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For more than a decade it has featured on the world's maps. Viewed from Google Earth, Sandy Island appears as a dark, tantalising sliver, set amid the shimmering vastness of the Pacific Ocean.
But when marine scientists arrived at the island in the Coral Sea off Australia they were in for something of a shock: Where there was supposed to be a sandy outcrop complete with palm trees, a few coconuts and maybe a turtle there was merely blue undulating water.
The Australian scientists, led by Maria Seaton, a geologist at Sydney Universityhad embarked on a voyage to study plate tectonics. They spotted that the enigmatic island lay along their route. But there were several puzzling discrepancies: It had also featured for the past 12 years on the usually reliable world coastline database. But there was no sign of it on their sea chart.
Well, who do we trust? Do we trust Google Earth or do we trust the navigation charts? It wasn't far outside of our path.
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We decided to actually sail through the island Lo and behold there was Novomatic Pokies Moving Companies The ocean floor didn't ever get shallower than metres below the wave-base. There's an island in the middle of nowhere that doesn't actually exist. Micklethwaite told the Sydney Morning Herald that the ship's captain was nervous about running aground and proceeded cautiously as they made their "un-discovery".
It was one of those happy circumstances in science. You come across something somebody has never noticed before. The scientists would now send the correct data to the authorities to get the world map fixed, he said.
Had the island existed it would have belonged to France, since its location near the archipelago of New Caledonia is in French territorial waters. Speaking on Thursday, Danny Dorling, president of the British Society of Cartographerssaid it was not surprising that the error had crept in.
You never will," he said. The mistake would have been surprising if the location had been a busy shipping lane or populated area, Dorling said. Humans have been making maps for thousands of years. They probably predate writing. The earliest — a cave painting 30, years old — shows some early humans in a rectangle. According to Dorling, maps serve two purposes: Dorling also said that in the case of Sandy Island it was probably human error that had led to its creation. Charts were, after all, originally compiled by sailors using a watch and measuring longitude, with ancient sailors travelling by the stars.
Far from being fixed, the world map is mutable too: The cartographer said it was just possible that Sandy Island — now a non-island, according to its Wikipedia entry — would have the last laugh.
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It's more likely that they found one and put it in the wrong location. I wouldn't be surprised if the island does actually exist, somewhere nearby. The legendary island has been the subject of discussion and parody since ancient times. According to Plato, Atlantis sank into the ocean "in a single day and night of misfortune". This was 10, years ago. No-one has been able to find it since.
Numerous locations have been suggested: Despite its enduring appeal, scholars can't agree if Atlantis really ever was a naval power, or a historical fiction dating back to earliest times.
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Its residents use magnetic levitation to manoeuvre the island in different directions. Laputan society is divided between the educated - who practice maths and astronomy - and servants. A tyrant is in charge; he crushes his enemies by landing on them.
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Less famous, perhaps, than Atlantis but no less worthy, San Serriffe is a fictional island nation created by journalists at the Guardian. The nation was invented as an April Fool's Day spoof in ; a description of it ran over 10 pages and appeared to fool some people.
San Serriffe was located in the Southern Ocean not far from Sandy Island, relatively speaking Its inhabitants were called the Flong; for many years the autocratic General Pica was its ruler; happily, it later became democratic.
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- Portuguese navigators, between and , reached the Tanimbar Islands, some of the Caroline Islands and west Papua New Guinea. On his first voyage in the 18th century, James Cook, who later founded the Hawaiian Islands, went to Tahiti and followed the east coast of Australia for the first time. The Pacific front.
- Also: See Aust: Back of Beyond-The Great OutbackI love a sunburnt country, A land of sweeping plains, Of ragged mountain ranges, Of droughts and flooding rains. I love her far horizons, I love her jewel-sea, Her beauty and her terror - The wide brown land for me! -Dorothea Mackellar (My Country) | See more ideas.
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- Map: Cairns A group of British women has become the first team of four to row the Pacific Ocean after ending their mammoth journey at Cairns in far 40 and Laura Penhaul, 32, set out from San Francisco, America on foot, bright pink rowing boat Doris for the 15,kilometre odyssey to coinsluckyz.comg: pokies.
- There are a number of theoretical methods of tidal head applied sciences to provide power, however as of the current time there is only one well proven expertise.
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You should expect a cosy, well kept room, a common area, and a cooked breakfast. Substantial discounts often apply for mid-week stays at bed and breakfasts. There are many true resorts around Australia. Many have lagoon pools, tennis, golf, kids clubs, and other arranged activities. The island of the Whitsundays have a choice of resorts, some occupying entire islands.
Port Douglas also has many resorts of a world standard. Serviced apartments are widely available, for stays as short as one night. Amenities typically include kitchen, washer and dryer, and separate bedrooms. Caravan parks exist in most towns and cities in Australia that will provide powered and unpowered sites for Caravans.
You will commonly see the Grey Nomad brigade on their trips around Australia in motorhomes and caravans. The camper trailer has also become very popular in Australia. It is perfect for the Australian camping lifestyle, whether it be weekends away or an extended trip into the great outdoors where no facilities exist. You will need to be self-sufficient and carry suitable spares and a good tool kit.
In most parts of Australia it is illegal to sleep in your vehicle but it is possible to get around this by simply rigging up curtains all around the windows so no one can see in from the outside.
Add a mattress, pillow, portable gas cooker, cookware and a 20 lt water container and you are off. But if you are strategic in where you stay you probably won't get caught. Just be sensible and don't disturb the locals. Also, be aware of parking restrictions in certain parts of the cities and town, including overnight parking restrictions. All cities and towns in Australia have free public toilets. Many parks, and most beaches have free electric BBQ's as well.
Popular beaches have fresh water showers to wash the salt water off after you swim, so for those on a tight budget or for those that just love waking up at the beach simply wash in the ocean please do not pollute the ocean or waterways by using detergents or soaps and rinse off at the showers.
Almost all taps in Australia are drinking water, the ones that aren't will be marked. Some of the best experiences you may have in Australia will be by taking that road on the map that looks like it heads to a beach, creek, waterfall or mountain and following it.
You may just find paradise and not another soul in sight. And lucky you, you've got a bed, food and water right there with you. Travelling in a small group lowers the fuel bill per head, as this will likely be your biggest expense. Australian citizens, New Zealand citizens and permanent residents of Australia can work in Australia without any further permits, but others will require a work visa.
All visitors who do not hold Australian permanent residency or citizenship including New Zealand citizens who aren't also Australian permanent residents or citizens are not allowed to access Australian social security arrangements for the unemployed, and will have limited, or more usually, no access to the Australian government's health care payment arrangements.
Minimum wage rates are under the jurisdiction of the federal government; there are other minimum wages depending on your job, years of experience, how much education you have, how long you've been done with your education and your previous job history, so this minimum wage can fluctuate a vast amount.
Most Australian employers pay via direct deposit to Australian bank accounts. Open a bank account as soon as you arrive. Your passport will not be enough ID to open a bank account. You will need to show the bank teller points of ID . You can apply for it online though, only in Australia for free at the Australian Tax Office website  , though you can generally get it quicker if you just go to one of their offices.
The Australian financial year runs from July 1 to June 30, and tax returns for each financial year are due on October 30, four months after the accounting period concludes. Check with Australian tax agents about Australian tax liability and filing an Australian tax return. Australian employers will make compulsory payments out of your earnings to an Australian superannuation retirement savings fund on your behalf.
Temporary visitors who are not citizens of either Australia or New Zealand can have this money returned to them  when they leave Australia. Australia has a working holidaymaker program for yr old citizens of certain countries. It allows a stay in Australia for 12 months from the time of first entry.
You may work during that time, but only for 6 months at any one employer. The idea is for you to take a holiday subsidised by casual or short-term jobs. If you're interested in a working holiday, some useful skills and experience might be: An alternative is seasonal work like fruit-picking, although much seasonal work will require that you work outside the major cities.
Working for 3 months in seasonal work will allow you to apply for a second 12 month visa. You can apply online for a working holiday visa , but you must not be in Australia at the time. On arriving in Australia ask for the working holiday visa to be "evidenced", so you can show your future employer.
