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Australia is world famous for its natural wonders and wide open spaces, its beaches, deserts, "the bush", and "the Outback ".

Australia is one of the world's most highly urbanised countries; it is well known for the attractions of its large cities such as SydneyMelbourneBrisbaneand Perth.

Australia is the sixth-largest country by land area. It is comparable in size to the 48 contiguous United States. Australia is highly urbanised with most of the population heavily concentrated along the eastern and south-eastern coasts. Most of the inland areas of the country are semi-arid.

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Australia has large areas that have been deforested for agricultural purposes, but many native forest areas survive in extensive national parks and other undeveloped areas.

Long-term Australian concerns include salinity, pollution, loss of biodiversity, and management and conservation of coastal areas, especially the Great Barrier Reef. As a large island a wide variation of climates are found across Australia. It is not completely hot and sun-kissed, as stereotypes would suggest. There are regions that can be quite cool and wet. Generally, the north is hot and tropical, while the south tends to be sub-tropical and temperate.

Most rainfall is around the coast, and much of the centre is arid and semi-arid. Temperatures in some southern regions can drop below freezing in winter and the Snowy Mountains in the South East experiences metres of winter snow. Parts of Tasmania and Victoria have a temperature range very similar to England. As Australia is in the southern hemisphere the winter is June-August while December-February is summer.

The winter is the dry season in the tropics, and the summer is the wet. In the southern parts of the country, the seasonal temperature variation is greater. The rainfall is more evenly distributed throughout the year in the southern parts of the East Coast, while in the rest of the south beyond the Great Dividing Range, the summers are dry with the bulk of the rainfall occurring in winter. Based upon scientific evidence and theory, the island of Australia was most likely first settled more than 50, years ago with successive waves of immigration of people from south and south-east Asia.

With rising sea levels after the last Ice Age, Australia became largely isolated from the rest of the world and tribes developed a variety of cultures, based on a close spiritual relationship with the land and nature, and extended kinship.

Australian people maintained a hunter-gatherer culture Girls With Pokies Australia Map Tasmania Mountain thousands of years in association with a complex artistic and cultural life - including a very rich 'story-telling' tradition. While the modern impression of Australian people is largely built around an image of the 'aboriginal desert people' who have adapted to some of the harshest conditions on the planet equivalent to the bushmen of the KalahariAustralia provided a comfortable living for the people amongst the bountiful flora and fauna on the Australian coast - until the arrival of Europeans.

Although a lucrative Chinese market for shells and beche de mer had encouraged Indonesian fishermen to visit Northern Australia for centuries, it was unknown to Europeans until the s, when Dutch traders to Asia began to 'bump' into the Northwestern Coast. Early Dutch impressions of this extremely harsh, dry country were unfavourable, and Australia remained Fruit Machines Pokie Attack On Pearl them a symbolic road sign pointing north to the much richer and lucrative East Indies modern Indonesia.

Deliberate exploration of the Australian coast was then largely taken over by the French and the British. Consequently place names of bays, headlands and rivers around the coastline reflect a range of Dutch, French, British, and Aboriginal languages. Inthe expedition of the Endeavour under the command of Captain James Cook navigated and charted the east coast of Australia, making first landfall at Botany Bay on 29 Apr Here he formally claimed the eastern coastline he had discovered for the British Crown, naming it New South Wales.

Given that Cook's discoveries would lead to the first European settlement of Australia, he is often popularly conceived as its European discoverer, although other European nations preceded his arrival by more than years.

Following the exploration period, the first British invasion and settlement in Australia was founded in at what is today Sydneyled by Captain Arthur Philip who became the first governor of the colony of New South Wales.

This started a process of colonisation that almost entirely displaced the Aboriginal people who inhabited the land. This reduced the indigenous population drastically and marginalised them to the fringes of society.

Originally comprising the eastern two-thirds of the island, the colony of New South Wales was later split into several separate colonies, with Tasmania then known as Van Diemen's Land becoming a separate colony infollowed by South Australia inNew Zealand inVictoria in and Girls With Pokies Australia Map Tasmania Mountain in The western third of the island was not settled by Europeans until the British establised a naval base in Albanythen known as King George Sound in The Swan River Colony was formally established in at what is today Perth.

While Australia began its modern history as a British penal colony, the vast majority of people who came to Australia after were free settlers, mainly from Britain and Irelandbut also from other European countries. Convict settlements were mostly along the east coast, with scattered pockets of convict settlements in Western Australia. The state of South Australia was settled entirely by free settlers. Many Asian and Eastern European people also came to Australia in the s, during the Gold Rush that started Australia's first resource boom.

Although such diverse immigration diminished greatly during the xenophobic years of the White Australia policy, Australia welcomed a successive series of immigrants from Europe, the Mediterranean and later Asia to form a highly diverse and multicultural society by the late 20th century. The system of separate colonies federated to form the self-governing British dominion of Australia ineach colony became a state of Australia, with New Zealand opting out of the federation.

The new country rapidly developed its natural resources including agricultural and manufacturing industries. This development resulted in a large contribution in relation to size of the population to the Allied war effort in World Wars I and II. Australian troops made a valuable, and sometimes controversial, contribution to the wars in Korea, Vietnam and Iraq. Australian Diggers retain a reputation as some of the hardest fighting troops along with a great social spirit.

Australia and Britain passed the Australia Act inending the official power that the British parliament may have had to pass laws for Australia, and ended appeals by Australia to British courts. While the parliament lost that power, the Queen of Australia and her appointees retained full rights to exercise all power.

Australia has a prosperous Western-style capitalist economy, with a per capita GDP on par with the four dominant West European economies and that has been remarkably resilient to the recent worldwide economic downturn. The primary industries - mining and agriculture - account for most of Australia's exports.

Iron ore and coal are by far the largest exports, with wheat, beef and wool declining in importance. Australia has a comprehensive social security system, and a minimum wage higher than the United States or the United Kingdom.

Australia has a federal system of government, with eight state and territory governments and a national government. Each of these governments has an elected parliament, with the leader of each government, known as the Premier, being the leader of the largest party represented in the Pokies Win Nzz Format Podcast Hosting house.

The national parliament is based on the British "Westminster system", with some elements being drawn from the American congressional system.

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At the federal level it consists of a Senate and a House of Representatives. Each Member of the House of Representatives colloquially known as a Member of Parliament MP represents an electoral division, with more populous states having more electoral divisions and hence, more MP's.

Similar to the US Senate, each Australian state has an equal number of senators, with 12 senators being directly elected by the people in each state, and 2 senators each from the Northern Territory and Australian Capital Territory. The political party or coalition of parties which has the most members in the House of Representatives becomes the governing party and forms the national government.

Ministers are drawn from both the House of Representatives and the Senate, though by convention, the Prime Minister comes from the House of Representatives. The current Prime Minister, Malcolm Turnbull, is the current leader of the national government and the Liberal-National Coalition which holds a majority in the House of Representatives. The Queen remains the head of state, and her representative in Australia - the Governor-General - according to conventional wisdom and lampoon - has a ceremonial and politically powerless role while holding the ultimate power to dismiss the Prime Minister.

In practice, the Prime Minister is believed to wield the most authority in government. A referendum to change Australia's status to a republic was defeated inbut the issue remains a regularly debated topic. Emerging in power is the social democratic Greens Party, which maintains an environmentalist policy platform and is effectively a partner of the ALP.

It should be noted that the Liberal Party is Pokies Online Quran Teaching a centre-right, conservative party - the term liberal refers to maintaining a free market economy. Australia Girls With Pokies Australia Map Tasmania Mountain a multicultural population practising almost every religion and lifestyle.

Over one-quarter of Australians were born outside Australia, and another quarter have at least one foreign-born parent. Melbourne, Brisbane and Sydney are centers of the multicultural.

All three cities are renowned for the variety and quality of global arts, intellectual endeavors, and cuisine available in their many restaurants. Sydney is a hub of art, culture, and history containing the world class architectural gem, the Sydney Harbour Bridge.

Melbourne especially promotes itself as a centre for the arts, while Brisbane promotes Pokies Bonus Drive Ford through various multicultural urban villages. Adelaide must be mentioned in addition, as it is known for being a centre for festivals as well as Germanic cultural influences. Perth, also, is known for its food and wine culture, pearls, gems and precious metals as well as the international fringe arts festival.

There are quite a few more that deserve mention, but this gives an idea via introduction. Smaller rural settlements generally reflect a majority Anglo-Celtic culture often with a small Aboriginal population. Virtually every large Australian city and town reflects the effect of immigration from Europe, Asia, the Middle East and the Pacific that occurred after World War II and continued into the s, in the half century after the war when Australia's population boomed from roughly 7 million to just over 20 million people.

There are approximately half a million Australians who identify as being of Aboriginal descent. Less maintain elements of traditional Aboriginal culture. Long ago during the involuntary transportation and relocation from Europe and other places, it must be noted that all records were not kept nor available to others, nor have those records that existed all survived the uses of people throughout history.

The English of Australia were once known for local colour and colloquialisms but that largely has been lost to outside influence and influx. People in rural areas still tend to speak in a broader, colloquial accent and have a different manner, using many of the slang words that have become outmoded in metropolitan areas. Accents tend to be broader and slower outside of the large cities.

There are overall small pronunciation differences based upon culture of origin in the cities, but these are becoming less common.

Speech has become more generic. For example the word "you" colloquially, is often rolled off the tongue sharply on the south east coast, almost as "ewe" as opposed to the west coast and other regions.

Another modern variation based upon migrants from Africa is found in Afrikaans accents on the west coast, modifying the local accents slightly due to the larger population and numbers of Afrikaans and Boer African immigration there. Regarding other variations in speech, usually native speakers can recognise the subtle regional variations. A trend among Australians is social conservatism compared to some European cultures and an acquired balanced attitude, defining their European origins within a preference for the growing Asian influence.

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  • Map: TAS. The Tasmania Opposition's bold move towards pokie-free communities could set a national precedent, according to one man who has long campaigned against them. Independent Federal MP Andrew Wilkie has welcomed Labor's commitment to remove poker machines from clubs and pubs,  Missing: mountain.
  • Poker machines could become a key election issue in Tasmania, with a new poll showing more than 80 per cent of people in Premier Will Hodgman's at [removing poker machines from pubs and clubs] as being necessary because of what our clients tell us," Jules Carrol from Relationships Australia coinsluckyz.comg: mountain.

They tend to be relaxed regarding religious observance. The Australian sense of egalitarianism in its gungho form has moderated; while modes of address still tend to be casual and familiar compared to some other cultures, such as Asian. Most Australians will tend to address you by your first name and will expect that you reciprocate. Many states observe Labour Daybut on different days. Western Australia has Foundation Day typically the first Monday in June recognising the founding of the state since but also celebrates the Queen's Birthday on a different date than the rest of the country, either at the end of September or early October, due to the usual June date's close proximity to Foundation Day.

When a public holiday falls on a Saturday or Sunday, the following Monday and Tuesday if necessary are usually declared holidays in lieu, although both the celebrations and the retail closures will occur on the day itself.

Most tourist attractions are closed Christmas Day and Good Friday. Most attractions in Australia remain open year-round, some operating at a reduced frequency or shorter hours during the off-peak season.

Salaried Australians have four weeks of annual leave and school children in the major population centres have January as a long break.

Domestic tourism is strongest during January and the Easter school holidays.

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  1. Map: TAS. Electronic gaming machines will be removed from Tasmanian pubs and clubs by under Labor's gambling policy announced today. The move, which would see around 2, poker machines stripped out of venues across the state over the next five years, but remain in casinos, was unveiled  Missing: mountain.:
    The Advocate delivers the latest news from North-west Tasmania, Burnie, Devonport TAS including sport, weather, entertainment and lifestyle. Before they left I picked their brains on what to do and see, giving them a map to mark out everything that I needed to do. Usually I travel with my husband and my girls, but it's been my Ma's lifelong dream to travel to Tasmania {she's never been overseas and all she's wanted was to visit Tassie}. So I did what any good. The fate of the First Nations peoples of Van Diemen's Land is one of the most infamous chapters in Australian, and world, history. The men, women, and children exiled to Flinders Island in the s and 40s have often been written about, but never allowed to speak for themselves. This book aims to change that. Penned by.
  2. Australia is one of the world's most highly urbanised countries; it is well known for the attractions of its large cities such as Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, and Perth. Separated from the mainland by Bass Strait, Tasmania has rugged beauty of Cradle Mountain and the west, the beaches of the east, and the complete.:
    Women's Electoral Lobby (Vic). Ian Murphy. Tasmanian Gaming Commission. Relationships Australia Queensland, Break Even, Gold Coast. Gabriela Byrne. Centrebet Pty Ltd. Western Australian Government. Broadmeadows Care and Kildonan Child and Family Services. Rural Women's Award national finalists: Kirsten Abernethy, Portarlington, Victoria; Rebecca Lynd, Plenty, Tasmania; winner Tanya Dupagne, the AgriFutures Rural Women's Award was announced in Parliament House, Canberra, last night with the honours going to Western Australian innovator and.
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Australians who immigrated to Australia as adults generally will not have the Australian accent. The Australian accent has very little if not any geographic variation; although Australians sometimes have their own theories about geographical accents; for example Adelaide, Melbourne and North Queensland "accents".

