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  1. You can play a slot machine in Las Vegas before you've even reached baggage claim: there are tiny slots parlors in every terminal of McCarran International Airport. In , Charles Fey developed the poker machine into the Liberty Bell machine, the first true slot with three reels and a coin payout.:
    This, rather, is a sanctuary for "escape" gamblers, the kind who are more interested, Schüll says, in spending time on a machine than in getting big wins. "Some people want to be bled slowly," an executive of the so-called "Costco model" of gambling says. And while there's a Sex And The City slot machine. The 'Australian-format machine' as it is known in the US now makes up a large percentage of the gambling machines on offer at US casinos. Fixing the spotlight on machines such as Aristocrat's is the next frontier for anti-pokies campaigners in Australia – beginning with Ka-Ching, an ABC documentary. Evolution internet casino how many slot machines Casino Penny Slot Tips Uk Online Slots How To Win in las vegas deal or no deal Online gambling gsn free slots games M casino online betting Cat In Vegas spilleautomat Rich Girl Casino Penny Slot Tips Uk Online Slots How To Win automater pa.
  2. A slot machine (American English), informally fruit machine (British English), puggy (Scottish English slang), the slots (Canadian and American English), poker machine (or pokies in slang) or simply slot (American English), is a casino gambling machine with three or more reels which spin when a button is coinsluckyz.comg: animal.:
    Antique slot machine operation[edit]. Does anyone know how the old slot machines could generate a random number? If it is not infact a random decision, what is the average number of spins before a full cycle is made? Rather, would the cycle take thousands of spins? millions? -Weylin —Preceding unsigned comment. Armed with detailed intelligence regarding gamblers' behavior, International Game Technology's designers can tailor each new slot machine to appeal to . are run by the Nevada Gaming Control Board, the other by Gaming Laboratories International of Lakewood, New Jersey—to verify that new machines. In a modern slot machine, the odds of hitting a particular symbol or combination of symbols depends on how the virtual reel is set up. As we saw in the last section, each stop on the actual reel may correspond to more than one stop on the virtual reel. Simply put, the odds of hitting a particular image on the actual reel depend.
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With these slot machines, the player can choose the value of each credit wagered the stake from a list of options. Based upon the player's selection, the slot machine automatically calculates the number of credits the player receives in exchange for the cash inserted and displays the number of available credits to the player.

Bonus is a special feature of the particular game theme, which is activated when certain symbols appear in a winning combination. Bonuses vary depending upon the game. In other bonus rounds, the player is presented with several items on a screen from which to choose. As the player chooses items, a number of credits is revealed and awarded. Some bonuses use a mechanical device, such as a spinning wheel, that works in conjunction with the bonus to display the amount won.

Some machines feature two or more of these bonus styles as part of the same game. Candle is a light on top of the slot machine. It flashes to alert the operator that change is needed, hand pay is requested or a potential problem with the machine. It can be lit by the player by pressing the "service" or "help" button. Coin hopper is a container where the coins that are immediately available for payouts are held. When a certain preset coin capacity is reached, a coin diverter automatically redirects, or "drops," excess coins into a "drop bucket" or "drop box.

Credit meter is a visual LED display of the amount of money or number of credits on the machine. On video reel machines this is either a simulated LED display, or represented in a different font altogether, based on the design of the game graphics.

Drop bucket or drop box is a container located in a slot machine's base where excess coins are diverted from the hopper. Typically, a drop bucket is used for low denomination slot machines and a drop box is used for high denomination slot machines. A drop box contains a hinged lid with one or more locks whereas a drop bucket does not contain a lid.

The contents of drop buckets and drop boxes are collected and counted by the casino on a scheduled basis. Free Spin Free Spin is a term used in video slot games and online slot games to specify that the spin will be completed without a charge or on the same wager. Free spins can get triggered by a number of things, each game use a different method. Usually, landing a number of special symbols on reels is required to activate the free spins bonus round.

Mostly scatter symbols are preferred for this activation, although wild symbols or a completely different symbol dedicated for this feature can be used too.

In most slot games, landing at least three special symbols on reels is mandatory to trigger the feature. Once triggered, free spins bonus round award a number of spins free of charge to the player. The number of free spins differ from game to game, and can be 5 or The spins are automatically used by the game and the player keeps any profit after the spins are complete. Hand pay refers to a payout made by an attendant or at an exchange point "cage" , rather than by the slot machine itself.

A hand pay occurs when the amount of the payout exceeds the maximum amount that was preset by the slot machine's operator. Usually, the maximum amount is set at the level where the operator must begin to deduct taxes.

A hand pay could also be necessary as a result of a short pay. Hopper fill slip is a document used to record the replenishment of the coin in the coin hopper after it becomes depleted as a result of making payouts to players.

The slip indicates the amount of coin placed into the hoppers, as well as the signatures of the employees involved in the transaction, the slot machine number and the location and the date. MEAL book M achine e ntry a uthorization l og is a log of the employee's entries into the machine.

Low Level or Slant Top slot machines include a stool so the player has sitdown access. Stand Up or Upright slot machines are played while standing. Optimal play is a payback percentage based on a gambler using the optimal strategy in a skill-based slot machine game. Payline is a line that crosses through one symbol on each reel, along which a winning combination is evaluated.

Classic spinning reel machines usually have up to nine paylines, while video slot machines may have as many as one hundred. Paylines could be of various shapes horizontal, vertical, oblique, triangular, zigzag, etc.