The easiest way to get a work visa is to find an Australian employer who will sponsor you. However, this is just 'easier', not 'easy' as such. Your employer will need to demonstrate that they cannot hire anyone with your skills in Australia, and the approval will take several months. If in search of sponsorship, be prepared for a long wait.
Note that getting the visa might take a couple of months from the beginning of the application process, and that you will need a medical examination by a doctor approved by the immigration officials before it can be granted among other things, you will need a chest x-ray to show that you do not have tuberculosis.
You can apply to immigrate as a skilled person or business person, but this process will take longer than receiving a work visa. You can also apply for permanent residency as the holder of a work or study visa, but your application will not be automatically accepted.
After four years of permanent residency you are eligible to apply for Australian citizenship. There are several volunteer opportunities in Australia. Unless you are actively trying to insult someone, a traveller is unlikely to insult or cause offence to an Australian through any kind of cultural ignorance. Australian modes of address tend towards the familiar. It is acceptable and normal to use first names in all situations, even to authority figures or people many years your senior.
Australia is a nation that prides itself on witty and imaginative nicknames and thus fond of using and giving nicknames - even to recent acquaintances.
It is likely being called such a name is an indication that you are considered a friend and is it would be rare they are being condescending. While attitudes towards alcohol in Australia have moderated in recent years, there is still much goodwill in venturing and accepting the sharing of a drink mainly beer amongst newly made acquaintances. In rural locations especially, refusing the offer of a quiet drink is still something that is capable of causing offence.
Within the bounds of health, safety and culture, one should try and accommodate this custom, even if you only partake of a glass of lemonade. It is generally acceptable to wear revealing clothing in Australia. Bikinis and swimming attire is okay on the beach, and usually at the kiosk across the road from the beach. It is normal to wear at least a shirt and footwear before venturing any further.
Most beaches are effectively top optional topless while sunbathing. Just about all women wear a top while walking around or in the water. There are some clothing optional nude beaches, usually a little further removed from residential areas. Thong bikinis more commonly called g-string bikinis in Australia as thongs refer to flip-flop footwear are fine on all beaches and some outdoor pools for both women and men although they are not as common as conventional beachwear.
Some outdoor pools have a "top required" policy for women. Cover up a little more when visiting places of worship such as churches. In warm conditions casual "t-shirt and shorts" style clothing predominates except in formal situations. Business attire, however, is considered to be long sleeved shirt, tie, and long trousers for men, even in the hottest weather. In the northern part of the country, a short sleeved, open neck shirt with slacks, known as 'Darwin Rig', is acceptable.
Using Australian stereotypical expressions may be viewed as an attempt to mock, rather than to communicate. If you pull it off well, you might raise a smile. Australians are often self-deprecating, and are rarely arrogant. However, it is rude to ever agree with a self-deprecating remark.
Boasting about achievements is rarely received well. Most Australians are happy to help out a lost traveller with directions, however many urban dwellers will assume that someone asking "Excuse me", is going to be asking for money, and may brush past. Looking lost, holding a map, looking like a backpacker or getting to the point quickly will probably help.
Profanities may not hold the same offensive value as they do in other English-speaking countries. It is best not to mention the name of a deceased person to an indigenous Australian. Though Aboriginal custom varies, it is best to avoid the possibility of offence. Permission to photograph an Aboriginal person should always be asked, but in particular in the more remote areas such as Arnhem Land.
There is an old belief among them that having their photograph taken will steal their soul. Many areas of Aboriginal land are free to enter.
Some areas carry a request from the Aboriginal people not to enter, and you may choose yourself whether or not to honour or respect that request. An example of an Aboriginal request is climbing Uluru Ayers Rock.
No law prohibits people from climbing the rock except in heat, rain or strong winds , however, local indigenous communities The Anangu request that you do not climb. Uluru holds great spiritual significance to the Anangu. The Anangu feel themselves responsible if someone is killed or injured on their land as has happened many times during the climb and request tourists not to place themselves in harm through climbing.
Many people who travel to Uluru do climb, however, so you certainly won't be on your own if you choose to do this. Some Aboriginal land requires permission or a permit, and some areas are protected and illegal to enter. You should check before making plans to travel off the beaten track. Permits are usually just a formality for areas which regularly see visitors, or if you have some other business in the area you are travelling through.
Often they are just an agreement to respect to the land you are travelling on as Aboriginal land. Some Aboriginal Land Councils make them available online. If you need to refer to race, the politically correct term is Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal people is usually okay and referring to sacred sites and land as Aboriginal sites, or Aboriginal land is okay too.
Avoid using Aborigine or Aboriginal as a noun to describe a person, as some people see negative connotations in these words. The contraction "Abo" is deeply offensive and should never be used. The word Native should also be avoided when referring to a person, as should colour-based terminology such as Black or White the polite term for Australians of British or Irish descent is Anglo-Celtic.
The number called 'triple zero' or 'triple oh' can be dialled from any telephone in Australia free of charge. This number will connect you with emergency operators for the police, fire brigade, and ambulance service. The first question that the operator will ask is which service you need.
If you require assistance during a flood, storm, cyclone, tsunami, earthquake or other natural disaster you can contact the State Emergency Service in each state except for Northern Territory on You will be connected with your local unit and help can be organised from there. Note that if the emergency is life-threatening, call triple zero.
If you want to contact these services but the situation is not an emergency, don't call Poisons information advice, which can also advise on snake, spider and insect bites, is available on Information on locating the nearest medical services can be obtained by calling except for Tasmania.
You can dial from all mobile phones. Mobile phones sold in Australia recognise it as the emergency number and will use any available network to place the call. However, if you have a phone obtained outside Australia, using the universal emergency number is a better idea. Using will use any available network, will work even if your phone is not roaming, and will work even if the phone does not have a SIM.
Hearing or speech impaired people with TTY equipment can dial Those with Internet connectivity can use the Internet Relay Service, via the website. Calls from fixed line landline phones may be traced to assist the emergency services to reach you. The emergency services have limited ability to trace the origin of emergency calls from mobile phones, especially outside of urban areas, so be sure to calmly and clearly provide details of your location.
Nobody will likely respond to your call unless you can effectively communicate to the operator that you need assistance. If you are in need of assistance, but cannot speak, you will be diverted to an IVR and asked to press 55 to confirm that you are in need of assistance and have not called by accident. Your call will then be connected to the police. Emergency numbers from other countries for example, '' in the USA do not work in Australia.
Keep a sense of perspective. Tourists are far more likely to be killed or injured as pedestrians, drivers or passengers on Australian roads than all the other causes of death and injury combined. Driving between cities and towns can take longer than you think, especially if you are used to freeway or motorway driving in Europe or North America.
Speed limits vary by location, road and by state. Avoid the stresses of fatigue by not planning to drive too far in a day. It's also worth noting that speed limits are strictly enforced in Australia and going more than 2 kilometres over the speed limit can result in a large fine.
Note also that in many places the speed limit cannot in practice be safely reached. Speed limits are indeed limits and a certain amount of credit is being given to the driver to adjust their driving habits to the conditions. Even if weather is not a factor, driving for example in Tasmania is just not possible at the posted speed limit continuously. To attempt to do so will put yourself and others in danger. A danger which magnifies at night with the immense wildlife population, and when weather is inclement.
The wise motorist will observe how fast other drivers are travelling and also start out travel on unfamiliar roads well below the posted limit, and work up to a comfortable speed once the road has been evaluated as to its safety at various speeds. In practice, top limits are generally only possible in a sustained fashion on double lane freeways. Driving between towns and cities comes with a risk of hitting or crashing due to swerving to avoid wildlife.
Kangaroos have a habit of being spooked by cars and then, bewilderingly, jumping in front of them. Take extra care when driving through areas with vegetation close to the road and during dawn and dusk when wildlife is most active. Wildlife is not usually an issue in major urban areas with the exception of Canberra where a series of parks provides ample habitat for kangaroos, which often cross major roads. Urban Australians jaywalk, dodge cars, and anticipate the sequence of lights; Australians from towns and regional cities are more likely to respect the pedestrian lights.
Although most drivers will stop for a red light, running the amber light is common, so ensuring the traffic has stopped before stepping from the curb is always a good idea. People from countries who drive on the right will take a while to get used to looking the correct way when crossing. Complete novices to right hand drive cars and left lane traffic flow will find value in visiting the local police station and picking up a free copy of the booklet used by young people who are trying to get a driving license.