In reality however, the Broad, General and Cultivated Australian accents which linguists accept all exist, can be found anywhere in Australia. Anywhere in the country you will find some people speak slower with broader accents and use more slang; often associated with regional areas, whilst many more Australians will have the General Australian accent; often associated with major urban areas, or the less common Cultivated accent: Australia is traditionally a land of immigrants, plus there are many people from all over the world working or studying in Australia, plus many tourists from overaeas.

Because of this, Australians are very used to speaking with others whos first language is not English or who are not used to hearing the Australian accent. They will speak slower and clearer with you and avoid any local vocabulary. It is also worth noting many Australians of non-English speaking family backgrounds will generally always prefer to speak English with people outside their family.

Even if they speak your language fluently at home or grew up with that language inside their home they will often pretend they cannot speak it with a visitor from that country. Australian slang should not present a problem for tourists except possibly in some isolated outback areas. A few words and euphemisms that are considered offensive elsewhere are common vernacular in Australian speech. Fanny, as in the UK, means vagina and is not used widely. The word "thong" generally refers to flip-flops in Australia, and not necessarily a G-string as it does in most other places.

Still, Australians are familiar enough with the differences to know what you mean, but they may still have a laugh at your expense. Visitors who do not speak basic English will find communicating with Australians difficult, and should do some advance planning.

There are some tour companies who specialise in offering package deals for Australian tours complete with guides who speak particular languages. There are over a hundred Aboriginal languages still known and spoken by Aboriginal people. These languages are all different, and you won't see an Aboriginal phrasebook in the travel bookshops. Many Aboriginal place names derive from Aboriginal languages that have been lost, and their meanings remain uncertain. Aboriginal people living in rural Aboriginal communities continue to speak their respective languages.

The Torres Strait Islander people, who originate from a group of islands in northern Queensland near Papua New Guinea also continue to speak their own languages. Almost all Aboriginal people speak English as well, although some elders may not be fluent. When interpreters are present for public events, they will use Auslan.

Users of BSL or NZSL may be able to understand Auslan; the languages share a significant amount of vocabulary and syntax, plus the same two-handed manual alphabet. Much of the vocabulary and syntax are different, and those languages use a one-handed manual alphabet. There are cents in every dollar. No other currency is officially accepted for transactions in Australia. Although it was not unusual to find some of the older New Zealand coins in your change from time to time, it is now practically unheard of since New Zealand completely overhauled and resized its coinage.

It no longer matches the size of Australian coins. The Australian coins are large and heavy relative to their value. For example, the Australian ten cent coin is the size of a US 25 cent coin and the Australian fifty cent coin is among the largest circulating coins anywhere in the world by size. Australian notes are produced in plastic polymer rather than paper.

If the total of a transaction is not a multiple of 5 cents the amount will be rounded to the nearest five cents if you are paying in cash. The exact amount will be charged if paying by card. Old paper notes or bronze 1c and 2c coins will be exchanged at a bank but will be difficult at shops. The dollar is not pegged to any other currency, and is highly traded on world foreign exchange markets, particularly by currency speculators.

Money changers in Australia operate in a free market, and charge a range of flat commissions, percentage fees, undisclosed fees built into the exchange rate, and a combination of all three. Generally the best bet is to avoid airports and tourist centres when changing money, and use banks in major centres.

Expect fees to vary considerably between institutions. Always get a quote before changing money. Australian ATMs are deregulated and may impose a surcharge over what is charged by your bank or card issuer.

The ATM will display the charges and you will have the option to stop the transaction before you are charged. Check with your bank as to what additional fees they apply to withdrawals in Australia. Dedicated currency exchange outlets are widely available in major cities, and banks can also exchange most non-restricted currencies. Australian banks usually offer an exchange rate around 2. Some outlets advertise commission free exchange, usually accompanied by a worse rate of exchange.

Don't assume every bank will offer the same exchange. A simple calculation will let you know what offers the best deal for amount you wish to exchange. There are vouchers for commission free exchange at American Express available in the tourist brochure at Sydney Airport. Credit cards are widely accepted in Australia. Almost all large vendors such as supermarkets accept cards, as do many, but not all, small stores. Any card showing the Cirrus or Maestro logos can be used at any terminal displaying those logos.

American Express and Diners Club are accepted at major supermarket and department store chains and many tourist destinations. JCB is only accepted at very limited tourist destinations. Discover is never accepted for internet-based payments, but if your card also carries the Diners Club logo, it will work at any physical store that accepts Diners Club.

The big advantage here is you can bring Australian cash acquired at home through proper exchange channels and turn it into plastic with no exchange fees and minimal service charges without need for exchanging currency at the airport or carrying large amounts of cash everywhere. Excellent for security and you can get two cards with different numbers drawing from the same loaded money, allowing any two people to share a card on the same account.

Other prepaid Australian dollar stored value cards bearing MasterCard or Visa emblems are available at larger post offices or grocery stores. Read terms and conditions closely, some can refund unused balances but only to an Australian bank account. Others you just have to spend it all in Australia or abroad.

Be careful using these cards for car hire. Agencies generally accept only cards with raised print for car hires and the name of the renter on it prepaids do not have this. Even if you hire the car with a foreign card but settle the bill on return with a prepaid they often will not accept it, even with the other card as a backup.

You will have to settle using the foreign card most of the time. Sometimes they don't pay attention and you get away with it but don't plan on it. Credit card surcharges are imposed at all car rental agencies, travel agents, airlines, and at some discount retailers and service stations.

Bottled water isn't much cheaper. You can make yourself feel better about it by buying brands that are not available in foreign countries, such as the delicious Kirk's Dry Ginger Ale. Some American brands are not available.

A train trip on the state run trains will usually cost slightly less. A bus trip, a little less again. A train trip on the private trains will be the most expensive way to travel.

There is usually no admission charge to beaches or city parks. Art Galleries and some attractions are free. Because of Australia's high wages and taxes compared to other countries such the USA, you will find prices of things involving service such as restaurants especially high by comparison.

A rule of thumb is the restaurants will cost close to double what you would expect of the same thing in the USA, and that holds for beverages also. Bargaining is uncommon in Australian stores, though vendors are usually willing to meet or beat a quote or advertised price from a competing retailer. It's also worth asking for a "best price" for high-value goods or purchases involving several items.

The person you are dealing with may have limited authority to sell items at anything other than the marked price. Tipping is never compulsory and is usually not expected in Australia. Staff are seen to be paid an appropriate wage and will certainly not chase you down for a tip. It is acceptable to pay the amount stated on the bill. When Australians do tip, it will often be in the form of leaving the change from a cash payment usually as a convenience so the change does not hang around loose on someone's person - not as a gratuity , rather than a fixed percentage.

In a cafe or more informal restaurant, even with table service, and even in tourist centres, leaving a tip is unusual. Sometimes there is a coin jar by the cashier labelled 'Tips', but more often than not, diners do not leave one. Tipping is also not expected in taxis, and drivers will typically return your change to the last 5 cents, unless you indicate that they should round the fare to the nearest dollar it is not unusual for passengers to instruct the driver to round up to the next whole dollar.

Shops usually have a single night of late night trading, staying open until 9PM on Fridays in most cities and on Thursdays in Brisbane and Sydney. Sunday trading is common but does not exist in all rural areas. Opening hours beyond these base hours vary by the type of store, by location, and by state.

See the guides for more local information. Major supermarket chains such as Coles and Woolworths and department stores like K-Mart and Target in main centres are generally open at least until 9pm. Fast Food restaurant chains are commonly open 24 hours or at least very late. Even in cities with populations exceeding 50, finding a 24 hour petrol station can be difficult, or at least should not be assumed to be easily found.

Make sure to locate one in advance if you have an early morning flight with a rental car to return. Australia's weekend is on Saturday and Sunday of each week.

Retail trading is now almost universal in larger cities on weekends, although with slightly reduced hours. Again, Western Australia is an exception with restrictions on large stores opening on Sundays.

In smaller country towns shops are closed on Sundays and often also on Saturday afternoons. Tourist-oriented towns and shops may stay open longer hours. Tourist areas within cities, such as Darling Harbour in Sydney has longer trading hours every night. Australian banks are open Monday-Friday Cash is available through Automatic Teller Machines ATM 24 hours, and currency exchange outlets have extended hours and are open on weekends.

Australia has a sales tax known as the Goods and Services Tax or GST that applies to all goods and services except unprocessed foods, education and medical services. GST is always included in the price of any item you purchase rather than being added at the time of payment. Receipts tax invoices will contain the GST amount, which is one eleventh of the total value of taxable supplies.

Pack the items in hand luggage, and present the item s and the receipt at the TRS, after immigration and security when leaving Australia. Also allow an extra 15 minutes before departure. The refund payment can be made by either cheque, credit to an Australian bank account, or payment to a credit card.

There is no refund available for services. You also cannot get a refund if you are too close to your flight departure time. A flight departure screen assists agents and they will refuse your transaction if your flight is on it. Check for current regulations about buffer time for flights if you want a GST refund.

Vegemite , a salty yeast-based spread, best spread thinly on toast. If you aren't up for buying a jar, any coffee shop will serve vegemite on toast at breakfast time. It may not even be on the menu, but the vegemite will be out the back in the jar next to the marmalade. If you do buy a jar, the secret is it to spread it very thin, and don't forget the butter as well.

It tastes similar to Marmite or Cenovis. Australians are quite used to the taste, and may spread the Vegemite very thick; but this is not recommended for first-timers. The Tim-Tam , is a popular chocolate fudge-filled sandwich of two chocolate biscuits, all dipped in chocolate.

You can buy a packet or two from any supermarket or convenience store. Tim-Tams are required to perform the Tim-Tam Slam manoeuvre. This requires biting off both ends of the Tim-Tam, then using it as a straw to drink your favourite hot beverage, typically coffee. The hot drink melts the fudge centre and creates an experience hard to describe.

Finesse is needed to suck the whole biscuit into your mouth in the microseconds between being fully saturated and dissolving. Although performed by some Australians, the manoeuvre is rarely performed and the Tim-Tam is generally eaten by itself. During summer, Tim-Tams are often stored in the freezer, and eaten ice cold. The lamington is a cube of sponge cake covered in chocolate icing and dipped in desiccated coconut. It's named after Lord Lamington, who served as Governor of Queensland from to The home-baked form can be found at a local Saturday morning market, or you can buy one from a bakery if you are desperate.

Avoid at all costs the plastic wrapped varieties sold in supermarkets. The pavlova is a meringue cake with a cream topping usually decorated with fresh fruit. Served on special occasions, or after a lunchtime barbecue. Often the source of dispute with New Zealand over the original source of the recipe. ANZAC biscuits are a mix of coconut, oats, flour, sugar and golden syrup.

They were reputedly sent by wives and care organisations to world war soldiers in care packages, but the story is likely apocryphal. Damper is a traditional soda bread that was baked by drovers and stockmen. It has basic ingredients flour, water and perhaps salt and usually cooked in the embers of a fire.

It is not routinely available in bakeries and only commonly served to tourists on organised tours. Best eaten with butter and jam or golden syrup as it is dry and bland. A pie floater is a South Australian dish available around Adelaide.

It is a pie inverted in a bowl of thick mushy pea soup. Similar pie variations are sometimes available in other regions. A Chiko roll is a deep-fried snack inspired by the egg roll or the spring roll.

Despite the name, it contains no chicken. Its filling is boned mutton, vegetables, rice, barley, and seasonings. Its shell is thicker than an egg roll, meant to survive handling at football matches. Available anywhere you can buy fish and chips. Cuisines widely available in Australia, often prepared by members of the relevant culture, include:.

Eating vegetarian is quite common in Australia and many restaurants offer at least one or two vegetarian dishes. Some will have an entire vegetarian menu section. Vegans may have more difficulty but any restaurant with a large vegetarian menu should offer some flexibility. In large cities you will find a number of vegetarian and vegan restaurants, as well as in the coastal backpacker-friendly towns along the east coast.

The market town of Kuranda or the seaside towns of Byron Bay are a vegetarian's paradise. In other regional areas vegetarians are often poorly catered for, but most towns will have a Chinese restaurant that will provide steamed rice and vegetables. Sydney and Melbourne in particular cater well for vegans and vegetarians with a large number of purely vegetarian restaurants, vegan clothing stores and vegan supermarkets.

People observing halal diets will easily be able to find specialist butchers in the capital cities, and will also find a number of restaurants with appropriate menus and cooking styles. People observing kosher diets can easily find kosher food in suburbs in Sydney and Melbourne that have a high amount of Jews eg.