Rollup is the process of dramatizing a win by playing sounds while the meters count up to the amount that has been won. Short pay refers to a partial payout made by a slot machine, which is less than the amount due to the player. This occurs if the coin hopper has been depleted as a result of making earlier payouts to players.

The remaining amount due to the player is either paid as a hand pay or an attendant will come and refill the machine. Scatter Symbol It is required to place at least two of the same symbols on a pay line to get paid in slot games. However, scatter symbols work differently and award a prize whether they are placed on a pay line or not. But the player still needs to get at least two of them in modern slot games.

The more, the better. Scatter symbols are usually used to award a number of free spins. The number of free spins differs from game to game; i. They can also award coin prizes, based on their number. The prizes are usually small, but they are paid in addition to other winnings. Scatter symbol is a special symbol, which means the wild symbol cannot replace it. Slot variance is a measure of risk associated with playing a slot machine. A low variance slot machine has regular but smaller wins and a high variance slot machine has fewer but bigger wins.

Taste is a reference to the small amount often paid out to keep a player seated and continuously betting. Only rarely will machines fail to pay out even the minimum placed a bet over the course of several pulls. Tilt Electromechanical slot machines usually include an electromechanical " tilt switch ", which makes or breaks a circuit if the machine is tilted or otherwise tampered with, and so triggers an alarm.

While modern machines no longer have tilt switches, any kind of technical fault door switch in the wrong state, reel motor failure, out of paper, etc. Theoretical Hold Worksheet A document provided by the manufacturer for all slot machines, which indicates the theoretical percentage that the slot machine should hold based on the amount paid in.

The worksheet also indicates the reel strip settings, number of coins that may be played, the payout schedule, the number of reels and other information descriptive of the particular type of slot machine. Weight count is an American term, referring to the dollar amount of coins or tokens removed from a slot machine's drop bucket or drop box and counted by the casino's hard count team through the use of a weigh scale.

Wild Symbol Wild symbols act like joker cards in a slot game. Basically, they substitute for all other symbols in the game, usually except for other special symbols, such as scatter and jackpot. They can appear on any of the reels. However, this is not mandatory and can be changed from game to game. In some games, wild symbols can appear only on certain reels.

Or, they can appear only during the bonus rounds. The player must refer to the rules and paytable of the game to learn about the landing rules. Mobile is when the slot machine is hosted for online gambling and it is usually available for use on a phone, tablet, or other portable device. These are often standalone mobile casino applications but are also found as part of the online casino site. Each machine has a table that lists the number of credits the player will receive if the symbols listed on the pay table line up on the pay line of the machine.

Some symbols are wild and can represent many, or all, of the other symbols to complete a winning line. Especially on older machines, the pay table is listed on the face of the machine, usually above and below the area containing the wheels. Most video machines display the pay table when the player presses a "pay table" button or touches "pay table" on the screen; some have the pay table listed on the cabinet as well.

Historically, all slot machines used revolving mechanical reels to display and determine results. Although the original slot machine used five reels, simpler, and therefore more reliable, three reel machines quickly became the standard. This limited the manufacturer's ability to offer large jackpots since even the rarest event had a likelihood of 0. Although the number of symbols eventually increased to about 22, allowing 10, combinations, [20] this still limited jackpot sizes as well as the number of possible outcomes.

In the s, however, slot machine manufacturers incorporated electronics into their products and programmed them to weight particular symbols. Thus the odds of losing symbols appearing on the payline became disproportionate to their actual frequency on the physical reel.

A symbol would only appear once on the reel displayed to the player, but could, in fact, occupy several stops on the multiple reel. With microprocessors now ubiquitous, the computers inside modern slot machines allow manufacturers to assign a different probability to every symbol on every reel. To the player it might appear that a winning symbol was 'so close', whereas in fact the probability is much lower.

In the s in the UK machines embodying microprocessors became common. These used a number of features to ensure the payout was controlled within the limits of the gambling legislation. As the coin was inserted into the machine it could go one of two routes, either direct into the cashbox for the benefit of the owner, or alternatively it would go into a channel that formed the payout reservoir, the microprocessor monitoring the number of coins in this channel. The drums themselves were driven by stepper motors, controlled by the processor and with proximity sensors monitoring the position of the drums.

A "look up table" within the software allows the processor to know what symbols were being displayed on the drums to the gambler. This allowed the system to control the level of payout by stopping the drums at positions it had determined. If the payout channel had filled up, the payout became more generous, if nearly empty, less so thus giving good control of the odds. The video slot machine is a more recent innovation, with no moving parts at all — instead a graphical representation of one appears on screen.

In addition, because there are no mechanical constraints on the design of video slot machines, most display five reels rather than three. This greatly expands the number of possibilities: As there are so many combinations given by five reels, the manufacturers do not need to weight the payout symbols although some may still do so. Instead, higher paying symbols will typically appear only once or twice on each reel, while more common symbols, earning a more frequent payout, will appear many times.

Video slot machines typically encourage the player to play multiple "lines", so rather than simply taking the middle of the three symbols displayed on each reel, a line could go from top left to bottom right, or any of the other patterns specified by the manufacturer. As each symbol is equally likely, there is no difficulty for the manufacturer in allowing the player to take any or all of the possible lines on offer — the long-term return to player will be the same.

The difference for the player is that the more lines he plays the more likely he is to get paid on a given spin — though of course he is betting more in the first place. To avoid the feeling that the player's money is simply ebbing away whereas a payout of credits on a single line machine would be bets, and the player would feel they had made a substantial win, on a 20 line machine, it would only be 5 bets and would not seem significant , manufacturers commonly offer bonus games, which can return many times their bet.