It will describe many Australian situations you may not be aware of, and its good as a refresher in any case. For example, it is not legal to turn left on red or right as the case may be , which is a permitted action in many other major countries. Around overseas travellers drown in Australia each year. Most of these drownings occur at ocean beaches, where statistics put visitors at significantly higher risk than locals. Check the Beach Safety website. Beach goers should swim between the red and yellow flags which designate patrolled areas.
Beaches are not patrolled hours a day or even during all daylight hours. In most cases the local volunteer surf lifesavers or professional lifeguards are only available during certain hours, and at some beaches only on weekends, and often only during summer. Exact times are generally shown at entrances to most beaches. If the flags aren't up, then there's no one patrolling - and you shouldn't swim. If you do choose to swim, be aware of the risks, check conditions, stay within your depth, and don't swim alone.
Hard surfboards and other water craft such as surf skis, kayaks etc. These craft must only be used outside of the blue 'surf craft permitted' flags. Australian ocean beaches can sometimes have strong rips that even the strongest swimmers are unable to swim against.
Rips are invisible channels of water flowing away from the beach. These channels take out the water which the incoming surf waves bring into shore. Beach goers can mistakenly use these channels or areas since they can appear as calm water and look to be an easier area into which to swim. Problems arise when the swimmer tries to swim back into shore against the outgoing current or rip, tire quickly, and end up drowning. Rips can be recognised by one or more of these signs: If you are caught in a rip at a patrolled beach, conserve your energy, float or tread water and raise one hand.
The surf lifesavers will come out to you. Don't wait until you are so tired you can't swim any more. You will probably find that local swimmers or surfers will also quickly come to your aid. Usually the flags are positioned where there are no rips, but this isn't always the case as rips can move. If you are caught in a rip at an unpatrolled beach stay calm to conserve energy and swim parallel to the beach not against the pull of the current.
Most rips are only a few metres wide, and once clear of the undertow, you will be able to swim or catch a wave to return to shore. Don't think that the right technique will get you out of every situation. In the surf out the back of the beach, treading water can be hard with waves pounding you every few seconds. Unless you have seen it happen, its hard to appreciate how quickly a rip can take you 50 m out to sea and into much larger wave breaks.
If you are at an unpatrolled surf beach, proceed with great caution and never go out of your depth. Beach signs often have a number or an alphanumeric code on them. This code can be given to emergency services if required so they can locate you quickly.
Crocodiles and Box Jellyfish are found on tropical beaches, depending on the time of year and area. Sharks occur on many of Australia's beaches. See the section below on dangerous creatures. Patrolled beaches will be monitoring the ocean for any shark activity.
If you hear a continuous siren, go off at the beach and a red and a red and white quartered flag is waved or held out of the tower as it indicates a shark sighting, so make your way to shore. Once it is clear, a short blast of the siren will be sounded, which usually means that it is safe to return to the water.
Tropical cyclones hurricanes occur in the tropics during summer. In the tropical north the Wet Season occurs over the summer months of December, January and February, bringing torrential rains and frequent floods to those regions.
It is not unusual for some coastal areas to be cut off for a day or two while the water recedes. It can still be a good time to visit some of the well populated, tourist-oriented areas, and, except in unusually heavy flooding, you can still get to see the pounding waterfalls and other attractions that can make this an interesting time to visit. Floods in outback and inland Australia are rare, occurring decades apart, so you would be unlucky to encounter them.
However, if you are planning to visit the inland or the outback and the area is flooded, then you should reconsider. The land is flat, so the water can take weeks to move on, leaving the land boggy.
Insects and mosquitoes go crazy with all the fresh water pooling around, and these things eat insect repellent for breakfast and are still hungry. Roads close, often adding many hours to driving times. Many attractions often lie on a short stretch of dirt road off the main highways, and these sections become impassable, even if the main road remains open. Plan to return in a few weeks, and the land will still be green, the lakes and rivers will still be flowing, and the bird life will still be around.
The wettest period for the south of the country is usually around the winter months of June, July, and August. There is rarely enough rain at one time to cause flooding. The capital cities are rarely affected by floods, however, in recent years and Brisbane has been victim to devastating floods, cutting off suburban roads, damaging infrastructure and halting public transport. Additionally, after long dry periods, sudden storms can cause flooding due to hardened ground, poor infrastructure and blocked drains.
National parks and forested areas of southern Australia, including some parts of major cities next to national parks and forests, can be threatened by bushfires wildfires in summer. If the fire risk is extreme, parks may be closed, especially the backcountry areas, so you will need to have an alternative plan if you intend to camp or hike in parks during summer.
If there is a fire in a park, it will usually be closed entirely. Entire country towns can sometimes be evacuated when there is a bushfire threatening them. Often there can be no signs of the fire at evacuation time, but you should leave early, as evacuating through a fire front is dangerous. The best advice is just to move on, and not stay around to watch.
Make sure any fires you light are legal and kept under control. The fire service operates a fire ban system during periods of extreme fire danger. When a fire ban is in place all outdoor fires are forbidden.
Most parks will advertise a ban, and it is your responsibility to check the local fire danger levels. Fines or even jail terms apply for lighting fires that get out of control, not to mention the feeling you may get for being responsible for the property, wildlife, and personal damage that you may cause.
If you are caught in a bushfire, most fires will pass over quickly. You need to find shelter that will protect you from the smoke and radiant heat. A house is best, then a car, then a clearing, a cave, or on the beach is the best location. Wet everything what you can. Stay low and cover your mouth. Cover yourself with non-flammable woolen clothing or blankets, and reduce the skin directly exposed to the heat. If you have access to a tap gather water early, don't rely on water pressure as the fire front approaches.
If your holiday goes no further than cities, major towns, and beaches, this won't really concern you. Australia is a very dry country with large areas of desert. It can also get hot.
Some parts of the country are always in drought. When travelling in remote areas, away from sealed roads, where the potential to become stranded for up to a week without seeing another vehicle is very real, it is vital that you carry your own water supply 4 gal or 7 L per person per day.
Do not be misled by entries on maps such as 'well' or 'spring' or 'tank' or any entry suggesting that there is a body of water. Nearly all are dry, and most inland lakes are dry salt pans.
Many cities and towns have water restrictions, limiting use of water in activities like washing cars, watering gardens, or public showers, especially during the Australian summer December-February. It is common to see signs in accommodation asking visitors to limit the length of their showers. Australia is home to many of the deadliest species of insects, reptiles and marine life on the planet. However the average tourist is unlikely to encounter any of these in an urban environment. The vast majority of deaths from bites and stings in Australia are due to allergic reactions to bees and wasps.
Some of the information spread about Australia's dangerous wildlife is blown out of proportion. However, you should take warnings about jellyfish and crocodiles seriously in the tropics, and keep your distance from snakes in the national parks and bushland. If travelling in rural areas it would be a good idea to carry basic first aid equipment including compression bandages and to learn what to do after a snake or spider bite. The cane toad that has been rampaging in its millions across northern Australia is in fact poisonous when consumed.
This poses little danger to humans as long as you don't eat one, but if a cane toad is consumed by a pet or even another wild animal will almost surely lead to death. Australian Parks service has a program in the north to train indigenous wild animals not to eat cane toads, with growing success.
Australia is home to six of the top ten deadliest snakes in the world. Never try to pick up any snake, even if you believe it to be a non-venomous species.
Most people bitten by snakes were trying to pick up the snake, kill the creature, or inadvertently step on one whilst out walking. Snakes will generally try to put as much distance between themselves and you as possible, so if you see a snake while out walking, simply go around it or walk the other way. Walking blindly into dense bush and grassy areas is not advisable, as they are places where snakes may hide.
For the most part, snakes fear humans and will be long gone before you ever get the chance to see them. It is common to see spiders in Australia, and most will do you no harm. Wear gloves while gardening or handling leaf litter. Check or shake out clothing, shoes, etc that have been left outside before putting them on.
Don't put your fingers under rocks, into tree holes, where spiders might be. Until the late s a bite from this spider could result in death, but anti-venom is now available. The spider is anywhere up to 5 cm large, and is usually black. If you are in an area that is known for having Funnel Web spiders and you are bitten by a spider that you believe could be a Funnel Web it is important you get to hospital as quickly as possible.