Caulfield in Melbourne, Bondi in Sydney. In other cities it is very hard to find kosher food, and the little kosher food there is, is usually imported from Melbourne or Sydney, so it is very overpriced. Outside the capital cities, it will be much more difficult to find food prepared in a strict religious manner.

All of the capital cities and many regional towns in Australia host a "farmer's market", which is generally held each week in a designated area on a Saturday or Sunday. These markets mostly sell fresh fruits and vegetables, as hygiene standards in Australia forbid the selling of meat directly from market stalls. Butchers who set up shop at a farmer's market would usually trade their wares from a display cabinet within their truck.

The attraction of markets is the lower prices and freshness of the produce. The attraction for the traveller will be the cheap and excellent fruits on offer - depending on the region and season. In regional areas the market is usually held outside the town itself in an empty paddock or sports field, markets in capital cities are easier to reach but the prices are typically more in line with those you would find in supermarkets.

See the destination guides for details. Drinking beer is ingrained in Australian culture. Although Fosters is promoted as an Australian beer overseas, it is rarely consumed by Australians in Australia, and is almost impossible to find. Beers are strongly regional and every state has its own brews: There are also local microbrew choices, which can be harder to find, but are often worth seeking out.

A wide range of imported European and American bottled beers are available in all but the most basic pub. Light Lite beer refers to lower alcoholic content, and not lower calories.

It has around half the alcohol of full strength beer, and is taxed at a lower rate, meaning it is also cheaper than full strength beer. Because Australians like their beer to stay cold while they drink it, draft beer glasses come in a multitude of sizes, so that you can drink a whole glass before it warms up in the summer heat.

The naming of beer glasses varies widely from state to state, often in confusing ways: The local beers and the local descriptions are covered in detail in the state guides.

Bottle naming is a little easier: Cans of beer are known as tinnies and 24 of them make up a slab , box , carton , or a case. Australia produces quality wine on a truly industrial scale, with large multinational brands supplying Australian bottleshops and exporting around the world. There are also a multitude of boutique wineries and smaller suppliers. The areas of the Barossa Valley , Hunter Valley , McLaren Vale , Clare Valley and Margaret River are particularly renowned for their wineries and opportunities for cellar door sampling, but northern Victoria and Mudgee , also have a large variety.

You are never too far from a wine trail anywhere in southern Australia. Try the local wines wherever you can find them, and ask for local recommendations. Try not to get taken in by the label, or the price tag. The best wine is rarely the one with the best artwork, or the most expensive price. However, it is probably wise to avoid the house wine if it comes straight from a cask 4-litre container. If you still prefer overseas wines, the Marlborough region of New Zealand is usually well represented on wine lists and in bottle shops in Australia.

See also Grape grazing in Australia. Bundaberg Rum Bundy is an Australian dark rum particularly popular in Queensland and many Queenslanders will not touch any other brand of rum, while many other Australians will not touch Bundy. It is probably the most famous Australian made spirit, mass produced in Bundaberg and available everywhere.

You will have to search much harder to find other Australian distilled spirits, mostly from niche players, but there are distilleries in every state of Australia if you look hard enough. Drop into the Lark Distillery on the scenic Hobart waterfront precinct. Mixed drinks are also available, particularly vodka, scotch, bourbon and other whiskey mixers. Jim Beam bourbon is probably the most commonly drunk, so those from Kentucky should feel right at home. Spirits are also available as pre-mixed bottles and cans but are subject to higher taxation in this form, so it is cheaper to mix them yourself.

Spirits are served in all pubs and bars, but not in all restaurants. The legal drinking age throughout Australia is 18 years. It is illegal to purchase alcohol for yourself if you are under 18 years of age. It is illegal to purchase alcohol on behalf of someone who is under 18 years of age. The only legally acceptable proof-of-age is an Australian drivers licence, state-issued proof-of-age card or a passport, and it would be wise to carry one if you want to purchase alcohol or tobacco and look under It is illegal to go into a gambling area of a pub or club when under Often there is a lounge, restaurant or bistro area in a pub or club that permits under-age people provided they are accompanied by a responsible adult over 18 and don't approach the bar or wander around.

Some city pubs even have video games and playgrounds for children. Some country pubs have large open areas out in the back where kids can run and play. In general, you can take alcohol say a bottle of wine or beer to consume at a park or beach. However, in the state of Queensland public consumption of Alcohol is illegal. Alcohol consumption is banned in some public places as 'street drinking'.

These are often indicated by signs and is particularly the case in parks and footpaths where public drunkenness has been a problem. However, if you are a family with your picnic basket and blanket out at lunchtime with a bottle of wine, you are unlikely to encounter any problems.

Alcohol can be purchased for consumption on premises only in licensed venues: You can purchase alcohol for private consumption in bottle shops , which are separate stores selling bottled alcohol. In some but not all states you can buy alcohol in supermarkets. In those states where you can't, bottle shops and major supermarkets are often found in very close proximity. Outside of these hours though, it is almost impossible to buy alcohol to take home; so if you're planning on a party at home, it's a good idea to stock up and check on the local trading hours so you don't run out at In the state of New South Wales, takeaway alcohol cannot be sold after 10pm.

Alcohol is not available at petrol stations or hour convenience stores anywhere in Australia. Public drunkenness varies in acceptability. You will certainly find a great deal of it in close proximity to pubs and clubs at night time but much less so during the day.

Public drunkenness is an offence but you would only likely ever be picked up by the police if you were causing a nuisance. You may spend the night sobering up in a holding cell or be charged. Driving while affected by alcohol is both stigmatized and policed by random breath testing police patrols in Australia, as well as being inherently dangerous.

Drink driving is a very serious offence in Australia, punishable by a range of mechanisms including loss of license. The acceptable maximum blood alcohol concentration is 0. Police officers are also empowered to randomly test drivers for the recent use of prohibited drugs. The operation of a motor vehicle while under the influence of prohibited drugs or alcohol will always result in arrest and a required court appearance many weeks from the date of arrest and it can comprehensively disrupt travel plans.

Random breath testing is common early Saturday and Sunday mornings, and many people are caught the morning after.

Buying a round of drinks is a custom in Australia, as in many corners of the world. It is generally expected in a pub that when you arrive and make your first trip to the bar that you will offer to buy a drink for others you are drinking with. This is what's known as a 'shout'. In entering a shout you are expected to take turns buying drinks for everyone in your shout when it is your turn. It is considered poor etiquette to drink something much more expensive that what others in the shout are drinking.

If you cannot keep pace during a shout you are still expected to buy a round of drinks when it is your turn and as such it is advisable to drink with people who pace themselves at a similar rate. If someone from outside the shout offers to buy you a drink politely decline and let them know you are already in a shout. Likewise if someone buys you a drink don't be surprised if they expect one from you later on in the evening as it's now your shout. If you don't want to join a shout, or would like to drop out of one this can be awkward in some groups, however if you provide a viable reason such as having to drive or being on medication people will normally respect this explanation.

It is considered very poor etiquette to leave before your shout. If you are intending to study in Australia, you may need to be on a visa class that allows this, rather than a tourist visa. Students and academics invited to visit Australian universities will generally also need an appropriate visa, even if their visit is of a short enough period to be covered by a tourist electronic visa. For extremely short term or part time courses, check with your Australian consulate or embassy.

Australian students attend high school for six years, and enter university at seventeen or eighteen years of age. In Australia, neither "school" nor "college" are used to refer to tertiary institutions; they are referred to only as "universities" - in fact, some primary and secondary educational institutions are referred to as 'colleges'.

Australian undergraduate programs are usually three to four years in length. A fifth year is compulsory in some professional undergraduate programs such as engineering, law, medicine and dentistry. Students in three-year degree programs can take an optional fourth year known as honours if they want to proceed into a postgraduate research program, whereas students enrolled in four year programs can typically incorporate their honours thesis into their fourth year.

All tuition at university level is in English , save for courses that specifically focus on other languages. Students who have not previously earned a qualification in an English speaking program or passed high school English will have to take one of a number of English competency tests before being allowed to enrol.

Postgraduate studies in Australia fall into two classes: Coursework degrees are generally at the Masters level. Research degrees are at the Masters and Doctoral level. There are 42 Universities in Australia that all compete vigorously for overseas students. All have administrative departments and sections on their websites which describe the courses available to overseas students, and they will help you to apply and obtain accommodation and transport.

Applications for university courses and the appropriate visa will need to be lodged before coming to Australia. Courses range from single year diplomas to full length undergraduate and post-graduate degrees. There is a choice of the sandstone universities, with their history and prestige, modern city universities with their vocational programs, and regional country town universities, with open space and cheaper accommodation. Undergraduate admission to university is centralised at the state level.

You make a single application for admission to the state admissions body stating your course preferences. The universities select students from this common applicant pool based upon their ranking and preferences. Unless you are applying for a creative arts degree, your ranking will be based solely on previous academic performance at both high school and previous university studies. Postgraduate admission is managed by individual universities and you will need to apply separately to each institution you are considering.

The full fees payable by overseas students are competitive compared to many Western universities. Australian citizens have the option of substantially reduced fees and also have the option of deferring payment until they are earning income. Other students will generally be required to pay full tuition on enrolment each semester. Scholarships are rarely awarded for undergraduate or postgraduate coursework degrees. A comparatively large number of scholarships are available for postgraduate research usually covering both tuition, where required, and living costs.

These are awarded by individual universities. Accommodation is readily available in most Australian cities and tourist destinations. It comes in a number of different styles.

Camping is a popular pastime. Most caravan parks will rent camping sites by the night, where you can pitch a tent, and these are available in most towns and cities. The caravan park will provide showers and toilets, and sometimes washing and cooking facilities. Sometimes for an additional fee. You can even find caravan parks right on the beach, with lagoon swimming pools and playgrounds all free for guests.

National parks often provide free camping sites, which expect you to be more self-sufficient. Often toilets are provided and sometimes cold showers. Camping permits are sometimes required at popular parks, with some popular spots filling up during the holidays in summer. In Australia it is common to be within an hours drive of a national park or recreation area that will permit some form of camping, even in the capital cities.

Wilsons Promontory National Park, Kosciuszko National Park, etc , however entry and camping is free in the majority of national parks further from population and tourist centres.

Some other camping areas are run by government or even local landowners. You can try your luck sleeping on a beach or pitching a tent overnight in a highway rest area, or out in the bush for a free bed. Most rest areas and beaches prohibit camping and many even prohibit overnight parking to discourage this.

Generally the closer you are to civilisation or a tourist area, the greater the chance of being hassled by the authorities. Camping in state forests is often preferable to national parks if you're after a camping experience over sightseeing, as collecting of your own fire wood is allowed sometimes felling of trees is permissible dependent on the area and camping is not restricted to camp sites.

Some other activities that are generally allowed in state forests that are not allowed in national parks are: State forests are generally free to stay in, although you will need to check locally if public access is allowed. Facilities usually include a fully equipped kitchen with adequate refrigeration and food storage areas. Most hostels also have living room areas equipped with couches, dining tables, and televisions.

There are several backpacker hostel chains in Australia. If you are staying many nights in the same brand of hostel, consider their discount cards, which usually offer a loyalty bonus on accommodation, and other attraction and tour discounts negotiated by the chain.

Some of these traditional hotels still offer some form of accommodation. It can vary from very basic shabby rooms, to newly renovated boutique accommodation. The price is usually a good reflection of what you are in for. It is still quite unusual to have a private bathroom, even in the nicer hotels. The Australia Institute commissioned the ReachTell Poll of more than people in the electorate of Franklin this month on the issue of poker machines.

The polling showed 40 per cent of people wanted to see poker machines removed, while a further 41 per cent wanted a reduction in the number of machines.

The Government did acknowledge that problem gambling was an issue for some people but said it would be introducing a public interest test for new venues requesting poker machines. First posted September 26, More stories from Tasmania.

If you have inside knowledge of a topic in the news, contact the ABC. ABC teams share the story behind the story and insights into the making of digital, TV and radio content. Read about our editorial guiding principles and the enforceable standard our journalists follow. By medical reporter Sophie Scott. Vladimir Putin has created a state in which he controls the message.

And that message is that the West is the bad guy. Justin Gatlin may have passed every test since serving a drugs ban but he only has himself to blame for being dragged into a fresh doping scandal involving his now former coach. Australia's pokies king reflects on 70 years in the business. Federal Group wants casino tax cut in return for giving up pub pokies.

Pulling pokies from pubs, clubs would see money flow in: New poll shows "Premier's electorate wants change in policy" on pokies Government to introduce a public interest test for new poker machine venues Tasmanian Hospitality Assoc. Karyn is currently getting help for a gambling addiction.