The player is encouraged to keep playing to reach the bonus: All modern machines are designed using pseudo random number generators "PRNGs" , which are constantly generating a sequence of simulated random numbers, at a rate of hundreds or perhaps thousands per second.

As soon as the "Play" button is pressed, the most recent random number is used to determine the result. This means that the result varies depending on exactly when the game is played. A fraction of a second earlier or later, and the result would be different. It is important that the machine contains a high-quality RNG implementation, because all PRNGs must eventually repeat their number sequence, [23] and if the period is short, or the PRNG is otherwise flawed, an advanced player may be able to 'predict' the next result.

Having access to the PRNG code and seed values, Ronald Dale Harris , a former slot machine programmer, discovered equations for specific gambling games like Keno that allowed him to predict what the next set of selected numbers would be based on the previous games played. Most machines are designed to defeat this by generating numbers even when the machine is not being played, so the player cannot tell where in the sequence they are, even if he knows how the machine was programmed. This is known as the "theoretical payout percentage" or RTP, "return to player".

The minimum theoretical payout percentage varies among jurisdictions and is typically established by law or regulation. The winning patterns on slot machines — the amounts they pay and the frequencies of those payouts — are carefully selected to yield a certain fraction of the money played to the "house" the operator of the slot machine , while returning the rest to the players during play. Within some EGM development organizations this concept is referred to simply as "par.

A slot machine's theoretical payout percentage is set at the factory when the software is written. Changing the payout percentage after a slot machine has been placed on the gaming floor requires a physical swap of the software or firmware , which is usually stored on an EPROM but may be loaded onto non-volatile random access memory NVRAM or even stored on CD-ROM or DVD , depending on the capabilities of the machine and the applicable regulations.

Based on current technology, this is a time-consuming process and as such is done infrequently. Other jurisdictions, including Nevada, randomly audit slot machines to ensure that they contain only approved software. Historically, many casinos, both online and offline, have been unwilling to publish individual game RTP figures, making it impossible for the player to know whether they are playing a "loose" or a "tight" game.

Since the turn of the century some information regarding these figures has started to come into the public domain either through various casinos releasing them - primarily this applies to online casino - or through studies by independent gambling authorities. The return to player is not the only statistic that is of interest.

The probabilities of every payout on the pay table is also critical. For example, consider a hypothetical slot machine with a dozen different values on the pay table.

However, the probabilities of getting all the payouts are zero except the largest one. Also, most people would not win anything, and having entries on the paytable that have a return of zero would be deceptive.

As these individual probabilities are closely guarded secrets, it is possible that the advertised machines with high return to player simply increase the probabilities of these jackpots. The added advantage is that these large jackpots increase the excitement of the other players.

This game, in its original form, is obsolete, so these specific probabilities do not apply. He only published the odds after a fan of his sent him some information provided on a slot machine that was posted on a machine in the Netherlands. The psychology of the machine design is quickly revealed. There are 13 possible payouts ranging from 1: Most players assume the likelihood increases proportionate to the payout. The one midsize payout that is designed to give the player a thrill is the It is programmed to occur an average of once every plays.

In contrast the The highest payout of 2, The player who continues to feed the machine is likely to have several midsize payouts, but unlikely to have a large payout.

He quits after he is bored or has exhausted his bankroll. Despite the fact that they are confidential, occasionally a PAR sheet is posted on a website. They have limited value to the player, because usually a machine will have 8 to 12 different possible programs with varying payouts. In addition, slight variations of each machine e. The casino operator can choose which EPROM chip to install in any particular machine to select the payout desired.

The result is that there is not really such a thing as a high payback type of machine, since every machine potentially has multiple settings. Without revealing the proprietary information, he developed a program that would allow him to determine with usually less than a dozen plays on each machine which EPROM chip was installed. Then he did a survey of over machines in 70 different casinos in Las Vegas.

He averaged the data, and assigned an average payback percentage to the machines in each casino. The resultant list was widely publicized for marketing purposes especially by the Palms casino which had the top ranking. One reason that the slot machine is so profitable to a casino is that the player must play the high house edge and high payout wagers along with the low house edge and low payout wagers.

Other bets have a higher house edge, but the player is rewarded with a bigger win up to thirty times in craps. The player can choose what kind of wager he wants to make. A slot machine does not afford such an opportunity. Theoretically, the operator could make these probabilities available, or allow the player to choose which one so that the player is free to make a choice.

However, no operator has ever enacted this strategy. Different machines have different maximum payouts, but without knowing the odds of getting the jackpot, there is no rational way to differentiate.

In many markets where central monitoring and control systems are used to link machines for auditing and security purposes, usually in wide area networks of multiple venues and thousands of machines, player return must usually be changed from a central computer rather than at each machine. A range of percentages is set in the game software and selected remotely.

In , the Nevada Gaming Commission began working with Las Vegas casinos on technology that would allow the casino's management to change the game, the odds, and the payouts remotely.

The change cannot be done instantaneously, but only after the selected machine has been idle for at least four minutes. After the change is made, the machine must be locked to new players for four minutes and display an on-screen message informing potential players that a change is being made. Often machines are linked together in a way that allows a group of machines to offer a particularly large prize, or "jackpot". Each slot machine in the group contributes a small amount to this progressive jackpot , awarded to a player who gets, for example, a royal flush on a video poker machine or a specific combination of symbols on a regular or nine-line slot machine.

The amount paid for the progressive jackpot is usually far higher than any single slot machine could pay on its own.