Funnel Webs can seek shelter indoors when there is a lot of rain, however they are usually found under rocks, especially if recent gardening has taken place. The Red Back spider usually easily identified by a red mark on its abdomen , is common and after a bite it is important to seek medical attention, however it is not as urgent as with a Funnel Web.
Red Backs typically hide in dark places and corners. It is highly unusual to see them indoors, however they can hide in sheds, around outdoor tables and chairs and under rocks or other objects sitting on the ground. Anti-venom is available for most spider and snake bites. If bitten you should immobilise the wound by wrapping the affected area tightly with strips of clothing or bandages and seek immediate medical help. Do not clean the wound as hospitals can test venom residues to determine what species anti-venom should be used.
If you are in an isolated area send someone else for help. The venom of some snakes the taipan in particular can take effect within fifteen minutes, but if the wound is immediately immobilised and you rest it is possible to delay the onset of poisoning by one to a few hours, depending on the creature. If possible, you should attempt to identify the creature that bit you in the case of spiders it might be possible to trap it in a jar and take it to the hospital so that the appropriate anti-venom can be administered swiftly.
Unlike snakes in other parts of the world, Australian snakes have short fangs. Getting bitten means the venom will enter your lymphatic system, rather than the circulatory system, so there is no need to cut off blood flow, but the wound should be immobilised using tight bandages.
You should avoid moving, as this will cause the venom to move more quickly through your body. A traditional Aboriginal method of dealing with snake bites was for the person to rest for a few days until the venom left their system and they had recovered. However, you should send for help and seek medical attention if bitten. First aid treatment for spider bites may vary in Australia compared to other areas of the world.
Always seek medical advice after a bite has occurred. Travellers in northern Queensland , the Northern Territory , or northern Western Australia should be aware of the risk of fatal stings from the Box Jellyfish if swimming in the ocean between October and May. They are very hard to detect and can be found in very shallow water.
Stings from these jellyfish are 'excruciating' and often fatal. Vinegar applied immediately to adhering tentacles will lessen the amount of venom injected, but immediate medical assistance will be required. The danger season varies by location. In general the jellyfish are found close to shore, as they breed in the estuaries.
They are not generally found out on the Great Barrier Reef, and many people swim on the reef without taking any precautions.
Seek out reliable local information. Some locals at the beach can be cavalier to the risks. Irukandji are another species of tiny fingernail sized jellyfish that inhabit the waters off Northern Australia and the surrounding Indo-Pacific islands.
They are also very hard to see, and can be dangerous, although stings are rare. Unlike the box jellyfish they are found out on the reef. The initial bite can go unnoticed. There is debate as to whether they can be fatal, but they certainly can place a victim in hospital, and cause extreme pain lasting days.
If you have nausea or shooting pains not long after emerging from the water seek medical treatment. Found in rock pools around the coasts of Australia is the tiny Blue Ring Octopus. Usually a dull sandy-beige colour, the creature has bright blue circles on its skin if threatened. The Blue Ring Octopus is rare and shy. Avoid placing your hand under rocks or in crevaces in rock pools or near the shore as this is where they tend to hide. Most locals do the same.
It has a powerful paralysing toxin which can result in death unless artificial respiration is provided. In the history of Australia there are only two confirmed deaths by Blue Ring Octopus. Travellers in northern Queensland, the Northern Territory or north Western Australia should be aware of the risk of fatal attacks by saltwater crocodiles in and adjacent to northern waters ocean, estuarine and fresh water locations between King Sound, Western Australia, and Rockhampton, Queensland.
Saltwater crocodiles in these areas can reach 25 feet about 7. Despite what their name implies, they can be found in both salt and fresh water. On land, crocodiles usually lie motionless, but they have the ability to move with extraordinary speed in short bursts.
There are relatively few attacks resulting in injury — most attacks are fatal. They rowed 24 hours a day in two-hour shifts, stopping only in Honolulu in Hawaii and Apia in Samoa for up to a week at a time to re-stock before setting off again.
A mile day is a fairly average mileage — but the last five to six days they've been down to about 20 miles a day which is very slow. The journey ended when they arrived at the Cairns Marina about Earlier, operations manager Tony Humphries said the four women, all from the UK, were looking forward to stepping back on dry land.
They have no shade on the boat, so they're out in all conditions be it sunshine or rain. Mr Humphries said each crew member had a long list of things they were looking forward to upon reaching Cairns. The aim of the row was to raise money and awareness for charities Walking with the Wounded, which supports injured servicewoman in the UK, and Breast Cancer Care. It was also documented by filmmaker Sarah Moshman for the film Losing Sight of Shore, which is expected to be released later this year.
First posted January 25, More stories from Queensland. If you have inside knowledge of a topic in the news, contact the ABC. ABC teams share the story behind the story and insights into the making of digital, TV and radio content. Read about our editorial guiding principles and the enforceable standard our journalists follow. By medical reporter Sophie Scott. There's an island in the middle of nowhere that doesn't actually exist. Micklethwaite told the Sydney Morning Herald that the ship's captain was nervous about running aground and proceeded cautiously as they made their "un-discovery".
It was one of those happy circumstances in science. You come across something somebody has never noticed before. The scientists would now send the correct data to the authorities to get the world map fixed, he said. Had the island existed it would have belonged to France, since its location near the archipelago of New Caledonia is in French territorial waters.
Speaking on Thursday, Danny Dorling, president of the British Society of Cartographers , said it was not surprising that the error had crept in. You never will," he said. The mistake would have been surprising if the location had been a busy shipping lane or populated area, Dorling said. Humans have been making maps for thousands of years. They probably predate writing. The earliest — a cave painting 30, years old — shows some early humans in a rectangle.
According to Dorling, maps serve two purposes: Dorling also said that in the case of Sandy Island it was probably human error that had led to its creation. Charts were, after all, originally compiled by sailors using a watch and measuring longitude, with ancient sailors travelling by the stars.
Far from being fixed, the world map is mutable too: The cartographer said it was just possible that Sandy Island — now a non-island, according to its Wikipedia entry — would have the last laugh. It's more likely that they found one and put it in the wrong location. I wouldn't be surprised if the island does actually exist, somewhere nearby. The legendary island has been the subject of discussion and parody since ancient times.
Had just joined and was able to take advantage of the Club discount. All of us enjoyed our meals salads all round and were pleased that orders were taken and paid for at the table. We ate there for dinner on a Saturday night.
Being used to having to line up at surf clubs we were pleasantly surprised to have our order taken at our table. The waitresses have iPads and mobile eftpos machines which made things very easy. You can pay by cash or card. The meals were of a very good standard. I had a red thai curry with fish, prawns and scallops. It was a good sized piece of snapper, 3 large prawns and 2 large scallops.
I was very impressed by the curry. My husband had an eye fillet cooked medium rare as ordered and came with a mash and roast vegetables from the carver.
He was also very happy with his meal. We are school leavers here a week before actual schoolies week so we were looking for a good night in a whole hearted family place. A nice home cooked meal. We were bluntly refused service because not all of us were over We were paying customers, were not attempting to buy alcohol or gamble. We were wearing closed shoes and sensible clothing. I supposed this company isn't concerned about its customers at all.
Hi Shifty McNoshow, Congratulations on graduating year Because we are a surf club it is against our licensing to allow anyone who is under the age of 18 to enter unless accompanied by a parent or legal guardian. Please be assured we were not discriminating against you because of your age, it is simply a legal requirement for our premises. Great food, a little hard to order food from the bar and collect the food was even harder..
Good place to catch up with friends. The management could have been more accommodating considering the circumstances. The club needs to upgrade their poker m a chines to be more secure. Renovations were completed on the club last year which included our new pokie room. We have 40 machines which are maintained regularly and updated with new games as they become available. Unfortunately it is standard for all pokie machines to only hold their reserved status for three minutes.
I'm sorry if you feel this issue has not been resolved but please be assured our staff and management did everything in their power to assist you. Own or manage this property? Claim your listing for free to respond to reviews, update your profile and much more. All of your saved places can be found here in My Trips. Review of The Surf Club Mooloolaba. The Surf Club Mooloolaba. Ranked 9 of Restaurants in Mooloolaba. Restaurant details Good for: Families with children, Large groups, Scenic view, Local cuisine.
