a single higher payoff would put us ahead and that we have gained much more playing time to do so.

If you never cared what the casino hold was before, this should open your eyes. It is imperative that you always seek and play machines with lower hold percentages. Unfortunately, casinos do not label their machines with the hold or payback percentages. However, the player's win rates are available for different locations. If we were seeking to play the highest payback slots, we might begin our search with this information.

The highest average payback in the U. The average for all Nevada casinos is The next best place to play is in Colorado, with an average rate of Moving east, we find that the Illinois river boats offer the third best choice at We also notice that the win rates increase with the size of coin accepted, with the nickel slots paying out the lowest percentages and the five dollar slots the highest.

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