In some cases multiple machines are linked across multiple casinos. In these cases, the machines may be owned by the manufacturer, who is responsible for paying the jackpot. The casinos lease the machines rather than owning them outright. Casinos in New Jersey, Nevada, and South Dakota now offer multi-state progressive jackpots, which now offer bigger jackpot pools.

Mechanical slot machines and their coin acceptors were sometimes susceptible to cheating devices and other scams. One historical example involved spinning a coin with a short length of plastic wire.

The weight and size of the coin would be accepted by the machine and credits would be granted. However, the spin created by the plastic wire would cause the coin to exit through the reject chute into the payout tray.

This particular scam has become obsolete due to improvements in newer slot machines. Another obsolete method of defeating slot machines was to use a light source to confuse the optical sensor used to count coins during payout.

Modern slot machines are controlled by EPROM computer chips and, in large casinos, coin acceptors have become obsolete in favor of bill acceptors. These machines and their bill acceptors are designed with advanced anti-cheating and anti-counterfeiting measures and are difficult to defraud.

Early computerized slot machines were sometimes defrauded through the use of cheating devices, such as the "slider" or "monkey paw".

Computerized slot machines are fully deterministic and thus outcomes can be sometimes successfully predicted. Malfunctioning electronic slot machines are capable of indicating jackpot winnings far in excess of those advertised. In the United States, the public and private availability of slot machines is highly regulated by state governments. Many states have established gaming control boards to regulate the possession and use of slot machines.

Nevada is the only state that has no significant restrictions against slot machines both for public and private use. In New Jersey , slot machines are only allowed in hotel casinos operated in Atlantic City. Several states Illinois , Indiana , Louisiana and Missouri allow slot machines as well as any casino-style gambling only on licensed riverboats or permanently anchored barges.

Since Hurricane Katrina , Mississippi has removed the requirement that casinos on the Gulf Coast operate on barges and now allows them on land along the shoreline. Delaware allows slot machines at three horse tracks; they are regulated by the state lottery commission. In Wisconsin, bars and taverns are allowed to have up to five machines.

These machines usually allow a player to either take a payout, or gamble it on a double-or-nothing "side game". A player redeems his winnings by pressing a button to print a ticket, which the bartender redeems for cash.

The territory of Puerto Rico places significant restrictions on slot machine ownership, but the law is widely flouted and slot machines are common in bars and coffeeshops. Conversely, in Connecticut , Hawaii , Nebraska , South Carolina , and Tennessee , private ownership of any slot machine is completely prohibited.

The remaining states allow slot machines of a certain age typically 25—30 years or slot machines manufactured before a specific date. For a detailed list of state-by-state regulations on private slot machine ownership, see U. Native American casinos located in reservations are not permitted to have slot machines unless the tribe first reaches a pact with the state in which it is located per Indian Gaming Regulatory Act. Typically, a pact entitles the state to receive a fraction of the gross revenue from slot machines.

Some states have restrictions on the type called "class" of slot machines that can be used in a casino or other gaming area. The Indian Gaming Regulatory Act establishes three classes of games with a different regulatory scheme for each: Class I gaming is defined as 1 traditional Indian gaming, which may be part of tribal ceremonies and celebrations, and 2 social gaming for minimal prizes.

Regulatory authority over class I gaming is vested exclusively in tribal governments and is not subject to IGRA's requirements.

Class II gaming is defined as the game of chance commonly known as bingo whether or not electronic, computer, or other technological aids are used in connection therewith and, if played in the same location as the bingo , pull tabs, punch board, tip jars, instant bingo, and other games similar to bingo. Class II gaming also includes non-banked card games , that is, games that are played exclusively against other players rather than against the house or a player acting as a bank.

The Act specifically excludes slot machines or electronic facsimiles of any game of chance from the definition of class II games. Tribes retain their authority to conduct, license, and regulate class II gaming, provided it complies with the Act - including the requirement that the Tribal government adopt a gaming ordinance approved by the National Indian Gaming Commission NIGC.

Tribal governments are the primary entity responsible for regulating class II gaming on its lands. Only Hawaii and Utah continue to prohibit all types of gaming. The definition of class III gaming is broad. That began to change in the s, when Bally introduced the electromechanical slot machine.

The new rig let players insert multiple coins on a single bet, and machines could multiply jackpots as well as offer up smaller, but more frequent wins. Multi-line play was introduced: The new designs sped up gameplay and breathed life into the stagnating industry.

Let him win more, but then [you make money] still with the speeding up, because it was extra liberal. The casino floor of the Boulder Club, early s.

Image courtesy of the University of Nevada, Las Vegas. IGT specialized in video gambling machines, or video poker. Video poker machines could be designed to have even lower volatility, paying players back small amounts on more hands. Redd also acquired the patent for the newly created Random Number Generator, which computerized the odds-calculator behind the spinning reels and allowed game makers to control volatility.

A modern slot machine, at its core, is nothing more than an RNG going through millions or billions of numbers at all times. When a player hits a spin button, they are simply stopping the RNG at a particular moment.

Everything beyond that — the music, the mini-games, the actual appearance of spinning reels, Rachel, Monica, and the rest of the gang keeping you company — is window dressing to keep you hitting spin.

Its Wheel of Fortune franchise spans every kind of slot machine — reels, curved screens, and massive installations with enormous physical flourishes. Trask had told me something similar: Perhaps no one has uncovered the Platonic ideal of the slot machine, but certain principles undergird most games. Meanwhile, the multi-line wins introduced by Bally have become an unintelligible tangle: To keep players gambling, all slots rely on the same basic psychological principles discovered by B.