At The Surf Club Mooloolaba, we live for the beach and our world class club house has been designed around that philosophy. When we open the windows to the deck, the beach comes in allowing the sights, sounds and ocean air from the buzzing Mooloolaba beach below to create a vibrant atmosphere inside.
Enjoy the breathtaking view of the coastline from Noosa to Point Cartwright as you enjoy a delicious meal, a cup of coffee or an ice cold beverage from the bar. With live entertainment, raffles and a refurbished gaming room, there is something for everyone at The Surf Club Mooloolaba. The cartographer said it was just possible that Sandy Island — now a non-island, according to its Wikipedia entry — would have the last laugh.
It's more likely that they found one and put it in the wrong location. I wouldn't be surprised if the island does actually exist, somewhere nearby. The legendary island has been the subject of discussion and parody since ancient times. According to Plato, Atlantis sank into the ocean "in a single day and night of misfortune". This was 10, years ago. No-one has been able to find it since.
Numerous locations have been suggested: Despite its enduring appeal, scholars can't agree if Atlantis really ever was a naval power, or a historical fiction dating back to earliest times.
Its residents use magnetic levitation to manoeuvre the island in different directions. Laputan society is divided between the educated - who practice maths and astronomy - and servants. A tyrant is in charge; he crushes his enemies by landing on them. Less famous, perhaps, than Atlantis but no less worthy, San Serriffe is a fictional island nation created by journalists at the Guardian. The nation was invented as an April Fool's Day spoof in ; a description of it ran over 10 pages and appeared to fool some people.
San Serriffe was located in the Southern Ocean not far from Sandy Island, relatively speaking Its inhabitants were called the Flong; for many years the autocratic General Pica was its ruler; happily, it later became democratic. Please choose your username under which you would like all your comments to show up. You can only set your username once. This article is 5 years old. Google Geology Maps news. Order by newest oldest recommendations. Show 25 25 50 All.
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Most of the inland areas of the country are semi-arid. Australia has large areas that have been deforested for agricultural purposes, but many native forest areas survive in extensive national parks and other undeveloped areas. Long-term Australian concerns include salinity, pollution, loss of biodiversity, and management and conservation of coastal areas, especially the Great Barrier Reef.
As a large island a wide variation of climates are found across Australia. It is not completely hot and sun-kissed, as stereotypes would suggest. There are regions that can be quite cool and wet. Generally, the north is hot and tropical, while the south tends to be sub-tropical and temperate. Most rainfall is around the coast, and much of the centre is arid and semi-arid. Temperatures in some southern regions can drop below freezing in winter and the Snowy Mountains in the South East experiences metres of winter snow.
Parts of Tasmania and Victoria have a temperature range very similar to England. As Australia is in the southern hemisphere the winter is June-August while December-February is summer. The winter is the dry season in the tropics, and the summer is the wet. In the southern parts of the country, the seasonal temperature variation is greater. The rainfall is more evenly distributed throughout the year in the southern parts of the East Coast, while in the rest of the south beyond the Great Dividing Range, the summers are dry with the bulk of the rainfall occurring in winter.
Based upon scientific evidence and theory, the island of Australia was most likely first settled more than 50, years ago with successive waves of immigration of people from south and south-east Asia.
With rising sea levels after the last Ice Age, Australia became largely isolated from the rest of the world and tribes developed a variety of cultures, based on a close spiritual relationship with the land and nature, and extended kinship.
Australian people maintained a hunter-gatherer culture for thousands of years in association with a complex artistic and cultural life - including a very rich 'story-telling' tradition. While the modern impression of Australian people is largely built around an image of the 'aboriginal desert people' who have adapted to some of the harshest conditions on the planet equivalent to the bushmen of the Kalahari , Australia provided a comfortable living for the people amongst the bountiful flora and fauna on the Australian coast - until the arrival of Europeans.
Although a lucrative Chinese market for shells and beche de mer had encouraged Indonesian fishermen to visit Northern Australia for centuries, it was unknown to Europeans until the s, when Dutch traders to Asia began to 'bump' into the Northwestern Coast. Early Dutch impressions of this extremely harsh, dry country were unfavourable, and Australia remained for them a symbolic road sign pointing north to the much richer and lucrative East Indies modern Indonesia.
Deliberate exploration of the Australian coast was then largely taken over by the French and the British. Consequently place names of bays, headlands and rivers around the coastline reflect a range of Dutch, French, British, and Aboriginal languages.
In , the expedition of the Endeavour under the command of Captain James Cook navigated and charted the east coast of Australia, making first landfall at Botany Bay on 29 Apr Here he formally claimed the eastern coastline he had discovered for the British Crown, naming it New South Wales. Given that Cook's discoveries would lead to the first European settlement of Australia, he is often popularly conceived as its European discoverer, although other European nations preceded his arrival by more than years.
Following the exploration period, the first British invasion and settlement in Australia was founded in at what is today Sydney , led by Captain Arthur Philip who became the first governor of the colony of New South Wales. This started a process of colonisation that almost entirely displaced the Aboriginal people who inhabited the land. This reduced the indigenous population drastically and marginalised them to the fringes of society. Originally comprising the eastern two-thirds of the island, the colony of New South Wales was later split into several separate colonies, with Tasmania then known as Van Diemen's Land becoming a separate colony in , followed by South Australia in , New Zealand in , Victoria in and Queensland in The western third of the island was not settled by Europeans until the British establised a naval base in Albany , then known as King George Sound in The Swan River Colony was formally established in at what is today Perth.
While Australia began its modern history as a British penal colony, the vast majority of people who came to Australia after were free settlers, mainly from Britain and Ireland , but also from other European countries. Convict settlements were mostly along the east coast, with scattered pockets of convict settlements in Western Australia. The state of South Australia was settled entirely by free settlers.
Many Asian and Eastern European people also came to Australia in the s, during the Gold Rush that started Australia's first resource boom. Although such diverse immigration diminished greatly during the xenophobic years of the White Australia policy, Australia welcomed a successive series of immigrants from Europe, the Mediterranean and later Asia to form a highly diverse and multicultural society by the late 20th century.
The system of separate colonies federated to form the self-governing British dominion of Australia in , each colony became a state of Australia, with New Zealand opting out of the federation. The new country rapidly developed its natural resources including agricultural and manufacturing industries. This development resulted in a large contribution in relation to size of the population to the Allied war effort in World Wars I and II. Australian troops made a valuable, and sometimes controversial, contribution to the wars in Korea, Vietnam and Iraq.
Australian Diggers retain a reputation as some of the hardest fighting troops along with a great social spirit. Australia and Britain passed the Australia Act in , ending the official power that the British parliament may have had to pass laws for Australia, and ended appeals by Australia to British courts. While the parliament lost that power, the Queen of Australia and her appointees retained full rights to exercise all power. Australia has a prosperous Western-style capitalist economy, with a per capita GDP on par with the four dominant West European economies and that has been remarkably resilient to the recent worldwide economic downturn.
The primary industries - mining and agriculture - account for most of Australia's exports. Iron ore and coal are by far the largest exports, with wheat, beef and wool declining in importance. Australia has a comprehensive social security system, and a minimum wage higher than the United States or the United Kingdom.
Australia has a federal system of government, with eight state and territory governments and a national government. Each of these governments has an elected parliament, with the leader of each government, known as the Premier, being the leader of the largest party represented in the lower house.
The national parliament is based on the British "Westminster system", with some elements being drawn from the American congressional system. At the federal level it consists of a Senate and a House of Representatives. Each Member of the House of Representatives colloquially known as a Member of Parliament MP represents an electoral division, with more populous states having more electoral divisions and hence, more MP's.
Similar to the US Senate, each Australian state has an equal number of senators, with 12 senators being directly elected by the people in each state, and 2 senators each from the Northern Territory and Australian Capital Territory.
The political party or coalition of parties which has the most members in the House of Representatives becomes the governing party and forms the national government. Ministers are drawn from both the House of Representatives and the Senate, though by convention, the Prime Minister comes from the House of Representatives. The current Prime Minister, Malcolm Turnbull, is the current leader of the national government and the Liberal-National Coalition which holds a majority in the House of Representatives.