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Working for Customs, Tasmania Police, Federal Police and the Tasmanian Corrections Service, they hunted down marijuana stashes, caches of amphetamines, tackling bikie gangs, hardened criminals and hazardous ship to-shore transfers.

Their expertise took them all over Tasmania, to the mainland states and even into the South Pacific. Tasmanian Nick Stanish comes to Thailand looking for his missing brother — an aid worker at a medical clinic for Karen refugees — and to avoid dealing with a guilty secret.

Playing Lady Gaga, Being Nan Pau is a compelling tale of survival and redemption, of actions and consequences, and of the best and the worst of humanity. This title presents New Norfolk through the first years of its inns, pubs, and hotels. This book includes rare photographs, and background information of the owners of the venues where colonial Derwent Valley townspeople could socialise. Almost five years before the first British settlement on mainland Tasmania in the Derwent estuary , sealers established semi-permanent settlements on the islands off the North-East Coast.

The sealers exploited not only the seal population but also the indigenous tribes that had inhabited the northeastern coastal plains for thousands of years.

Following the decimation of the native population, a string of isolated grazing establishments became the first settlements in this remote corner of the state. Port Davey, in Tasmania's rugged South West corner, is roadless, even today. Such a wild landscape suggests an untrodden past, yet Tony Fenton has unearthed stories of human hopes and schemes, courage and folly, avarice and downright hard work.

A lost history, that of the Aboriginal people, is glimpsed from George Augustus Robinson's diaries as he made his persuasive journey into their country; explorers, whalers and track-cutters came and went; and the Huon pining industry brought families to settle at Port Davey, while prospectors hunted for mineral riches. Sailors were washed ashore on an uninhabited coast, to live or to die. Tony Fenton has woven ground-breaking research into an intriguing narrative that reveals an unexpected past alive with people and plans, set in an impressive but unforgiving landscape.

James Boyce Black Inc. The story begins with the toppling of a premier, and ends with David Walsh, the man behind MONA, taking an eccentric stand against pokie machines and the political status quo. It is a story of broken politics and back-room deals. It shows how giving one company the licence to all the poker machines in Tasmania has led to several hundred million dollars of profits mainly from problem gamblers being diverted from public use, through a series of questionable and poorly understood deals.

Losing Streak is a meticulous, compelling case study in governance failure, which has implications for pokies reform throughout Australia. He is wearing a canary yellow convict uniform and his legs are chained. One evening, five-year-old Saroo left his poor village home in India to watch his older brother work at the next town's train station. Lost and alone on an unfamiliar train, he found himself taken across the country and deposited in a strange city, unable to explain who he was or where he was from.

He'd arrived in Calcutta and was taken in by a government agency. After failed attempts to find his family, Saroo was adopted by an Australian couple, the Brierleys, and taken to start a new life in Hobart. As an adult he never forgot his Indian roots and kept trying to work out where he came from.

With the advent of Google Earth, his long inquiry began to bear fruit: Even more astonishingly, he found them. The book we have been waiting for. Discovering Hobart looks at historic Hobart street-by-street, with photographs old and new. A well-priced gift for locals and visitors to our beautiful city. A photographic and documentary history of the fear and devastation caused by bushfires in Tasmania since Covering the major bushfires which regularly devastated towns and rural farms during , , , , , and Including previously unpublished material on the disaster.

Given the current popularity of Tasmania's wine, whisky, gin and boutique beer industries, a new book on the hop kilns of Tasmania is a timely reminder of the origins of the state's alcohol industry. Hop growing has been a significant part of Tasmania's agricultural and cultural history since early colonial times.

Although the Derwent River Valley is now considered the predominant hop growing area in the state, hops have been grown from the north to the south as well as in the east of the state. In this new publication, Pen Tayler brings to life the history of the hop kilns on 12 properties, tracing the highs and lows of the industry and its effect on those who relied on it. To dry the hops, farmers built hop kilns from local materials. The kilns reflected the energy, confidence and ingenuity of those who invested their futures in them.

Today hops are dried in large, characterless sheds, and many of the old kilns have succumbed to the ravages of time. Some of these intriguing buildings remain, however, and Tayler's haunting photographs show that, although the kilns are often in poor condition, they retain a sense of the life they once contained, and of those who dried the hops in the heat and the dust.

Hobart is a city that is riding the crest of a wave of interest, expansion and positive energy. This change in attitude has been by eager restaurateurs with both hands. Bespoke restaurants, specialty farmers and producers, and hipster coffee shops work together to create a foodie destination that is drawing people from all over the country and from all over the world.

This book will make the perfect gift for anyone with links to Hobart, and includes some stunning scenic photography interspersed with recipes from Hobart's key restaurants and vineyards. This highly anticipated and comprehensive guide is now released in its second edition, covering Tasmania's Mountains over metres high.

This brand new, large format coffee table book presents an innovative and dramatic view of Tasmania, and captures its freshness, wildness, and beauty. David Walsh - the creator of Mona in Hobart - is both a giant and an enigma in the Australian art world.

A multi-millionaire who made his money gambling, David has turned a wild vision into a unique reality; he is in turns controversial, mysterious and idolised. A Bone of Fact is his utterly unconventional and absorbing memoir. Pufferfish - aka Detective Inspector Franz Heineken - remains haunted by his failure to apprehend the killer of a young Hobart woman. Across the wilds of Tasmania, from the majestic Central Plateau to remote Arthur River and using his intimate knowledge of the the island's people, Pufferfish aims himself at the increasingly dangerous mystery of Romeo's gun, and at the evil predator stalking his patch.

After a much anticipated wait, bestselling author Andrew Wilson has finally completed his second book in the Old Sea Dogs of Tasmania. Captured in glorious black and white and for the first time, colour photography, Old Sea Dogs of Tasmania 2 is a striking and beautiful book that includes 5 fold-out sections. Locomotive Enginemen of Tasmania is a tribute to the men at the coal face of Tasmania's railways, whose fascinating stories paint a vivid picture of days long gone, from a time when the 'iron roads' were crucial to the fortunes of the state.

Stories from nine Tasmanian enginemen, who worked all manner of trains throughout the state from the s to the s are featured in this pictorial book. A wonderful addition to the library for the train enthusiast. The Field of Dreams is the first book ever written about Mt. The book is a series of essays describing journeys on foot into this exceptional national park.

They delve deeply into the personal and universal connection with natural places. The 29th of August marks the centenary of the proclamation of Tasmania's oldest national park and this book celebrates this historic occasion. At least thirty-seven per cent of male convicts and fifteen per cent of female convicts were tattooed by the time they arrived in the penal colonies, making Australians quite possibly the world's most heavily tattooed English-speaking people of the nineteenth century.

A rule of thumb is the restaurants will cost close to double what you would expect of the same thing in the USA, and that holds for beverages also. Bargaining is uncommon in Australian stores, though vendors are usually willing to meet or beat a quote or advertised price from a competing retailer.

It's also worth asking for a "best price" for high-value goods or purchases involving several items. The person you are dealing with may have limited authority to sell items at anything other than the marked price.

Tipping is never compulsory and is usually not expected in Australia. Staff are seen to be paid an appropriate wage and will certainly not chase you down for a tip.

It is acceptable to pay the amount stated on the bill. When Australians do tip, it will often be in the form of leaving the change from a cash payment usually as a convenience so the change does not hang around loose on someone's person - not as a gratuity , rather than a fixed percentage.

In a cafe or more informal restaurant, even with table service, and even in tourist centres, leaving a tip is unusual. Sometimes there is a coin jar by the cashier labelled 'Tips', but more often than not, diners do not leave one. Tipping is also not expected in taxis, and drivers will typically return your change to the last 5 cents, unless you indicate that they should round the fare to the nearest dollar it is not unusual for passengers to instruct the driver to round up to the next whole dollar.

Shops usually have a single night of late night trading, staying open until 9PM on Fridays in most cities and on Thursdays in Brisbane and Sydney. Sunday trading is common but does not exist in all rural areas. Opening hours beyond these base hours vary by the type of store, by location, and by state. See the guides for more local information. Major supermarket chains such as Coles and Woolworths and department stores like K-Mart and Target in main centres are generally open at least until 9pm.

Fast Food restaurant chains are commonly open 24 hours or at least very late. Even in cities with populations exceeding 50, finding a 24 hour petrol station can be difficult, or at least should not be assumed to be easily found. Make sure to locate one in advance if you have an early morning flight with a rental car to return.

Australia's weekend is on Saturday and Sunday of each week. Retail trading is now almost universal in larger cities on weekends, although with slightly reduced hours. Again, Western Australia is an exception with restrictions on large stores opening on Sundays. In smaller country towns shops are closed on Sundays and often also on Saturday afternoons. Tourist-oriented towns and shops may stay open longer hours. Tourist areas within cities, such as Darling Harbour in Sydney has longer trading hours every night.

Australian banks are open Monday-Friday Cash is available through Automatic Teller Machines ATM 24 hours, and currency exchange outlets have extended hours and are open on weekends. Australia has a sales tax known as the Goods and Services Tax or GST that applies to all goods and services except unprocessed foods, education and medical services.

GST is always included in the price of any item you purchase rather than being added at the time of payment. Receipts tax invoices will contain the GST amount, which is one eleventh of the total value of taxable supplies. Pack the items in hand luggage, and present the item s and the receipt at the TRS, after immigration and security when leaving Australia.

Also allow an extra 15 minutes before departure. The refund payment can be made by either cheque, credit to an Australian bank account, or payment to a credit card. There is no refund available for services. You also cannot get a refund if you are too close to your flight departure time.

A flight departure screen assists agents and they will refuse your transaction if your flight is on it. Check for current regulations about buffer time for flights if you want a GST refund. Vegemite , a salty yeast-based spread, best spread thinly on toast. If you aren't up for buying a jar, any coffee shop will serve vegemite on toast at breakfast time. It may not even be on the menu, but the vegemite will be out the back in the jar next to the marmalade. If you do buy a jar, the secret is it to spread it very thin, and don't forget the butter as well.

It tastes similar to Marmite or Cenovis. Australians are quite used to the taste, and may spread the Vegemite very thick; but this is not recommended for first-timers. The Tim-Tam , is a popular chocolate fudge-filled sandwich of two chocolate biscuits, all dipped in chocolate.

You can buy a packet or two from any supermarket or convenience store. Tim-Tams are required to perform the Tim-Tam Slam manoeuvre. This requires biting off both ends of the Tim-Tam, then using it as a straw to drink your favourite hot beverage, typically coffee.

The hot drink melts the fudge centre and creates an experience hard to describe. Finesse is needed to suck the whole biscuit into your mouth in the microseconds between being fully saturated and dissolving. Although performed by some Australians, the manoeuvre is rarely performed and the Tim-Tam is generally eaten by itself.

During summer, Tim-Tams are often stored in the freezer, and eaten ice cold. The lamington is a cube of sponge cake covered in chocolate icing and dipped in desiccated coconut. It's named after Lord Lamington, who served as Governor of Queensland from to The home-baked form can be found at a local Saturday morning market, or you can buy one from a bakery if you are desperate.

Avoid at all costs the plastic wrapped varieties sold in supermarkets. The pavlova is a meringue cake with a cream topping usually decorated with fresh fruit. Served on special occasions, or after a lunchtime barbecue. Often the source of dispute with New Zealand over the original source of the recipe. ANZAC biscuits are a mix of coconut, oats, flour, sugar and golden syrup. They were reputedly sent by wives and care organisations to world war soldiers in care packages, but the story is likely apocryphal.

Damper is a traditional soda bread that was baked by drovers and stockmen. It has basic ingredients flour, water and perhaps salt and usually cooked in the embers of a fire. It is not routinely available in bakeries and only commonly served to tourists on organised tours. Best eaten with butter and jam or golden syrup as it is dry and bland. A pie floater is a South Australian dish available around Adelaide.

It is a pie inverted in a bowl of thick mushy pea soup. Similar pie variations are sometimes available in other regions. A Chiko roll is a deep-fried snack inspired by the egg roll or the spring roll. Despite the name, it contains no chicken. Its filling is boned mutton, vegetables, rice, barley, and seasonings.

Its shell is thicker than an egg roll, meant to survive handling at football matches. Available anywhere you can buy fish and chips. Cuisines widely available in Australia, often prepared by members of the relevant culture, include:. Eating vegetarian is quite common in Australia and many restaurants offer at least one or two vegetarian dishes. Some will have an entire vegetarian menu section.

Vegans may have more difficulty but any restaurant with a large vegetarian menu should offer some flexibility. In large cities you will find a number of vegetarian and vegan restaurants, as well as in the coastal backpacker-friendly towns along the east coast.

The market town of Kuranda or the seaside towns of Byron Bay are a vegetarian's paradise. In other regional areas vegetarians are often poorly catered for, but most towns will have a Chinese restaurant that will provide steamed rice and vegetables. Sydney and Melbourne in particular cater well for vegans and vegetarians with a large number of purely vegetarian restaurants, vegan clothing stores and vegan supermarkets.