Skinner in the s. Skinner is famous for an experiment in which he put pigeons in a box that gave them a pellet of food when they pressed a lever. But when Skinner altered the box so that pellets came out on random presses — a system dubbed variable ratio enforcement — the pigeons pressed the lever more often. Thus was born the Skinner box, which Skinner himself likened to a slot machine.

The Skinner box works by blending tension and release — the absence of a pellet after the lever is pressed creates expectation that finds release via reward. Like video poker, most multi-line slots rarely pay large jackpots, instead doling out smaller wins frequently. Machine Gaming in Las Vegas, the culmination of her research and a deconstruction of the slot machine.

As a result, modern slots pay out on approximately 45 percent of all spins, instead of the 3 percent of traditional slots. That analysis is supported by a American Gaming Association white paper.

Price told me the company commissioned a study to find out why people love the Wheel of Fortune line so much. It reminds me of my grandma.

Slots were easy to track, and stood at the very center of the program. Before the tracking system, the player management was as sophisticated as watching which players spent a lot of money and comping amenities to encourage them to spend more. Player tracking systems revealed more than a pit boss ever could: Newer systems can even visualize heat maps of casino activity — an operator can see precisely how much is being spent in a specific time period in localized areas.

The latter would be a lot more profitable than the former. My job is to make the latter. Sugarhouse opened in and is one of 12 casinos that turned Pennsylvania into a gaming powerhouse after legalization in Sugarhouse squealed with the cacophony of slots and the saccharine melodies sounded like a thousand robots blowing bubbles.

The slot manufacturer Silicon Gaming decided at one point that soundtracks in the key of C were the most agreeable. Table players at Sugarhouse made their wagers at an island amidst an ocean of slots. As I made my way through the casino, I struck up a conversation with two slot players: Diane Singleton, a year-old retiree; and Jack, who refused have his last name published. The game was loaded onto a ProWave cabinet, and a red cursive Bally logo hung in the upper right corner of the screen.

I asked what they enjoyed about the game. Jack said that unlike other games, Fu Dao Le is "highly interactive. I had more questions, but at a certain point it became apparent that Singleton was no longer listening.

She heard the term over and over again in her 15 years of research — the players repeatedly told her that they played to zone out, to escape thought. To understand the zone, you first have to understand "flow," the concept developed by Hungarian psychologist Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi to describe a hyperfocused state of absorption. During "flow," time speeds up hours feel like minutes or slows down reactions can be made instantly and the mind reaches a state of almost euphoric equilibrium.

The "zone" is flow through a lens darkly: When Singleton emerged from the zone, I asked her again why she found the slots so compelling.

could have

Try it for yourself with an old mechanical machine - on the first pull, the reels will spin longer. If you play again within a few seconds of your first play, the reels will stop much sooner. You might say that the machine doesn't generate random results, the players do. And you'd be pretty much correct. I expect we might discover that slot machines predate Las Vegas by a hundred years or so one day. I'm puzzled as to why the previous author, "sjc", felt compelled to remark about "these parts" being "Americanocentric", without having a source or some other basis on which to claim that slot machines were invented in another country.

Sjc, if you have a reference to back up your "expectation" of slot machines being invented in another country, I look forward to reading all about it. Also the article and numerous other sources makes no mention of Las Vegas being the origin of slot machines. The article states that San Francisco is where they first became popular. It's also misleading to speculate about an alternative origin for slot machines other than Las Vegas, when the article states otherwise in the introductory paragraph, and also given that Las Vegas was little more than a water stop in the desert in the late s.

All of the articles I have read on the history of slot machines state that the first slot machine was indeed called the "Liberty Bell", and later, the "Mills Liberty Bell". Here are three other references, picked at random from Google - they all agree on the overall history with various details omitted:.

Covers Slots, and Trade Stimulators from their inception up to todays casino machines, photos, in full color, hb, pg". Sjc's remarks about an "Americanocentric viewpoint" and some mysterious slot machines "predating Las Vegas by a hundred years or so" are unsubstantiated conjecture and misleading, respectively. Sjc, if you have some political axe to grind against the historical record of this American invention, please at least find a better example than picking on a Bavarian immigrant who came to America to set up shop and create his inventions.

I would be eager to read all about it, to help dispel the "Americanocentric" bias you claim lingers "in these here parts". Are slot clubs offered by gaming establishments outside of the United States? I added a subsection to the "United States slot machines" section that describes these clubs, as they are a significant part of gaming in the United States, especially for frequent slot players. This article has now been substantially modified since my original comments were made nearly two years ago.

If you look at the article which then existed by going to the history, you will probably immediately discern why I made those comments, and they probably need no more explanation than that.

The official term for these machines in Australia is 'Gaming Machines'. The term 'pokies' or 'poker machines' is pure local slang. I'm not sure of the position of other countries but a quick google on 'Gaming Machines' will reveal that the term is at least used in Australia, UK and USA. Never the less, the other names of them should definatly redirect here, which they don't currently.

In Nevada, slot machines are also called "gaming machines" - I guess it sounds better than "gambling". The real reason I'm writing is that when I worked for a casino mid's , the coin areas of the machine included the coin hopper and the drop box. Anything inserted into the machine went into a separate area of the machine at the bottom known as the "drop box", yet there's no mention of this in the article. I'm pretty sure it's still true, so it would be cool if someone could check this out.

I'll ask one of my friends at the casino when I have a chance. This prevents the hopper from overflowing and shorting out a circuit board or something. The hopper sits in the bottom of the game, under the reel shelf or monitor-- Pilotsmoe Added a controversial part to European section about alleged fraud.