The Queen remains the head of state, and her representative in Australia - the Governor-General - according to conventional wisdom and lampoon - has a ceremonial and politically powerless role while holding the ultimate power to dismiss the Prime Minister. In practice, the Prime Minister is believed to wield the most authority in government. A referendum to change Australia's status to a republic was defeated in , but the issue remains a regularly debated topic.
Emerging in power is the social democratic Greens Party, which maintains an environmentalist policy platform and is effectively a partner of the ALP. It should be noted that the Liberal Party is traditionally a centre-right, conservative party - the term liberal refers to maintaining a free market economy.
Australia has a multicultural population practising almost every religion and lifestyle. Over one-quarter of Australians were born outside Australia, and another quarter have at least one foreign-born parent. Melbourne, Brisbane and Sydney are centers of the multicultural.
All three cities are renowned for the variety and quality of global arts, intellectual endeavors, and cuisine available in their many restaurants. Sydney is a hub of art, culture, and history containing the world class architectural gem, the Sydney Harbour Bridge. Melbourne especially promotes itself as a centre for the arts, while Brisbane promotes itself through various multicultural urban villages. Adelaide must be mentioned in addition, as it is known for being a centre for festivals as well as Germanic cultural influences.
Perth, also, is known for its food and wine culture, pearls, gems and precious metals as well as the international fringe arts festival. There are quite a few more that deserve mention, but this gives an idea via introduction. Smaller rural settlements generally reflect a majority Anglo-Celtic culture often with a small Aboriginal population. Virtually every large Australian city and town reflects the effect of immigration from Europe, Asia, the Middle East and the Pacific that occurred after World War II and continued into the s, in the half century after the war when Australia's population boomed from roughly 7 million to just over 20 million people.
There are approximately half a million Australians who identify as being of Aboriginal descent. Less maintain elements of traditional Aboriginal culture. Long ago during the involuntary transportation and relocation from Europe and other places, it must be noted that all records were not kept nor available to others, nor have those records that existed all survived the uses of people throughout history. The English of Australia were once known for local colour and colloquialisms but that largely has been lost to outside influence and influx.
People in rural areas still tend to speak in a broader, colloquial accent and have a different manner, using many of the slang words that have become outmoded in metropolitan areas. Accents tend to be broader and slower outside of the large cities. There are overall small pronunciation differences based upon culture of origin in the cities, but these are becoming less common. Speech has become more generic.
For example the word "you" colloquially, is often rolled off the tongue sharply on the south east coast, almost as "ewe" as opposed to the west coast and other regions. Another modern variation based upon migrants from Africa is found in Afrikaans accents on the west coast, modifying the local accents slightly due to the larger population and numbers of Afrikaans and Boer African immigration there.
Regarding other variations in speech, usually native speakers can recognise the subtle regional variations. A trend among Australians is social conservatism compared to some European cultures and an acquired balanced attitude, defining their European origins within a preference for the growing Asian influence. They tend to be relaxed regarding religious observance.
The Australian sense of egalitarianism in its gungho form has moderated; while modes of address still tend to be casual and familiar compared to some other cultures, such as Asian. Most Australians will tend to address you by your first name and will expect that you reciprocate.
Many states observe Labour Day , but on different days. Western Australia has Foundation Day typically the first Monday in June recognising the founding of the state since but also celebrates the Queen's Birthday on a different date than the rest of the country, either at the end of September or early October, due to the usual June date's close proximity to Foundation Day. When a public holiday falls on a Saturday or Sunday, the following Monday and Tuesday if necessary are usually declared holidays in lieu, although both the celebrations and the retail closures will occur on the day itself.
Most tourist attractions are closed Christmas Day and Good Friday. Most attractions in Australia remain open year-round, some operating at a reduced frequency or shorter hours during the off-peak season. Salaried Australians have four weeks of annual leave and school children in the major population centres have January as a long break. Domestic tourism is strongest during January and the Easter school holidays.
Summer tends to be the peak travel season through much of the south, with the winter dry season the peak travel season in the tropics. Australian teenagers finishing high school celebrate the end of school colloquially known as "Schoolies" for a week beginning at the end of October to mid to late November depending on area. The volume of teen revellers can completely change the nature of some of the cities and towns they choose to visit, particularly the nationally popular Gold Coast especially seeing as the vast majority of school-leavers will have reached the legal drinking age of Australia can have up to five different time zones during the daylight savings period, and three at other times.
Queensland doesn't observe daylight saving, so it is an hour behind the other eastern states during that period. In the centre, South Australia and the Northern Territory are half an hour behind during the winter, but the Northern Territory doesn't observe daylight saving while South Australia does.
In the west, Western Australia is two hours behind the eastern states in winter, and also doesn't observe daylight saving. It moves three hours behind the eastern states that observe daylight saving remaining two hours behind Queensland.
There are no official abbreviations or names for Australian time zones, and you may see a few variations used. In conversation, the abbreviations aren't used. People tend to say Sydney time , Brisbane time , or Perth time. Expect blank stares from most if you start talking about Central Summer Time. In those states which observe daylight saving, it commences on the first Sunday in October and ends on the first Sunday in April.
All visitors - apart from citizens of New Zealand - require a visa in advance of travel. If you are visiting for a holiday of less than three months, there are three types of visas you may apply for, depending on your nationality:. In most cases, Electronic Travel Authorities and eVisitors are approved instantly and the visa will be issued and available for use immediately. Nationals of certain countries, such as Bulgaria and Romania and other Eastern European EU member states, are rarely issued eVisitor visa automatically and must provide additional documentation.
If you are visiting Australia for employment, study or for medical treatment you will need to obtain the appropriate visa. If you are staying longer than 3 months continuously you are ineligible for an ETA or eVisitor, and should apply for a Visitor Visa subclass For all visitor visa classes, you must be able to demonstrate your ability to support yourself financially for the time you intend to spend in Australia.
If you have a criminal conviction, obtain advice from the Australian Embassy or visa processing centre. All fees are payable in Australian dollars, converted to your local currency at the current rate of exchange.
All other passengers who transit through Australia must apply for a free-of-charge Transit Visa subclass prior to travel. New Zealand citizens may travel to and work in Australia for any length of time without a pre-arranged visa. Non-citizen permanent residents of New Zealand are not eligible for visa-free entry.
New Zealand citizens may still be rejected entry on the basis of criminal convictions or being HIV-positive and should seek advice before travel. Australia has strict quarantine requirements regarding importing animal and vegetable derived products any food, wooden products, seeds, etc. You must declare all such material and baggage is frequently scanned and may be examined by dogs.
Processed and sealed commercially prepared foods chocolates, cookies, etc are often permitted. They will be examined and returned to you, but still must be declared.
Some prohibited items can be treated by quarantine at your expense and picked up at a later time. Some shells, coral and items made from a protected species are also prohibited to discourage the trade in items that may originate from a threatened ecosystem or species.
While there are no restrictions on the amount of money that can be brought in or out, Australian customs also requires you to declare if you are bringing AUD10, or equivalent in foreign currency or more in or out of the country and you will be asked to complete some paperwork. Australia is a long way from anywhere else in the world, so for most visitors, the only practical way of getting into Australia is by air.
After Sydney, significant numbers of travellers also arrive in Australia in Melbourne, Brisbane and Perth. On account of long journey times from some destinations, some travellers from Europe opt to have a stop-over, commonly in Singapore, Hong Kong, Dubai , Bangkok or Kuala Lumpur.
If you have to change to a domestic flight in a gateway city, Sydney, Brisbane and Perth all have distinct domestic terminals, requiring some time and complexity to transit, check the guides.
Melbourne, Adelaide, Darwin, Cairns and the Gold Coast have all gates in the one terminal building or within easy walking distance of each other.
There are some routes into Australia that are operated by discount airlines. These can often be combined with other fares to make getting to Australia cheaper. Select your point of entry and exit to give you a cheaper round-trip, and possibly some interesting stopover opportunities on the way. November to February is the cruising season, and there are usually about 10 ships that arrive in Australia from other countries during this time. You can cruise to Australia, and then fly home.
Alternatively, you may sail to Australia in your own yacht, but beware of customs regulations. See Australian Customs for details. There was a time when a couple of tour operators offered overland trips from London to Sydney, with only a short hop by air from South East Asia to North Western Australia while the bus went by barge. Currently, the only such tour operator is Madventure which runs 4 different routes: For the truly determined overland traveller, you can get a ferry from Singapore to Indonesia and make your way across to Bali, where you can fly to Darwin 2, flight km.