People observing halal diets will easily be able to find specialist butchers in the capital cities, and will also find a number of restaurants with appropriate menus and cooking styles. People observing kosher diets can easily find kosher food in suburbs in Sydney and Melbourne that have a high amount of Jews eg. Caulfield in Melbourne, Bondi in Sydney. In other cities it is very hard to find kosher food, and the little kosher food there is, is usually imported from Melbourne or Sydney, so it is very overpriced.

Outside the capital cities, it will be much more difficult to find food prepared in a strict religious manner. All of the capital cities and many regional towns in Australia host a "farmer's market", which is generally held each week in a designated area on a Saturday or Sunday. These markets mostly sell fresh fruits and vegetables, as hygiene standards in Australia forbid the selling of meat directly from market stalls.

Butchers who set up shop at a farmer's market would usually trade their wares from a display cabinet within their truck. The attraction of markets is the lower prices and freshness of the produce.

The attraction for the traveller will be the cheap and excellent fruits on offer - depending on the region and season. In regional areas the market is usually held outside the town itself in an empty paddock or sports field, markets in capital cities are easier to reach but the prices are typically more in line with those you would find in supermarkets.

See the destination guides for details. Drinking beer is ingrained in Australian culture. Although Fosters is promoted as an Australian beer overseas, it is rarely consumed by Australians in Australia, and is almost impossible to find.

Beers are strongly regional and every state has its own brews: There are also local microbrew choices, which can be harder to find, but are often worth seeking out. A wide range of imported European and American bottled beers are available in all but the most basic pub. Light Lite beer refers to lower alcoholic content, and not lower calories.

It has around half the alcohol of full strength beer, and is taxed at a lower rate, meaning it is also cheaper than full strength beer. Because Australians like their beer to stay cold while they drink it, draft beer glasses come in a multitude of sizes, so that you can drink a whole glass before it warms up in the summer heat. The naming of beer glasses varies widely from state to state, often in confusing ways: The local beers and the local descriptions are covered in detail in the state guides.

Bottle naming is a little easier: Cans of beer are known as tinnies and 24 of them make up a slab , box , carton , or a case. Australia produces quality wine on a truly industrial scale, with large multinational brands supplying Australian bottleshops and exporting around the world.

There are also a multitude of boutique wineries and smaller suppliers. The areas of the Barossa Valley , Hunter Valley , McLaren Vale , Clare Valley and Margaret River are particularly renowned for their wineries and opportunities for cellar door sampling, but northern Victoria and Mudgee , also have a large variety. You are never too far from a wine trail anywhere in southern Australia.

Try the local wines wherever you can find them, and ask for local recommendations. Try not to get taken in by the label, or the price tag. The best wine is rarely the one with the best artwork, or the most expensive price. However, it is probably wise to avoid the house wine if it comes straight from a cask 4-litre container. If you still prefer overseas wines, the Marlborough region of New Zealand is usually well represented on wine lists and in bottle shops in Australia.

See also Grape grazing in Australia. Bundaberg Rum Bundy is an Australian dark rum particularly popular in Queensland and many Queenslanders will not touch any other brand of rum, while many other Australians will not touch Bundy. It is probably the most famous Australian made spirit, mass produced in Bundaberg and available everywhere. You will have to search much harder to find other Australian distilled spirits, mostly from niche players, but there are distilleries in every state of Australia if you look hard enough.

Drop into the Lark Distillery on the scenic Hobart waterfront precinct. Mixed drinks are also available, particularly vodka, scotch, bourbon and other whiskey mixers. Jim Beam bourbon is probably the most commonly drunk, so those from Kentucky should feel right at home. Spirits are also available as pre-mixed bottles and cans but are subject to higher taxation in this form, so it is cheaper to mix them yourself. Spirits are served in all pubs and bars, but not in all restaurants.

The legal drinking age throughout Australia is 18 years. It is illegal to purchase alcohol for yourself if you are under 18 years of age. It is illegal to purchase alcohol on behalf of someone who is under 18 years of age. The only legally acceptable proof-of-age is an Australian drivers licence, state-issued proof-of-age card or a passport, and it would be wise to carry one if you want to purchase alcohol or tobacco and look under It is illegal to go into a gambling area of a pub or club when under Often there is a lounge, restaurant or bistro area in a pub or club that permits under-age people provided they are accompanied by a responsible adult over 18 and don't approach the bar or wander around.

Some city pubs even have video games and playgrounds for children. Some country pubs have large open areas out in the back where kids can run and play.

In general, you can take alcohol say a bottle of wine or beer to consume at a park or beach. However, in the state of Queensland public consumption of Alcohol is illegal. Alcohol consumption is banned in some public places as 'street drinking'.

These are often indicated by signs and is particularly the case in parks and footpaths where public drunkenness has been a problem. However, if you are a family with your picnic basket and blanket out at lunchtime with a bottle of wine, you are unlikely to encounter any problems. Alcohol can be purchased for consumption on premises only in licensed venues: You can purchase alcohol for private consumption in bottle shops , which are separate stores selling bottled alcohol.

In some but not all states you can buy alcohol in supermarkets. In those states where you can't, bottle shops and major supermarkets are often found in very close proximity. Outside of these hours though, it is almost impossible to buy alcohol to take home; so if you're planning on a party at home, it's a good idea to stock up and check on the local trading hours so you don't run out at In the state of New South Wales, takeaway alcohol cannot be sold after 10pm.

Alcohol is not available at petrol stations or hour convenience stores anywhere in Australia. Public drunkenness varies in acceptability. You will certainly find a great deal of it in close proximity to pubs and clubs at night time but much less so during the day. Public drunkenness is an offence but you would only likely ever be picked up by the police if you were causing a nuisance. You may spend the night sobering up in a holding cell or be charged.

Driving while affected by alcohol is both stigmatized and policed by random breath testing police patrols in Australia, as well as being inherently dangerous. Drink driving is a very serious offence in Australia, punishable by a range of mechanisms including loss of license. The acceptable maximum blood alcohol concentration is 0. Police officers are also empowered to randomly test drivers for the recent use of prohibited drugs.

The operation of a motor vehicle while under the influence of prohibited drugs or alcohol will always result in arrest and a required court appearance many weeks from the date of arrest and it can comprehensively disrupt travel plans. Random breath testing is common early Saturday and Sunday mornings, and many people are caught the morning after. Buying a round of drinks is a custom in Australia, as in many corners of the world.

It is generally expected in a pub that when you arrive and make your first trip to the bar that you will offer to buy a drink for others you are drinking with. This is what's known as a 'shout'. In entering a shout you are expected to take turns buying drinks for everyone in your shout when it is your turn.

It is considered poor etiquette to drink something much more expensive that what others in the shout are drinking. If you cannot keep pace during a shout you are still expected to buy a round of drinks when it is your turn and as such it is advisable to drink with people who pace themselves at a similar rate.

If someone from outside the shout offers to buy you a drink politely decline and let them know you are already in a shout. Likewise if someone buys you a drink don't be surprised if they expect one from you later on in the evening as it's now your shout.

If you don't want to join a shout, or would like to drop out of one this can be awkward in some groups, however if you provide a viable reason such as having to drive or being on medication people will normally respect this explanation. It is considered very poor etiquette to leave before your shout. If you are intending to study in Australia, you may need to be on a visa class that allows this, rather than a tourist visa.

Students and academics invited to visit Australian universities will generally also need an appropriate visa, even if their visit is of a short enough period to be covered by a tourist electronic visa. For extremely short term or part time courses, check with your Australian consulate or embassy. Australian students attend high school for six years, and enter university at seventeen or eighteen years of age.

In Australia, neither "school" nor "college" are used to refer to tertiary institutions; they are referred to only as "universities" - in fact, some primary and secondary educational institutions are referred to as 'colleges'. Australian undergraduate programs are usually three to four years in length.

A fifth year is compulsory in some professional undergraduate programs such as engineering, law, medicine and dentistry. Students in three-year degree programs can take an optional fourth year known as honours if they want to proceed into a postgraduate research program, whereas students enrolled in four year programs can typically incorporate their honours thesis into their fourth year.

All tuition at university level is in English , save for courses that specifically focus on other languages. Students who have not previously earned a qualification in an English speaking program or passed high school English will have to take one of a number of English competency tests before being allowed to enrol. Postgraduate studies in Australia fall into two classes: Coursework degrees are generally at the Masters level. Research degrees are at the Masters and Doctoral level.

There are 42 Universities in Australia that all compete vigorously for overseas students. All have administrative departments and sections on their websites which describe the courses available to overseas students, and they will help you to apply and obtain accommodation and transport.

Applications for university courses and the appropriate visa will need to be lodged before coming to Australia. Courses range from single year diplomas to full length undergraduate and post-graduate degrees.

There is a choice of the sandstone universities, with their history and prestige, modern city universities with their vocational programs, and regional country town universities, with open space and cheaper accommodation. Undergraduate admission to university is centralised at the state level.

You make a single application for admission to the state admissions body stating your course preferences. The universities select students from this common applicant pool based upon their ranking and preferences. Unless you are applying for a creative arts degree, your ranking will be based solely on previous academic performance at both high school and previous university studies. Postgraduate admission is managed by individual universities and you will need to apply separately to each institution you are considering.

The full fees payable by overseas students are competitive compared to many Western universities. Australian citizens have the option of substantially reduced fees and also have the option of deferring payment until they are earning income.

Other students will generally be required to pay full tuition on enrolment each semester. Scholarships are rarely awarded for undergraduate or postgraduate coursework degrees. A comparatively large number of scholarships are available for postgraduate research usually covering both tuition, where required, and living costs. These are awarded by individual universities. Accommodation is readily available in most Australian cities and tourist destinations.

It comes in a number of different styles. Camping is a popular pastime. Most caravan parks will rent camping sites by the night, where you can pitch a tent, and these are available in most towns and cities. The caravan park will provide showers and toilets, and sometimes washing and cooking facilities.

Sometimes for an additional fee. You can even find caravan parks right on the beach, with lagoon swimming pools and playgrounds all free for guests. National parks often provide free camping sites, which expect you to be more self-sufficient. Often toilets are provided and sometimes cold showers. Camping permits are sometimes required at popular parks, with some popular spots filling up during the holidays in summer.

In Australia it is common to be within an hours drive of a national park or recreation area that will permit some form of camping, even in the capital cities. Wilsons Promontory National Park, Kosciuszko National Park, etc , however entry and camping is free in the majority of national parks further from population and tourist centres. Some other camping areas are run by government or even local landowners. You can try your luck sleeping on a beach or pitching a tent overnight in a highway rest area, or out in the bush for a free bed.

Most rest areas and beaches prohibit camping and many even prohibit overnight parking to discourage this. Generally the closer you are to civilisation or a tourist area, the greater the chance of being hassled by the authorities. Camping in state forests is often preferable to national parks if you're after a camping experience over sightseeing, as collecting of your own fire wood is allowed sometimes felling of trees is permissible dependent on the area and camping is not restricted to camp sites.

Some other activities that are generally allowed in state forests that are not allowed in national parks are: State forests are generally free to stay in, although you will need to check locally if public access is allowed. Facilities usually include a fully equipped kitchen with adequate refrigeration and food storage areas. Most hostels also have living room areas equipped with couches, dining tables, and televisions.

There are several backpacker hostel chains in Australia. If you are staying many nights in the same brand of hostel, consider their discount cards, which usually offer a loyalty bonus on accommodation, and other attraction and tour discounts negotiated by the chain. Some of these traditional hotels still offer some form of accommodation. It can vary from very basic shabby rooms, to newly renovated boutique accommodation.

The price is usually a good reflection of what you are in for. It is still quite unusual to have a private bathroom, even in the nicer hotels.

Unlike motels, traditional hotels usually charge a discounted rate for single rooms. In some smaller towns this might be the only type of accommodation available, though it is also available in the centre of Sydney making getting back to your room after a beer a simple endeavour.

Many of the older pubs in country towns are housed in grande and ornate buildings on the main street of the town and can present a unique accommodation option. Inner city areas of Australian cities are dotted with many old pubs which will often be smaller and less interesting, and less likely to provide accommodation. A motel won't generally have a public bar. Typically, motel-style accommodation will have a private room with a bed or number of beds, and a private shower and toilet.

Many motels have family rooms, that will usually have a double bed and two single beds in the one room. Usually the cost is the same for one or two adults, with any extra people charged an additional fee. During quiet times its not unusual for motels to offer standby discounts. Most motels will serve a cooked or continental breakfast to your room in the morning, for an additional charge.

Some may have a restaurant or serve an evening meal. Some may have a toaster in the room. All state capitals have at least one major hotel at 5 star standard, with several available in the major capitals. All hotels have a restaurant or bistro, depending on the type of hotel you are staying in.