Only one source, so cleanup, wikify, add counterpoints etc as you see fit. Added for completeness of article. I disagree with this information being presented as fact. One finds books that make these same claims. However, it is fundamentally illogical to have multiple hits on a variety of machines from pm, then hit nothing at all by 5 am the next day, after the "multiple hits" money, and then some, is depleted!

I actually question the "hot and cold machines" assertion as a "myth". As the author asserted, some machines "force" wins to attain a "payout percentage". This payout percentage is not calculated daily, so it may not manifest over several hours, or even days; however it is logically possible that a machine would pay more if it hasn't paid out for a long period of time.

It's just that this "long period" could be as long as several days, and few would be sufficiently vigilant to scrutinise such patterns. Is it worth having a section dedicated to online slots? There's far more variety in online slot games. Paylines alone they range from single paylines up to 20 payline games. Also some of the most popular online slot games have bonus games.

Some of these bonus games are luck based, for example wheel of fortune style, but others are skill based. If anything the increase in slots popularity is coming from more people playing online. It seems wrong to describe "video poker" as "slot machines".

They seem fundamentally different games, in terms of appearance, game play, and strategy. However, I can see the argument being made that these are just variations in the type of slot machine game. I'd like to read what others think. Perhaps some reference could be made to the NZ English and Australian?

From the NZ Herald: Fruit machines is an older name which is no longer used officially in the UK. AWP - never heard of it Could someone take a look at the two links posted for http: They are linked as references for slot fraud techniques, but the sites themselves appear to be selling potentially illegal - or not - items. No, I wouldn't say so, there are pretty detailed descriptions of tools for fraud yes, but legality is defined I suppose by your local laws and country of residence.

There have been repeated attempts in the UK and USA to prevent marketing of them, but I think there is a reluctance on the part of legislators to do so as the industry itself is commonly seen as corrupt too. The descriptions are educational, and you wouldn't be tempted to buy one unless a conman yourself would you? As such, it is sensible to watch for people playing these machines but not winning as the likelihood of a win increases.

This, however, is called Sharking. UK fruit machines operate in exactly the same way by paying out to a percentage over an indefinite period of time. A UK machine can pay out over its percentage and will then make up the shortfall later. This can be proven with emulation. I believe it is true. Were a machine not to have the ability to pay out two jackpots in a row, it would contravene the Lotteries and Gaming Acts. Rules for "Games of skill" differ. I remember often playing quiz machines etc where there was a notable bias to a payout depending on how much money had been stuffed in it.

While deliberate streaking does contravene the gaming regulations, that doesn't mean it didn't happen. Machines very often did deliberately have hot and cold cycles. It's just difficult to prove it. Machines are required to eventually seek their percentage over a period of say, 10, spins. They do this by dynamically adjusting the odds. In fact, many of the club machines will actually go so far as to deliberately block the jackpot until there's enough money in the machine to pay for it.

If the "hoppers full" sensor isn't tripped, the odds of spinning in a jackpot are zero. It flashes to alert the operator that change is needed, hand pay is requested or a potential problem with the machine. It can be lit by the player by pressing the "service" or "help" button.

Coin hopper is a container where the coins that are immediately available for payouts are held. When a certain preset coin capacity is reached, a coin diverter automatically redirects, or "drops," excess coins into a "drop bucket" or "drop box.

Credit meter is a visual LED display of the amount of money or number of credits on the machine. On video reel machines this is either a simulated LED display, or represented in a different font altogether, based on the design of the game graphics. Drop bucket or drop box is a container located in a slot machine's base where excess coins are diverted from the hopper.

Typically, a drop bucket is used for low denomination slot machines and a drop box is used for high denomination slot machines. A drop box contains a hinged lid with one or more locks whereas a drop bucket does not contain a lid. The contents of drop buckets and drop boxes are collected and counted by the casino on a scheduled basis. Free Spin Free Spin is a term used in video slot games and online slot games to specify that the spin will be completed without a charge or on the same wager.

Free spins can get triggered by a number of things, each game use a different method. Usually, landing a number of special symbols on reels is required to activate the free spins bonus round.

Mostly scatter symbols are preferred for this activation, although wild symbols or a completely different symbol dedicated for this feature can be used too. In most slot games, landing at least three special symbols on reels is mandatory to trigger the feature.

Once triggered, free spins bonus round award a number of spins free of charge to the player. The number of free spins differ from game to game, and can be 5 or The spins are automatically used by the game and the player keeps any profit after the spins are complete. Hand pay refers to a payout made by an attendant or at an exchange point "cage" , rather than by the slot machine itself.

A hand pay occurs when the amount of the payout exceeds the maximum amount that was preset by the slot machine's operator. Usually, the maximum amount is set at the level where the operator must begin to deduct taxes. A hand pay could also be necessary as a result of a short pay.

Hopper fill slip is a document used to record the replenishment of the coin in the coin hopper after it becomes depleted as a result of making payouts to players. The slip indicates the amount of coin placed into the hoppers, as well as the signatures of the employees involved in the transaction, the slot machine number and the location and the date.

MEAL book M achine e ntry a uthorization l og is a log of the employee's entries into the machine. Low Level or Slant Top slot machines include a stool so the player has sitdown access.

Stand Up or Upright slot machines are played while standing. Optimal play is a payback percentage based on a gambler using the optimal strategy in a skill-based slot machine game. Payline is a line that crosses through one symbol on each reel, along which a winning combination is evaluated. Classic spinning reel machines usually have up to nine paylines, while video slot machines may have as many as one hundred. Paylines could be of various shapes horizontal, vertical, oblique, triangular, zigzag, etc.