For the intrepid, ferries to West Timor, a bus to Dili and a flight to Darwin will mean only km in the air. Australia is huge but sparsely populated, and you can sometimes travel many hours before finding the next trace of civilisation, especially once you leave the south-eastern coastal fringe.
You can locate most things on an Australian map or street directory if you just have the "GPS coordinates". There are restrictions on carrying fruit and vegetables including honey between states and even between regions of states that are involved in fruit growing. If you are driving long distances or interstate, or flying between states, don't stock up on fruits and vegetables.
These restrictions are enforced very strictly at airports and sea ports and it is not very uncommon to see sniffer dogs trained to find these goods.
Australia has a generally well-maintained system of roads and highways, and cars are a commonly used method of transport. Most of the state capitals are linked to each other by good quality highways.
Some parts are dual carriageway but many sections are one lane each way. Major regional areas have sealed paved dual-lane roads, but isolated areas may have poorly maintained dirt roads or even tracks. Distances and speeds are specified in kilometres and fuel is sold by the litre. There are no tolls on roads or bridges outside of the urban areas of Sydney, Melbourne and Brisbane. Australia drives on the left. Overseas visitors who are used to driving on the right should take care when they first drive, and again when they are driving on country roads with little traffic.
One major frustration for visitors is that many Australian vehicles reverse all controls when they are redesigned to mount the driver's controls on the right front seat, including the levers on the steering column.
This causes newly arrived visitors to inadvertently operate the windscreen wipers when they are trying to signal a lane change or turn on headlights, and vice versa. Generally, overseas licenses are valid for driving in Australia for three months after arrival. Licensing regulations and road rules vary slightly from state to state.
Australia's low population density and large size makes for long driving times between major centres. Some indicative travel times, not including any rest periods, are:. It is almost impossible to predict your travel time just by knowing the distance. Seek local advice for the best route, and how much time to allow. While major highways are well serviced, anyone leaving sealed paved roads in inland Australia is advised to take advice from local authorities, check weather and road conditions, carry sufficient spare fuel, spare parts, spare tyres, matches, food and water.
Some remote roads might see one car per month or less. Cellular coverage is non-existent outside of major highways and towns and you should take some precautions in case of emergency.
It is a good idea to advise a person you know and trust of your route and advise them to alert authorities if you do not contact them within a reasonable amount of time after your scheduled arrival at your destination.
Carrying a Personal Locator Beacon PLB or satellite phone should be considered when travelling in remote areas, especially where you may not be able to make contact for several days. Police will not automatically start looking for you if you don't report in.
Make sure you get one with a GPS built in. These can be borrowed from some local police stations, such as those in the Blue Mountains in New South Wales. If you want to hire one, sort it out before you leave a major city, as you won't find hire places in small towns. Don't expect an immediate rescue even if you trigger a PLB.
Heat and dehydration at any time of year can kill you. If stranded, stay with your vehicle and do what you can to improve your visibility from the air. Do not take this advice lightly; even local people die out there when their car breaks down and they are not reported missing.
If you do have to abandon your car say you break down and then get a lift , call in quickly to the local police station, to avoid the embarrassment and cost of a search being started for you.
Major cities around Australia have multiple outlets providing a wide range of rental vehicles from major international rental companies. In smaller towns car rental can be difficult to find. One way fees often apply from smaller regional outlets. Contractual restrictions Conditions upon the use of rental vehicles usually exist on travelling into or out of Western Australia and the Northern Territory or on the car ferries to Tasmania, Kangaroo Island and Fraser Island.
Rental cars in capital cities usually have unlimited mileage. In small towns they usually only include km a day before a surcharge is applied. Always ensure you thoroughly check the vehicle for any damage, including all window glass and the roof panels, and document any found in detail with the renter before leaving the depot.
Check the contract conditions carefully if you are under 25 and also check that your licence class matches the vehicle you wish to rent before you book it. Catering to the vast number of young European and American backpackers traversing the country are several low-budget car rental companies which rent cars and campers of varying quality.
Check the extra charges very carefully and make sure that you don't end up paying the same or more for a lesser quality vehicle. The very cheapest cars you can hire can be manual stick-shift. Anything larger will usually be automatic. There is a substantial second hand market in cars and campers for backpackers wishing to do extended road trips around Australia. Take common sense precautions if purchasing a car. Free state government services are available to ensure it is unencumbered by a finance arrangement and that it has not been previously written off as a result of an accident.
Due to the large distances involved, flying is well-patronised in Australia. Services along the main business travel corridor Melbourne-Sydney-Brisbane are run almost like a bus service, with flights leaving every 15min during the day.
The only way to get the best airfare is to visit each of the airlines pages directly, and compare fares. Never assume that the Qantas fare will be more expensive, as their online deals are often the cheapest available on a route. The best fares are always available on the most competitive routes. Consolidator websites and travel agents almost invariably add a surcharge to the direct booking price.
Use them to compare, but always check the airline website before booking. There are four domestic airlines in Australia that operate jet aircraft linking capital cities and major destinations:.
Several airlines service regional destinations. Expect discounts on these airlines to be harder to come by, and for standard airfares to be above what you would pay for the same distance between major centres. Visitors from countries with well-developed long distance rail systems such as Europe and Japan may be surprised by the lack of high-speed, inter-city rail services in Australia.
A historical lack of cooperation between the states, combined with sheer distances and a relatively small population to service, have left Australia with a national rail network that is relatively slow and used mainly for freight. As a result, travel between major cities will not only be faster by air, but often cheaper as well. Train travel between cities is, however, more scenic, and tourists are likely to see more of Australia travelling by train than they would otherwise see, as well as cutting down on their carbon footprint.
It is also often a cost effective way of getting to regional towns and cities, which don't have the frequent and cheap flights found between the capital cities. The long-distance rail services that do exist are mainly used to link regional townships with the state capital, such as Bendigo to Melbourne, or Cairns to Brisbane.
There are also inter-city train services operated by Great Southern Railways on the routes Melbourne- Adelaide The Overland , Sydney-Adelaide- Perth Indian Pacific , Adelaide-Alice Springs-Darwin The Ghan however as noted above, these are not "high speed" services, so if you do not enjoy train travel as part of your holiday in its own right then this is probably not for you.
Tasmania has no passenger rail services. The Northern Territory has the rail line linking Darwin to Adelaide through Alice Springs only, and the Australian Capital Territory has only a single railway station close to the centre of Canberra.
There is no pass that includes all train travel throughout Australia. However, if you are a train buff that intends travelling extensively by rail, there are some passes that may save you money. Plan your trip carefully before investing in a rail pass. Country train services are infrequent and can arrive at regional destinations at unsociable hours.
Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, Adelaide, Wollongong and Newcastle have train and bus services integrated into the city public transport, with trams also running in Sydney, Melbourne, Adelaide and the Gold Coast and ferries in Sydney, Brisbane, Perth and Newcastle.
The remaining capital cities have bus services only. See those city guides articles for public transport details. Sydney has a subway system known as Sydney Metro that is currently under construction. Some regional cities and towns have local bus services, but see the destination guides for service information, as frequency can be poor and weekend and evening services non-existent.
Some trains allow you to carry your car with you on special car carriages attached to the back of the train. You cannot remove your car at any of the intermediate stations. Bus travel in Australia is cheap and convenient, although the distances involved can be daunting. Greyhound has the largest bus route network. Many major Australian cities have ferries as part of their public transport system. Some smaller roads in the regional areas still have punts to carry cars across rivers and canals.
The islands of the Barrier Reef have some scheduled services, and there are a few cruises that cross the top of Australia as well. It is legal to hitchhike in some states in Australia, so long as certain guidelines are followed. However, it is less commonly done than in neighbouring New Zealand. In Australia hitchhiking is often frowned upon by locals and police, especially in metropolitan areas.
Hitch hiking is illegal in Victoria and Queensland. It is also illegal to stand on the verge or walk along freeways often called "motorways" in New South Wales in all states effectively making hitchhiking illegal in many practical places, in all states. If forced to hitchhike due to an emergency you may find a motorist willing to take you to the nearest town to obtain help. Some major inter-city highways and freeways have telephones to request help.