The restaurant or bistro often serves food that is comparable to many other up-market restaurants outside the hotel. Also on the ground floor would normally be a fully equipped bar. Cabins are an economical way for families to stay while travelling.

Much as the name suggests, this usually involves a cabin or homestead accommodation on a working property. Suited for a stay of two or more days, this accommodation usually allows you to get a little involved in the running of the farm if you wish. It is common for dinner to be provided in the homestead, and a breakfast pack to be provided to your cabin.

Holiday homes are homes rented by their owners, often using local real estate agents or specialised web sites. Sometimes they're located in prime positions, but more often in the suburbs of cities and towns.

Minimum rental periods of at least 2 days usually apply, rising to a week during periods when they are busy. At a minimum, they will have bedrooms, a lounge, bathroom and kitchen. Bed and Breakfasts tend to be a premium form of accommodation in Australia, often focussed on weekend accommodation for couples.

They certainly don't offer the discount form of accommmodation they do in part of the United Kingdom , and the local motel will usually be cheaper. Sometimes extra rooms in a person's home, but often a purpose built building.

You should expect a cosy, well kept room, a common area, and a cooked breakfast. Substantial discounts often apply for mid-week stays at bed and breakfasts. There are many true resorts around Australia. Many have lagoon pools, tennis, golf, kids clubs, and other arranged activities.

The island of the Whitsundays have a choice of resorts, some occupying entire islands. Port Douglas also has many resorts of a world standard. Serviced apartments are widely available, for stays as short as one night. Amenities typically include kitchen, washer and dryer, and separate bedrooms. Caravan parks exist in most towns and cities in Australia that will provide powered and unpowered sites for Caravans.

You will commonly see the Grey Nomad brigade on their trips around Australia in motorhomes and caravans. The camper trailer has also become very popular in Australia.

It is perfect for the Australian camping lifestyle, whether it be weekends away or an extended trip into the great outdoors where no facilities exist. You will need to be self-sufficient and carry suitable spares and a good tool kit.

In most parts of Australia it is illegal to sleep in your vehicle but it is possible to get around this by simply rigging up curtains all around the windows so no one can see in from the outside.

Add a mattress, pillow, portable gas cooker, cookware and a 20 lt water container and you are off. But if you are strategic in where you stay you probably won't get caught. Just be sensible and don't disturb the locals. Also, be aware of parking restrictions in certain parts of the cities and town, including overnight parking restrictions. All cities and towns in Australia have free public toilets.

Many parks, and most beaches have free electric BBQ's as well. Popular beaches have fresh water showers to wash the salt water off after you swim, so for those on a tight budget or for those that just love waking up at the beach simply wash in the ocean please do not pollute the ocean or waterways by using detergents or soaps and rinse off at the showers.

Almost all taps in Australia are drinking water, the ones that aren't will be marked. Some of the best experiences you may have in Australia will be by taking that road on the map that looks like it heads to a beach, creek, waterfall or mountain and following it. You may just find paradise and not another soul in sight. And lucky you, you've got a bed, food and water right there with you.

Travelling in a small group lowers the fuel bill per head, as this will likely be your biggest expense. Australian citizens, New Zealand citizens and permanent residents of Australia can work in Australia without any further permits, but others will require a work visa. All visitors who do not hold Australian permanent residency or citizenship including New Zealand citizens who aren't also Australian permanent residents or citizens are not allowed to access Australian social security arrangements for the unemployed, and will have limited, or more usually, no access to the Australian government's health care payment arrangements.

Minimum wage rates are under the jurisdiction of the federal government; there are other minimum wages depending on your job, years of experience, how much education you have, how long you've been done with your education and your previous job history, so this minimum wage can fluctuate a vast amount. Most Australian employers pay via direct deposit to Australian bank accounts. Open a bank account as soon as you arrive.

Your passport will not be enough ID to open a bank account. You will need to show the bank teller points of ID [22]. You can apply for it online though, only in Australia for free at the Australian Tax Office website [23] , though you can generally get it quicker if you just go to one of their offices.

The Australian financial year runs from July 1 to June 30, and tax returns for each financial year are due on October 30, four months after the accounting period concludes. Check with Australian tax agents about Australian tax liability and filing an Australian tax return. Australian employers will make compulsory payments out of your earnings to an Australian superannuation retirement savings fund on your behalf.

Temporary visitors who are not citizens of either Australia or New Zealand can have this money returned to them [24] when they leave Australia. Australia has a working holidaymaker program for yr old citizens of certain countries. It allows a stay in Australia for 12 months from the time of first entry. You may work during that time, but only for 6 months at any one employer. The idea is for you to take a holiday subsidised by casual or short-term jobs.

If you're interested in a working holiday, some useful skills and experience might be: An alternative is seasonal work like fruit-picking, although much seasonal work will require that you work outside the major cities. Working for 3 months in seasonal work will allow you to apply for a second 12 month visa.

You can apply online for a working holiday visa , but you must not be in Australia at the time. On arriving in Australia ask for the working holiday visa to be "evidenced", so you can show your future employer. The easiest way to get a work visa is to find an Australian employer who will sponsor you.

If Labor backs the community campaign to remove poker machines from pubs and clubs it would be the first major party in the country to take that position and it would likely become an election issue when the state heads to the polls in March. The Tasmanian Hospitality Association has committed to campaign against Labor if it calls for a roll back, warning that it could lead to job losses.

Once the pokies are gone, who knows, the TAB could go, something else could go — Keno could go and then the pub's gone. A town needs a hotel," Mr Whitney said. But not all hotels agree — several Tasmanian pubs that don't have poker machines have joined the calls for a roll back. The Australia Institute commissioned the ReachTell Poll of more than people in the electorate of Franklin this month on the issue of poker machines.

The polling showed 40 per cent of people wanted to see poker machines removed, while a further 41 per cent wanted a reduction in the number of machines. The Government did acknowledge that problem gambling was an issue for some people but said it would be introducing a public interest test for new venues requesting poker machines. First posted September 26, More stories from Tasmania. If you have inside knowledge of a topic in the news, contact the ABC.

ABC teams share the story behind the story and insights into the making of digital, TV and radio content. Read about our editorial guiding principles and the enforceable standard our journalists follow. By medical reporter Sophie Scott. Vladimir Putin has created a state in which he controls the message. And that message is that the West is the bad guy. Justin Gatlin may have passed every test since serving a drugs ban but he only has himself to blame for being dragged into a fresh doping scandal involving his now former coach.

Reels, Lighted

This book will make the perfect gift for anyone with links to Hobart, and includes some stunning scenic photography interspersed with recipes from Hobart's key restaurants and vineyards. This highly anticipated and comprehensive guide is now released in its second edition, covering Tasmania's Mountains over metres high. This brand new, large format coffee table book presents an innovative and dramatic view of Tasmania, and captures its freshness, wildness, and beauty.

David Walsh - the creator of Mona in Hobart - is both a giant and an enigma in the Australian art world. A multi-millionaire who made his money gambling, David has turned a wild vision into a unique reality; he is in turns controversial, mysterious and idolised. A Bone of Fact is his utterly unconventional and absorbing memoir. Pufferfish - aka Detective Inspector Franz Heineken - remains haunted by his failure to apprehend the killer of a young Hobart woman.

Across the wilds of Tasmania, from the majestic Central Plateau to remote Arthur River and using his intimate knowledge of the the island's people, Pufferfish aims himself at the increasingly dangerous mystery of Romeo's gun, and at the evil predator stalking his patch. After a much anticipated wait, bestselling author Andrew Wilson has finally completed his second book in the Old Sea Dogs of Tasmania. Captured in glorious black and white and for the first time, colour photography, Old Sea Dogs of Tasmania 2 is a striking and beautiful book that includes 5 fold-out sections.

Locomotive Enginemen of Tasmania is a tribute to the men at the coal face of Tasmania's railways, whose fascinating stories paint a vivid picture of days long gone, from a time when the 'iron roads' were crucial to the fortunes of the state.

Stories from nine Tasmanian enginemen, who worked all manner of trains throughout the state from the s to the s are featured in this pictorial book. A wonderful addition to the library for the train enthusiast. The Field of Dreams is the first book ever written about Mt. The book is a series of essays describing journeys on foot into this exceptional national park. They delve deeply into the personal and universal connection with natural places.

The 29th of August marks the centenary of the proclamation of Tasmania's oldest national park and this book celebrates this historic occasion. At least thirty-seven per cent of male convicts and fifteen per cent of female convicts were tattooed by the time they arrived in the penal colonies, making Australians quite possibly the world's most heavily tattooed English-speaking people of the nineteenth century.

Each convict's details, including their tattoos, were recorded when they disembarked, providing an extensive physical account of Australia's convict men and women. This book reveals a rich pictorial history. Simon Barnard was born and raised in Launceston, and spent a lot of time in the bush as a boy, which led to an interest in Tasmanian history.

He is a writer, illustrator and collector of colonial artifacts. Speculation by an ever-growing band of Tasmanian tiger devotees that the thylacine still exists has not wavered, despite the dogmatic stance by the scientific fraternity that the animal is extinct. This collection of actual accounts and anecdotal yarns originated from discussions the author had with an old Tasmanian tiger trapper, Reg Trigg, who in the early days of the twentieth century established a mutual friendship with Lucy, a tiger he rescued from a trap.

Covering a century and a half during which this animal's status has changed from being a despised sheep killer to a magnificent survivor, these enthralling stories are for both the curious and the enthusiast. A collection of wonderful stories, yarns and tales by Australia's pre-eminent tiger enthusiast. The Last Wild Trout is an entertaining and intrepid adventure seeking out the last truly wild trout fisheries around the world.

With the deft touch of an expert fisher, Greg beautifully balances the scientific with the personal, the practical with reverie, and the conservation with travel narrative. Sixteen-year-old Stephanie West has been dragged from Sydney to remote Maatsuyker Island off the coast of Tasmania by her parents, hoping to come to terms with their grief over the death of Steph's twin brother.

Cut off from friends and the comforts of home, Steph's saviour is Tom Forrest, a year-old deckhand aboard a crayfishing boat. When the weather allows, Tom visits the island, and he and Steph soon form an attraction.

Wildlight is an exquisite, vividly detailed exploration of the wayward journey of adolescence, and how the intense experience of a place can change the course of even the most well-planned life. This comprehensive field guide combines information to aid the identification of birds found in Tasmania with photographs of each species in its natural habitat. Bird entries are organized into six groups: In Maria Riseley was single, poor, pregnant and working in a female factory.

Then Edward Lord arrives. A lieutenant in the marines, he was posted to a tiny settlement called Hobart Town, where women are scarce.

So he has come to Sydney, a much more promising field. This is a story not just about two people from different social classes making their way in a new society; Alison uses their story to shine a light on early government in Van Diemen's Land, exposing the corruption and skullduggery that went on at all levels of administration, from the top down. An account of the pioneering role played by the Parsons brothers of Caveside in the opening up of the Chudleigh Lakes area of Tasmania's Great Western Tiers to the world of fishing, tourism and adventure.

Beyond The Sandstone tells a variety of stories about local people from the Highlands and Lowlands in the late s and mids. Award-winning cartoonist Jon Kudelka shares his sketchy love letter to Australia's southernmost capital city with a series of watercolours from the heart.

Musquito was an aborigine who was active in the resistance to white settlement in NSW and was exiled to Norfolk Island in This book explores the legend of this remarkable resistance warrior. The history of Aborigines in Van Diemen's Land is long. The first Tasmanians lived in isolation for as many as generations after the flooding of Bass Strait. Their struggle against almost insurmountable odds is one worthy of respect and admiration, not to mention serious attention.

This broad-ranging book is a comprehensive and critical account of that epic survival up to the present day. Starting from antiquity, the book examines the devastating arrival of Europeans and subsequent colonisation, warfare and exile. It emphasises the regionalism and separateness, a consistent feature of Aboriginal life since time immemorial that has led to the distinct identities we see in the present, including the unique place of the islanders of Bass Strait.

Carefully researched, using the findings of archaeologists and extensive documentary evidence, some only recently uncovered, this important book fills a long-time gap in Tasmanian history. The inside story of Australia's most exciting museum. MONA has shaken up the art world by breathing life and delight back into the museum experience and is now hailed as the most important addition to the Australian cultural landscape since the opening of the Sydney Opera House.

And how on earth did an amateur private collector manage to set up one of the world's great art destinations on the edge of a remote island city?

This is the inside story of how MONA came to be. Describes 40 walking areas around Tasmania with a total of 98 walk variations. For each walking area, one walk is described in detail and a series of variations based on the main walk are also given if appropriate. The book is a full colour production with colour topographic maps and includes a 6 page Walk Index designed to assist with selecting a walk.

This book reflects on the simple things, the moments that are meaningful, and the big questions that have concerned Bob Brown and inspired him to achieve. It is a powerful book as well as a meditation on the great and the small. Inspirational, compassionate, outraged, Bob Brown's stories are rich with metaphor, entertaining and full of warmth.