Rollup is the process of dramatizing a win by playing sounds while the meters count up to the amount that has been won. Short pay refers to a partial payout made by a slot machine, which is less than the amount due to the player. This occurs if the coin hopper has been depleted as a result of making earlier payouts to players.

The remaining amount due to the player is either paid as a hand pay or an attendant will come and refill the machine. Scatter Symbol It is required to place at least two of the same symbols on a pay line to get paid in slot games. However, scatter symbols work differently and award a prize whether they are placed on a pay line or not. But the player still needs to get at least two of them in modern slot games. The more, the better. Scatter symbols are usually used to award a number of free spins.

The number of free spins differs from game to game; i. They can also award coin prizes, based on their number. The prizes are usually small, but they are paid in addition to other winnings. Scatter symbol is a special symbol, which means the wild symbol cannot replace it. Slot variance is a measure of risk associated with playing a slot machine. A low variance slot machine has regular but smaller wins and a high variance slot machine has fewer but bigger wins.

Taste is a reference to the small amount often paid out to keep a player seated and continuously betting. Only rarely will machines fail to pay out even the minimum placed a bet over the course of several pulls. Tilt Electromechanical slot machines usually include an electromechanical " tilt switch ", which makes or breaks a circuit if the machine is tilted or otherwise tampered with, and so triggers an alarm.

While modern machines no longer have tilt switches, any kind of technical fault door switch in the wrong state, reel motor failure, out of paper, etc. Theoretical Hold Worksheet A document provided by the manufacturer for all slot machines, which indicates the theoretical percentage that the slot machine should hold based on the amount paid in. The worksheet also indicates the reel strip settings, number of coins that may be played, the payout schedule, the number of reels and other information descriptive of the particular type of slot machine.

Weight count is an American term, referring to the dollar amount of coins or tokens removed from a slot machine's drop bucket or drop box and counted by the casino's hard count team through the use of a weigh scale. Wild Symbol Wild symbols act like joker cards in a slot game.

Basically, they substitute for all other symbols in the game, usually except for other special symbols, such as scatter and jackpot. They can appear on any of the reels. However, this is not mandatory and can be changed from game to game. In some games, wild symbols can appear only on certain reels.

Or, they can appear only during the bonus rounds. The player must refer to the rules and paytable of the game to learn about the landing rules. Mobile is when the slot machine is hosted for online gambling and it is usually available for use on a phone, tablet, or other portable device.

These are often standalone mobile casino applications but are also found as part of the online casino site. Each machine has a table that lists the number of credits the player will receive if the symbols listed on the pay table line up on the pay line of the machine. Some symbols are wild and can represent many, or all, of the other symbols to complete a winning line. Especially on older machines, the pay table is listed on the face of the machine, usually above and below the area containing the wheels.

Most video machines display the pay table when the player presses a "pay table" button or touches "pay table" on the screen; some have the pay table listed on the cabinet as well. Historically, all slot machines used revolving mechanical reels to display and determine results. Although the original slot machine used five reels, simpler, and therefore more reliable, three reel machines quickly became the standard.

This limited the manufacturer's ability to offer large jackpots since even the rarest event had a likelihood of 0. Although the number of symbols eventually increased to about 22, allowing 10, combinations, [20] this still limited jackpot sizes as well as the number of possible outcomes. In the s, however, slot machine manufacturers incorporated electronics into their products and programmed them to weight particular symbols. Thus the odds of losing symbols appearing on the payline became disproportionate to their actual frequency on the physical reel.

A symbol would only appear once on the reel displayed to the player, but could, in fact, occupy several stops on the multiple reel. With microprocessors now ubiquitous, the computers inside modern slot machines allow manufacturers to assign a different probability to every symbol on every reel. To the player it might appear that a winning symbol was 'so close', whereas in fact the probability is much lower.

In the s in the UK machines embodying microprocessors became common. These used a number of features to ensure the payout was controlled within the limits of the gambling legislation. As the coin was inserted into the machine it could go one of two routes, either direct into the cashbox for the benefit of the owner, or alternatively it would go into a channel that formed the payout reservoir, the microprocessor monitoring the number of coins in this channel.

The drums themselves were driven by stepper motors, controlled by the processor and with proximity sensors monitoring the position of the drums. A "look up table" within the software allows the processor to know what symbols were being displayed on the drums to the gambler. This allowed the system to control the level of payout by stopping the drums at positions it had determined. If the payout channel had filled up, the payout became more generous, if nearly empty, less so thus giving good control of the odds.

The video slot machine is a more recent innovation, with no moving parts at all — instead a graphical representation of one appears on screen. In addition, because there are no mechanical constraints on the design of video slot machines, most display five reels rather than three. This greatly expands the number of possibilities: As there are so many combinations given by five reels, the manufacturers do not need to weight the payout symbols although some may still do so.

Instead, higher paying symbols will typically appear only once or twice on each reel, while more common symbols, earning a more frequent payout, will appear many times. Video slot machines typically encourage the player to play multiple "lines", so rather than simply taking the middle of the three symbols displayed on each reel, a line could go from top left to bottom right, or any of the other patterns specified by the manufacturer.

As each symbol is equally likely, there is no difficulty for the manufacturer in allowing the player to take any or all of the possible lines on offer — the long-term return to player will be the same.