It's most common to see a tourist hitching in rural areas. The best time to hitchhike is early morning. The best location is near, but not on, the main exit from the town you are in. Cycling the long distances between towns is not particularly common, and most long distance highways in Australia have poorly developed facilities for cyclists. Nevertheless some intrepid travellers do manage to cover the longer distances by bicycle, and have a different experience of Australia.
Trips and routes need careful planning to ensure the correct supplies are carried. To cycle between Sydney and Brisbane you would have to allow weeks with around km per day. There is much to see in Australia that you can't see easily in its natural setting anywhere else:. Australian flora and fauna is unique to the island, the result of having been isolated from the rest of the world for millions of years.
Amongst Australian animals are a large group of marsupials mammals with a pouch and monotremes mammals that lay eggs. Just some of the animal icons of Australia are the kangaroo national symbol and the koala. A visit to Australia would not be complete without taking the chance to see some of these animals in their natural environment.
Australia has many landmarks, famous the world over. See some of the Big things in Australia. Sport is an integral part of the Australian culture from the capital cities to country towns. The majority of games are played over the weekend period from Friday night to Monday night. It has been said that if there are two flies crawling up a wall, then you just need to look around to find the Aussie who will be running a book.
Gambling is illegal for under's. This can often restrict entry to parts of pubs, clubs, and casinos for children. Expect everyone you interact with in Australia to be able to speak English, whether it is their first language or not. Locals and more recent arrivals of all ages and backgrounds are expected to and usually do speak at least basic English, as well as the majority of tourists.
As Australia is a multicultural society, you will notice the presence of many other languages and accents. Australians who were born in Australia or immigrated as children will speak English with the Australian accent. Australians who immigrated to Australia as adults generally will not have the Australian accent. The Australian accent has very little if not any geographic variation; although Australians sometimes have their own theories about geographical accents; for example Adelaide, Melbourne and North Queensland "accents".
In reality however, the Broad, General and Cultivated Australian accents which linguists accept all exist, can be found anywhere in Australia. Anywhere in the country you will find some people speak slower with broader accents and use more slang; often associated with regional areas, whilst many more Australians will have the General Australian accent; often associated with major urban areas, or the less common Cultivated accent: Australia is traditionally a land of immigrants, plus there are many people from all over the world working or studying in Australia, plus many tourists from overaeas.
Because of this, Australians are very used to speaking with others whos first language is not English or who are not used to hearing the Australian accent. They will speak slower and clearer with you and avoid any local vocabulary.
It is also worth noting many Australians of non-English speaking family backgrounds will generally always prefer to speak English with people outside their family. Even if they speak your language fluently at home or grew up with that language inside their home they will often pretend they cannot speak it with a visitor from that country. Australian slang should not present a problem for tourists except possibly in some isolated outback areas.
A few words and euphemisms that are considered offensive elsewhere are common vernacular in Australian speech. Fanny, as in the UK, means vagina and is not used widely. The word "thong" generally refers to flip-flops in Australia, and not necessarily a G-string as it does in most other places. Still, Australians are familiar enough with the differences to know what you mean, but they may still have a laugh at your expense.
Visitors who do not speak basic English will find communicating with Australians difficult, and should do some advance planning. There are some tour companies who specialise in offering package deals for Australian tours complete with guides who speak particular languages. There are over a hundred Aboriginal languages still known and spoken by Aboriginal people. These languages are all different, and you won't see an Aboriginal phrasebook in the travel bookshops.
Many Aboriginal place names derive from Aboriginal languages that have been lost, and their meanings remain uncertain. Aboriginal people living in rural Aboriginal communities continue to speak their respective languages.
The Torres Strait Islander people, who originate from a group of islands in northern Queensland near Papua New Guinea also continue to speak their own languages. Almost all Aboriginal people speak English as well, although some elders may not be fluent. When interpreters are present for public events, they will use Auslan. Users of BSL or NZSL may be able to understand Auslan; the languages share a significant amount of vocabulary and syntax, plus the same two-handed manual alphabet. Much of the vocabulary and syntax are different, and those languages use a one-handed manual alphabet.
There are cents in every dollar. No other currency is officially accepted for transactions in Australia. Although it was not unusual to find some of the older New Zealand coins in your change from time to time, it is now practically unheard of since New Zealand completely overhauled and resized its coinage.
It no longer matches the size of Australian coins. The Australian coins are large and heavy relative to their value. For example, the Australian ten cent coin is the size of a US 25 cent coin and the Australian fifty cent coin is among the largest circulating coins anywhere in the world by size.
Australian notes are produced in plastic polymer rather than paper. If the total of a transaction is not a multiple of 5 cents the amount will be rounded to the nearest five cents if you are paying in cash.
The exact amount will be charged if paying by card. Old paper notes or bronze 1c and 2c coins will be exchanged at a bank but will be difficult at shops. Despite its enduring appeal, scholars can't agree if Atlantis really ever was a naval power, or a historical fiction dating back to earliest times.
Its residents use magnetic levitation to manoeuvre the island in different directions. Laputan society is divided between the educated - who practice maths and astronomy - and servants. A tyrant is in charge; he crushes his enemies by landing on them. Less famous, perhaps, than Atlantis but no less worthy, San Serriffe is a fictional island nation created by journalists at the Guardian.
The nation was invented as an April Fool's Day spoof in ; a description of it ran over 10 pages and appeared to fool some people. San Serriffe was located in the Southern Ocean not far from Sandy Island, relatively speaking Its inhabitants were called the Flong; for many years the autocratic General Pica was its ruler; happily, it later became democratic. Please choose your username under which you would like all your comments to show up.
You can only set your username once. This article is 5 years old. Google Geology Maps news. Order by newest oldest recommendations. Show 25 25 50 All. Threads collapsed expanded unthreaded. Loading comments… Trouble loading?
Signed in as Show comment Hide comment. Your comments are currently being pre-moderated why? Please keep comments respectful and abide by the community guidelines. Leonardo da Vinci's earth-shattering insights about geology. Amazon tribe makes 'first contact' with outside world — video. Families with children, Large groups, Scenic view, Local cuisine. At The Surf Club Mooloolaba, we live for the beach and our world class club house has been designed around that philosophy.
When we open the windows to the deck, the beach comes in allowing the sights, sounds and ocean air from the buzzing Mooloolaba beach below to create a vibrant atmosphere inside. Enjoy the breathtaking view of the coastline from Noosa to Point Cartwright as you enjoy a delicious meal, a cup of coffee or an ice cold beverage from the bar.
With live entertainment, raffles and a refurbished gaming room, there is something for everyone at The Surf Club Mooloolaba. The restaurant opens at 7am everyday for breakfast with our famous buffet breakfast stealing the show on Sunday. At 10am you can continue to purchase coffee and cake from the bistro until the Snack and Lunch Menu become available at 12pm. Our menu offers a range of foods from local fresh seafood to a traditional chicken parmigiana.
You can also find pork belly and scallops and a delicious range of steaks from the grill. The Surf Club Carvery is a local favourite. Each day we feature succulent roast meat fresh from the oven with a range of vegetables and sides served in a buffet. Dinner is available from 5: With a large range of wines, beers and cocktails to choose from, there is something for everyone at The Surf Club Mooloolaba. Reviewed November 23, Write a Review Reviews 1, Show reviews that mention.
All reviews roast meats steak ice cream fish chicken buffet breakfast great views all you can eat overlooking the beach cold beer table service sunshine coast carvery meals ocean australia esplanade. Review tags are currently only available for English language reviews. Read reviews in English Go back. Reviewed November 22, Reviewed November 18, via mobile.
Report response as inappropriate Thank you. We appreciate your input. Reviewed November 17, Great, casual dining, relaxed atmosphere. Nice until my money got stolen from the pokie machine. Not even a sorry from the management.
Wise, you start Girls With Pokies Australia Map Pacific Ocean ajay2536 NotPacific ocean map stock images. Download photos about pacific ocean, australia new zealand map, octopus, pacific ocean new zealand map, pacific ocean view. Shop for map of pacific ocean on Etsy, Baby Girls' Clothing Antique map of OCEANIA. PACIFIC OCEAN. Australia. Map of the South Pacific including New Polynesia region of the Pacific Ocean. not so far from Australia or New Zealand and well set up to look after.
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