A great promoter of activism he is keen for all to experience life as richly as he has. Although he has seen much of the world through the prism of politics he still believes that there is reason to believe that the changes he has pursued can be made and will be for the better. His stories reveal a complex man with a quick wit and a joy for life.

Between and close to Britons and Aborigines died violently in Tasmania's Black War. It was by far the most intense frontier conflict in Australia's history, yet many Australians know little about it. The Black War takes a unique approach to this historic event, looking chiefly at the experiences and attitudes of those who took part in the conflict.

By contrasting the perspectives of colonists and Aborigines, Nicholas Clements takes a deeply human look at the events that led to the shocking violence and tragedy of the war, detailing raw personal accounts that shed light on the tribes, families and individuals involved as they struggled to survive in their turbulent world.

A novel of the cruelty of war, the tenuousness of life, and the impossibility of love. August, , in the despair of a Japanese POW camp on the Thai-Burma death railway, Australian surgeon Dorrigo Evans is haunted by his love affair with his uncle's young wife two years earlier. Struggling to save the men under his command from starvation, cholera, and beatings, he receives a letter that will change his life forever. This savagely beautiful novel is a story about the many forms of love and death, of war and truth, as one man comes of age, prospers, only to discover all that he has lost.

As an island colony and later state of the Commonwealth of Australia, Tasmania has always been fundamentally dependent on shipping services to connect it with the outside world. However, lying in the path of the winds known as the 'Roaring Forties', the waters around Tasmania have proved treacherous to mariners.

Since the wreck of the Sydney Cove in , over vessels of all sizes are known to have been lost in Tasmanian waters. Studies carried out by the authors have gathered a wealth of material on these shipwrecks. Based on original documents, Tasmanian Shipwrecks: Volume1 is a comprehensive account of the circumstances of these losses up until the end of the 19th century.

In the early 19th century crofters and villagers streamed into the burgeoning cities of Scotland. Orphan girls, single mothers, women with feckless husbands and widows all struggled to feed and clothe themselves, and were left with few options other than theft and prostitution.

Anxious to quell the rising tide of petty crime, the Scottish authorities imposed harsh sentences, consigning these women - and often their children too - for transportation to the Australian colonies.

Lucy Frost tells the stories of the lives of a boatload of women and their children who arrived in Hobart in While convict men of that period worked in road gangs, the women were assigned as domestic servants, seamstresses or to work in dairies, and were often ill-treated by their employers.

Some managed to snare a good husband once they'd earned their tickets of leave, and became solid citizens. For others errors and disasters continued to plague their lives in the colony. As I Was Saying is a swirling conversation with the reader on everything from travel to dogs and cats, from sport and swearing to the pleasures of idleness. Punctuated at regular intervals by talks Dessaix has given on a wide range of subjects, as well as by some of his most incisive journalism, the conversation invites the reader to join a leisurely guided tour of his chamber of curiosities, featuring pieces collected all over the globe from across the centuries.

Winner of the Vogel Literary Award, Rohan Wilson's novel is a surprisingly beautiful evocation of horror and brutality: The roving party consists of Batman, ruthless, single-minded; four convicts, the youngest still only a stripling; Gould, a downtrodden farmhand; two free black trackers; and powerful, educated Black Bill, brought up from childhood as a white man. Their purpose is massacre, and with promises of freedom, land grants and money, each is willing to risk his life for the prize.

In Lake Pedder in Tasmania's untamed south-west was flooded to build a dam. Labor leader Rebecca White said: Under a monopoly licence all poker machines in Tasmania are operated by one company, the Federal Group , which is wholly owned by the Sydney-based Farrell family. Ms White said Labor would "give notice to Federal Hotels that the current deed allowing poker machines in venues other than casinos will not be extended beyond ".

Labor had been under significant pressure to release its poker machine policy , after a number of MPs indicated the party was leaning towards watering down its position. Anglicare Tasmania welcomed Labor's announcement and said it was "pleased politicians were catching up with community sentiment".

Ms Webb said "the opportunity is still there for the Liberal Government to reconsider its policy". Labor's gambling policy stands at odds with the Government, which has said it wants to open up to tender the rights to operate EGMs outside the casino environment after , with a reduction of machines across the state. In September, a joint parliamentary committee decided against recommending a ban on electronic gaming machines EGMs in Tasmanian pubs and clubs, but urged a "significant" reduction in machine numbers.

First posted December 13, More stories from Tasmania. If you have inside knowledge of a topic in the news, contact the ABC. ABC teams share the story behind the story and insights into the making of digital, TV and radio content. Read about our editorial guiding principles and the enforceable standard our journalists follow.

By medical reporter Sophie Scott. Vladimir Putin has created a state in which he controls the message. And that message is that the West is the bad guy. Justin Gatlin may have passed every test since serving a drugs ban but he only has himself to blame for being dragged into a fresh doping scandal involving his now former coach.

Only one company in Tasmania holds a licence to run casinos and poker machines. Tasmanian Labor's gamble on pokie policy could win big, or break the bank. Labor's poker face on gambling policy set to be tested. How pokies hijack your brain until you don't even care about winning.

Pokies ban an election policy option for Tasmanian Labor. How Federal Hotels monopolised pokies in Tasmania. Rebecca White says Labor would end Federal Group's monopoly ownership of poker machines.

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Pokies, politics and profits How the Farrell family's Federal Group gained an exclusive licence to operate all of Tasmania's poker machines - for free. Need help or support? The Australia Institute has conducted polling on poker machines in the seat of Franklin. Grieving family pleads for more testing of elderly drivers Chinese embassy issues safety warning for nationals in Australia EU says Brexit transition to end December Commonwealth Bank accused of misleading Privacy Commissioner EU court rules Uber be regulated like taxis Wombinoo Station owner vows to defend land clearing allegations 'You'll end up like Shirley Finn': Brothel madam tells of alleged police threat US Senate approves deeply unpopular tax cut bill in midnight vote Analysis: How your computer may be making money for someone else Inside the US military base ready to 'fight tonight' and invade North Korea.

Connect with ABC News. Got a news tip? Editorial Policies Read about our editorial guiding principles and the enforceable standard our journalists follow. Lady Flo's pumpkin scone recipe Lady Florence Bjelke-Petersen leaves a legacy that includes her famous pumpkin scones. Have self-compassion this season By medical reporter Sophie Scott After everything you've done this year, look back and have a little compassion for yourself.

Why Russia and the West can't get along Vladimir Putin has created a state in which he controls the message. Doping stench hard for Gatlin to shake Justin Gatlin may have passed every test since serving a drugs ban but he only has himself to blame for being dragged into a fresh doping scandal involving his now former coach.

Brothel madam tells of alleged police threat. Just In Bored of the beach? Brothel madam tells of alleged police threat How to make Lady Flo's pumpkin scones North Korean hackers are raiding bitcoin exchanges, analysts say Missing red light camera puts the brakes on ACT revenue. Most Popular 'I have nothing': Grieving family pleads for more testing of elderly drivers Chinese embassy issues safety warning for nationals in Australia EU says Brexit transition to end December Commonwealth Bank accused of misleading Privacy Commissioner EU court rules Uber be regulated like taxis Wombinoo Station owner vows to defend land clearing allegations 'You'll end up like Shirley Finn': Brothel madam tells of alleged police threat US Senate approves deeply unpopular tax cut bill in midnight vote Analysis: How your computer may be making money for someone else Inside the US military base ready to 'fight tonight' and invade North Korea.

Connect with ABC News. Got a news tip? Editorial Policies Read about our editorial guiding principles and the enforceable standard our journalists follow. Lady Flo's pumpkin scone recipe Lady Florence Bjelke-Petersen leaves a legacy that includes her famous pumpkin scones.

Have self-compassion this season By medical reporter Sophie Scott After everything you've done this year, look back and have a little compassion for yourself. Why Russia and the West can't get along Vladimir Putin has created a state in which he controls the message. Doping stench hard for Gatlin to shake Justin Gatlin may have passed every test since serving a drugs ban but he only has himself to blame for being dragged into a fresh doping scandal involving his now former coach.

Brothel madam tells of alleged police threat. Just In Bored of the beach? Try swimming with a shark instead Violent and sexually 'defective': Brothel madam tells of alleged police threat How to make Lady Flo's pumpkin scones North Korean hackers are raiding bitcoin exchanges, analysts say. Most Popular 'I have nothing': Grieving family pleads for more testing of elderly drivers 'Compelling evidence' suggests aliens may have reached Earth Federation Square building to be demolished for Apple store photos Melbourne Airbnb 'trashed by gang', neighbourhood left in a mess The long and storied history of the insult 'cuckold' Defeat and disillusionment sink in for Islamic State's foreign converts Vandals use hammer to damage million-year-old dinosaur footprint SA Health ignored warnings before patient died driving himself to hospital The tech threat sitting under your Christmas tree photos More skeletal remains found in car of missing woman submerged in lake.

A visit to Australia would not be complete without taking the chance to see some of these animals in their natural environment. Australia has many landmarks, famous the world over. See some of the Big things in Australia.

Sport is an integral part of the Australian culture from the capital cities to country towns. The majority of games are played over the weekend period from Friday night to Monday night.

It has been said that if there are two flies crawling up a wall, then you just need to look around to find the Aussie who will be running a book. Gambling is illegal for under's. This can often restrict entry to parts of pubs, clubs, and casinos for children. Expect everyone you interact with in Australia to be able to speak English, whether it is their first language or not. Locals and more recent arrivals of all ages and backgrounds are expected to and usually do speak at least basic English, as well as the majority of tourists.

As Australia is a multicultural society, you will notice the presence of many other languages and accents. Australians who were born in Australia or immigrated as children will speak English with the Australian accent. Australians who immigrated to Australia as adults generally will not have the Australian accent. The Australian accent has very little if not any geographic variation; although Australians sometimes have their own theories about geographical accents; for example Adelaide, Melbourne and North Queensland "accents".

In reality however, the Broad, General and Cultivated Australian accents which linguists accept all exist, can be found anywhere in Australia. Anywhere in the country you will find some people speak slower with broader accents and use more slang; often associated with regional areas, whilst many more Australians will have the General Australian accent; often associated with major urban areas, or the less common Cultivated accent: Australia is traditionally a land of immigrants, plus there are many people from all over the world working or studying in Australia, plus many tourists from overaeas.

Because of this, Australians are very used to speaking with others whos first language is not English or who are not used to hearing the Australian accent. They will speak slower and clearer with you and avoid any local vocabulary. It is also worth noting many Australians of non-English speaking family backgrounds will generally always prefer to speak English with people outside their family. Even if they speak your language fluently at home or grew up with that language inside their home they will often pretend they cannot speak it with a visitor from that country.

Australian slang should not present a problem for tourists except possibly in some isolated outback areas. A few words and euphemisms that are considered offensive elsewhere are common vernacular in Australian speech. Fanny, as in the UK, means vagina and is not used widely. The word "thong" generally refers to flip-flops in Australia, and not necessarily a G-string as it does in most other places.

Still, Australians are familiar enough with the differences to know what you mean, but they may still have a laugh at your expense. Visitors who do not speak basic English will find communicating with Australians difficult, and should do some advance planning.

There are some tour companies who specialise in offering package deals for Australian tours complete with guides who speak particular languages. There are over a hundred Aboriginal languages still known and spoken by Aboriginal people.

These languages are all different, and you won't see an Aboriginal phrasebook in the travel bookshops. Many Aboriginal place names derive from Aboriginal languages that have been lost, and their meanings remain uncertain.

Aboriginal people living in rural Aboriginal communities continue to speak their respective languages. The Torres Strait Islander people, who originate from a group of islands in northern Queensland near Papua New Guinea also continue to speak their own languages. Almost all Aboriginal people speak English as well, although some elders may not be fluent.

When interpreters are present for public events, they will use Auslan. Users of BSL or NZSL may be able to understand Auslan; the languages share a significant amount of vocabulary and syntax, plus the same two-handed manual alphabet. Much of the vocabulary and syntax are different, and those languages use a one-handed manual alphabet.

There are cents in every dollar. No other currency is officially accepted for transactions in Australia. Although it was not unusual to find some of the older New Zealand coins in your change from time to time, it is now practically unheard of since New Zealand completely overhauled and resized its coinage.

It no longer matches the size of Australian coins. The Australian coins are large and heavy relative to their value. For example, the Australian ten cent coin is the size of a US 25 cent coin and the Australian fifty cent coin is among the largest circulating coins anywhere in the world by size.

Australian notes are produced in plastic polymer rather than paper. If the total of a transaction is not a multiple of 5 cents the amount will be rounded to the nearest five cents if you are paying in cash. The exact amount will be charged if paying by card. Old paper notes or bronze 1c and 2c coins will be exchanged at a bank but will be difficult at shops.