The difference for the player is that the more lines he plays the more likely he is to get paid on a given spin — though of course he is betting more in the first place. To avoid the feeling that the player's money is simply ebbing away whereas a payout of credits on a single line machine would be bets, and the player would feel they had made a substantial win, on a 20 line machine, it would only be 5 bets and would not seem significant , manufacturers commonly offer bonus games, which can return many times their bet.

The player is encouraged to keep playing to reach the bonus: All modern machines are designed using pseudo random number generators "PRNGs" , which are constantly generating a sequence of simulated random numbers, at a rate of hundreds or perhaps thousands per second. As soon as the "Play" button is pressed, the most recent random number is used to determine the result.

This means that the result varies depending on exactly when the game is played. A fraction of a second earlier or later, and the result would be different. It is important that the machine contains a high-quality RNG implementation, because all PRNGs must eventually repeat their number sequence, [23] and if the period is short, or the PRNG is otherwise flawed, an advanced player may be able to 'predict' the next result.

Having access to the PRNG code and seed values, Ronald Dale Harris , a former slot machine programmer, discovered equations for specific gambling games like Keno that allowed him to predict what the next set of selected numbers would be based on the previous games played.

Most machines are designed to defeat this by generating numbers even when the machine is not being played, so the player cannot tell where in the sequence they are, even if he knows how the machine was programmed.

This is known as the "theoretical payout percentage" or RTP, "return to player". The minimum theoretical payout percentage varies among jurisdictions and is typically established by law or regulation. The winning patterns on slot machines — the amounts they pay and the frequencies of those payouts — are carefully selected to yield a certain fraction of the money played to the "house" the operator of the slot machine , while returning the rest to the players during play.

Within some EGM development organizations this concept is referred to simply as "par. A slot machine's theoretical payout percentage is set at the factory when the software is written. Changing the payout percentage after a slot machine has been placed on the gaming floor requires a physical swap of the software or firmware , which is usually stored on an EPROM but may be loaded onto non-volatile random access memory NVRAM or even stored on CD-ROM or DVD , depending on the capabilities of the machine and the applicable regulations.

Based on current technology, this is a time-consuming process and as such is done infrequently. Other jurisdictions, including Nevada, randomly audit slot machines to ensure that they contain only approved software. Historically, many casinos, both online and offline, have been unwilling to publish individual game RTP figures, making it impossible for the player to know whether they are playing a "loose" or a "tight" game.

Since the turn of the century some information regarding these figures has started to come into the public domain either through various casinos releasing them - primarily this applies to online casino - or through studies by independent gambling authorities. The return to player is not the only statistic that is of interest.

The probabilities of every payout on the pay table is also critical. For example, consider a hypothetical slot machine with a dozen different values on the pay table. However, the probabilities of getting all the payouts are zero except the largest one.

Also, most people would not win anything, and having entries on the paytable that have a return of zero would be deceptive. As these individual probabilities are closely guarded secrets, it is possible that the advertised machines with high return to player simply increase the probabilities of these jackpots.

The added advantage is that these large jackpots increase the excitement of the other players. This game, in its original form, is obsolete, so these specific probabilities do not apply.

He only published the odds after a fan of his sent him some information provided on a slot machine that was posted on a machine in the Netherlands.

The psychology of the machine design is quickly revealed. There are 13 possible payouts ranging from 1: Most players assume the likelihood increases proportionate to the payout. The one midsize payout that is designed to give the player a thrill is the It is programmed to occur an average of once every plays.

In contrast the The highest payout of 2, The player who continues to feed the machine is likely to have several midsize payouts, but unlikely to have a large payout.

He quits after he is bored or has exhausted his bankroll. Despite the fact that they are confidential, occasionally a PAR sheet is posted on a website. They have limited value to the player, because usually a machine will have 8 to 12 different possible programs with varying payouts. In addition, slight variations of each machine e.

The casino operator can choose which EPROM chip to install in any particular machine to select the payout desired. The result is that there is not really such a thing as a high payback type of machine, since every machine potentially has multiple settings. Without revealing the proprietary information, he developed a program that would allow him to determine with usually less than a dozen plays on each machine which EPROM chip was installed. Then he did a survey of over machines in 70 different casinos in Las Vegas.

He averaged the data, and assigned an average payback percentage to the machines in each casino. For machines with a bigger jackpot, the virtual reel may have many more stops.

This decreases the odds of winning that jackpot considerably. The losing blank stops above and below the jackpot image may correspond to more virtual stops than other images. Consequently, a player is most likely to hit the blank stops right next to the winning stop. This creates the impression that they "just missed" the jackpot, which encourages them to keep gambling, even though the proximity of the actual stops is inconsequential.

A machine's program is carefully designed and tested to achieve a certain payback percentage. The payback percentage is the percentage of the money that is put in that is eventually paid out to the player. With a payback percentage of 90, for example, the casino would take about 10 percent of all money put into the slot machine and give away the other 90 percent.

With any payback percentage under a and they're all under , the casino wins over time. In most gambling jurisdictions, the law requires that payback percentages be above a certain level usually somewhere around 75 percent. The payback percentage in most casino machines is much higher than the minimum -- often in the to percent range. Casinos don't want their machines to be a lot tighter than their competitors' machines or the players will take their business elsewhere.

The odds for a particular slot machine are built into the program on the machine's computer chip. In most cases, the casino cannot change the odds on a machine without replacing this chip. Despite popular opinion, there is no way for the casino to instantly "tighten up" a machine.

Machines don't loosen up on their own either. That is, they aren't more likely to pay the longer you play. Since the computer always pulls up new random numbers, you have exactly the same chance of hitting the jackpot every single time you pull the handle.

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