The dollar is not pegged to any other currency, and is highly traded on world foreign exchange markets, particularly by currency speculators. Money changers in Australia operate in a free market, and charge a range of flat commissions, percentage fees, undisclosed fees built into the exchange rate, and a combination of all three.

Generally the best bet is to avoid airports and tourist centres when changing money, and use banks in major centres. Expect fees to vary considerably between institutions. Always get a quote before changing money.

Australian ATMs are deregulated and may impose a surcharge over what is charged by your bank or card issuer. The ATM will display the charges and you will have the option to stop the transaction before you are charged.

Check with your bank as to what additional fees they apply to withdrawals in Australia. Dedicated currency exchange outlets are widely available in major cities, and banks can also exchange most non-restricted currencies. Australian banks usually offer an exchange rate around 2. Some outlets advertise commission free exchange, usually accompanied by a worse rate of exchange.

Don't assume every bank will offer the same exchange. A simple calculation will let you know what offers the best deal for amount you wish to exchange. There are vouchers for commission free exchange at American Express available in the tourist brochure at Sydney Airport. Credit cards are widely accepted in Australia.

Almost all large vendors such as supermarkets accept cards, as do many, but not all, small stores. Any card showing the Cirrus or Maestro logos can be used at any terminal displaying those logos.

American Express and Diners Club are accepted at major supermarket and department store chains and many tourist destinations. JCB is only accepted at very limited tourist destinations. Discover is never accepted for internet-based payments, but if your card also carries the Diners Club logo, it will work at any physical store that accepts Diners Club. The big advantage here is you can bring Australian cash acquired at home through proper exchange channels and turn it into plastic with no exchange fees and minimal service charges without need for exchanging currency at the airport or carrying large amounts of cash everywhere.

Excellent for security and you can get two cards with different numbers drawing from the same loaded money, allowing any two people to share a card on the same account.

Other prepaid Australian dollar stored value cards bearing MasterCard or Visa emblems are available at larger post offices or grocery stores. Read terms and conditions closely, some can refund unused balances but only to an Australian bank account. Others you just have to spend it all in Australia or abroad. Be careful using these cards for car hire. Agencies generally accept only cards with raised print for car hires and the name of the renter on it prepaids do not have this.

Even if you hire the car with a foreign card but settle the bill on return with a prepaid they often will not accept it, even with the other card as a backup. You will have to settle using the foreign card most of the time.

Sometimes they don't pay attention and you get away with it but don't plan on it. Credit card surcharges are imposed at all car rental agencies, travel agents, airlines, and at some discount retailers and service stations. Bottled water isn't much cheaper.

You can make yourself feel better about it by buying brands that are not available in foreign countries, such as the delicious Kirk's Dry Ginger Ale. Some American brands are not available. A train trip on the state run trains will usually cost slightly less. A bus trip, a little less again. A train trip on the private trains will be the most expensive way to travel.

There is usually no admission charge to beaches or city parks. Art Galleries and some attractions are free. Because of Australia's high wages and taxes compared to other countries such the USA, you will find prices of things involving service such as restaurants especially high by comparison. A rule of thumb is the restaurants will cost close to double what you would expect of the same thing in the USA, and that holds for beverages also.

Bargaining is uncommon in Australian stores, though vendors are usually willing to meet or beat a quote or advertised price from a competing retailer. It's also worth asking for a "best price" for high-value goods or purchases involving several items. The person you are dealing with may have limited authority to sell items at anything other than the marked price. Tipping is never compulsory and is usually not expected in Australia. Staff are seen to be paid an appropriate wage and will certainly not chase you down for a tip.

It is acceptable to pay the amount stated on the bill. When Australians do tip, it will often be in the form of leaving the change from a cash payment usually as a convenience so the change does not hang around loose on someone's person - not as a gratuity , rather than a fixed percentage.

In a cafe or more informal restaurant, even with table service, and even in tourist centres, leaving a tip is unusual.

Sometimes there is a coin jar by the cashier labelled 'Tips', but more often than not, diners do not leave one. Tipping is also not expected in taxis, and drivers will typically return your change to the last 5 cents, unless you indicate that they should round the fare to the nearest dollar it is not unusual for passengers to instruct the driver to round up to the next whole dollar.

Shops usually have a single night of late night trading, staying open until 9PM on Fridays in most cities and on Thursdays in Brisbane and Sydney. Sunday trading is common but does not exist in all rural areas. Opening hours beyond these base hours vary by the type of store, by location, and by state. See the guides for more local information. Major supermarket chains such as Coles and Woolworths and department stores like K-Mart and Target in main centres are generally open at least until 9pm.

Fast Food restaurant chains are commonly open 24 hours or at least very late. Even in cities with populations exceeding 50, finding a 24 hour petrol station can be difficult, or at least should not be assumed to be easily found.

Make sure to locate one in advance if you have an early morning flight with a rental car to return. Australia's weekend is on Saturday and Sunday of each week.

Retail trading is now almost universal in larger cities on weekends, although with slightly reduced hours. Again, Western Australia is an exception with restrictions on large stores opening on Sundays.

In smaller country towns shops are closed on Sundays and often also on Saturday afternoons. Tourist-oriented towns and shops may stay open longer hours. Tourist areas within cities, such as Darling Harbour in Sydney has longer trading hours every night. Australian banks are open Monday-Friday Cash is available through Automatic Teller Machines ATM 24 hours, and currency exchange outlets have extended hours and are open on weekends.

Australia has a sales tax known as the Goods and Services Tax or GST that applies to all goods and services except unprocessed foods, education and medical services. GST is always included in the price of any item you purchase rather than being added at the time of payment. Receipts tax invoices will contain the GST amount, which is one eleventh of the total value of taxable supplies.

Pack the items in hand luggage, and present the item s and the receipt at the TRS, after immigration and security when leaving Australia. Also allow an extra 15 minutes before departure. The refund payment can be made by either cheque, credit to an Australian bank account, or payment to a credit card. There is no refund available for services. You also cannot get a refund if you are too close to your flight departure time. A flight departure screen assists agents and they will refuse your transaction if your flight is on it.

Check for current regulations about buffer time for flights if you want a GST refund. Vegemite , a salty yeast-based spread, best spread thinly on toast. If you aren't up for buying a jar, any coffee shop will serve vegemite on toast at breakfast time. It may not even be on the menu, but the vegemite will be out the back in the jar next to the marmalade. If you do buy a jar, the secret is it to spread it very thin, and don't forget the butter as well.

It tastes similar to Marmite or Cenovis. Australians are quite used to the taste, and may spread the Vegemite very thick; but this is not recommended for first-timers.

The Tim-Tam , is a popular chocolate fudge-filled sandwich of two chocolate biscuits, all dipped in chocolate. You can buy a packet or two from any supermarket or convenience store. Tim-Tams are required to perform the Tim-Tam Slam manoeuvre. This requires biting off both ends of the Tim-Tam, then using it as a straw to drink your favourite hot beverage, typically coffee.

The hot drink melts the fudge centre and creates an experience hard to describe. Finesse is needed to suck the whole biscuit into your mouth in the microseconds between being fully saturated and dissolving.

Although performed by some Australians, the manoeuvre is rarely performed and the Tim-Tam is generally eaten by itself. During summer, Tim-Tams are often stored in the freezer, and eaten ice cold. The lamington is a cube of sponge cake covered in chocolate icing and dipped in desiccated coconut.

It's named after Lord Lamington, who served as Governor of Queensland from to The home-baked form can be found at a local Saturday morning market, or you can buy one from a bakery if you are desperate. Avoid at all costs the plastic wrapped varieties sold in supermarkets. The pavlova is a meringue cake with a cream topping usually decorated with fresh fruit. Served on special occasions, or after a lunchtime barbecue. Often the source of dispute with New Zealand over the original source of the recipe.

ANZAC biscuits are a mix of coconut, oats, flour, sugar and golden syrup. They were reputedly sent by wives and care organisations to world war soldiers in care packages, but the story is likely apocryphal.

Damper is a traditional soda bread that was baked by drovers and stockmen. It has basic ingredients flour, water and perhaps salt and usually cooked in the embers of a fire. It is not routinely available in bakeries and only commonly served to tourists on organised tours.

Best eaten with butter and jam or golden syrup as it is dry and bland. A pie floater is a South Australian dish available around Adelaide. It is a pie inverted in a bowl of thick mushy pea soup. Similar pie variations are sometimes available in other regions. A Chiko roll is a deep-fried snack inspired by the egg roll or the spring roll. Despite the name, it contains no chicken. Its filling is boned mutton, vegetables, rice, barley, and seasonings.

Its shell is thicker than an egg roll, meant to survive handling at football matches. Available anywhere you can buy fish and chips. Cuisines widely available in Australia, often prepared by members of the relevant culture, include:. Eating vegetarian is quite common in Australia and many restaurants offer at least one or two vegetarian dishes. Some will have an entire vegetarian menu section. Vegans may have more difficulty but any restaurant with a large vegetarian menu should offer some flexibility.

In large cities you will find a number of vegetarian and vegan restaurants, as well as in the coastal backpacker-friendly towns along the east coast. The market town of Kuranda or the seaside towns of Byron Bay are a vegetarian's paradise. In other regional areas vegetarians are often poorly catered for, but most towns will have a Chinese restaurant that will provide steamed rice and vegetables.

Sydney and Melbourne in particular cater well for vegans and vegetarians with a large number of purely vegetarian restaurants, vegan clothing stores and vegan supermarkets.

People observing halal diets will easily be able to find specialist butchers in the capital cities, and will also find a number of restaurants with appropriate menus and cooking styles. People observing kosher diets can easily find kosher food in suburbs in Sydney and Melbourne that have a high amount of Jews eg.

Caulfield in Melbourne, Bondi in Sydney. In other cities it is very hard to find kosher food, and the little kosher food there is, is usually imported from Melbourne or Sydney, so it is very overpriced. Outside the capital cities, it will be much more difficult to find food prepared in a strict religious manner. All of the capital cities and many regional towns in Australia host a "farmer's market", which is generally held each week in a designated area on a Saturday or Sunday.

These markets mostly sell fresh fruits and vegetables, as hygiene standards in Australia forbid the selling of meat directly from market stalls. Butchers who set up shop at a farmer's market would usually trade their wares from a display cabinet within their truck.

The attraction of markets is the lower prices and freshness of the produce. The attraction for the traveller will be the cheap and excellent fruits on offer - depending on the region and season. In regional areas the market is usually held outside the town itself in an empty paddock or sports field, markets in capital cities are easier to reach but the prices are typically more in line with those you would find in supermarkets.

See the destination guides for details. Drinking beer is ingrained in Australian culture. Although Fosters is promoted as an Australian beer overseas, it is rarely consumed by Australians in Australia, and is almost impossible to find. Beers are strongly regional and every state has its own brews: There are also local microbrew choices, which can be harder to find, but are often worth seeking out.

A wide range of imported European and American bottled beers are available in all but the most basic pub. Light Lite beer refers to lower alcoholic content, and not lower calories.

It has around half the alcohol of full strength beer, and is taxed at a lower rate, meaning it is also cheaper than full strength beer.

Because Australians like their beer to stay cold while they drink it, draft beer glasses come in a multitude of sizes, so that you can drink a whole glass before it warms up in the summer heat. The naming of beer glasses varies widely from state to state, often in confusing ways: The local beers and the local descriptions are covered in detail in the state guides.

Bottle naming is a little easier: Cans of beer are known as tinnies and 24 of them make up a slab , box , carton , or a case. Australia produces quality wine on a truly industrial scale, with large multinational brands supplying Australian bottleshops and exporting around the world.

There are also a multitude of boutique wineries and smaller suppliers. The areas of the Barossa Valley , Hunter Valley , McLaren Vale , Clare Valley and Margaret River are particularly renowned for their wineries and opportunities for cellar door sampling, but northern Victoria and Mudgee , also have a large variety.

You are never too far from a wine trail anywhere in southern Australia. Try the local wines wherever you can find them, and ask for local recommendations. Try not to get taken in by the label, or the price tag. The best wine is rarely the one with the best artwork, or the most expensive price. However, it is probably wise to avoid the house wine if it comes straight from a cask 4-litre container. If you still prefer overseas wines, the Marlborough region of New Zealand is usually well represented on wine lists and in bottle shops in Australia.

See also Grape grazing in Australia. Bundaberg Rum Bundy is an Australian dark rum particularly popular in Queensland and many Queenslanders will not touch any other brand of rum, while many other Australians will not touch Bundy.

It is probably the most famous Australian made spirit, mass produced in Bundaberg and available everywhere. You will have to search much harder to find other Australian distilled spirits, mostly from niche players, but there are distilleries in every state of Australia if you look hard enough. Drop into the Lark Distillery on the scenic Hobart waterfront precinct. Mixed drinks are also available, particularly vodka, scotch, bourbon and other whiskey mixers.

Jim Beam bourbon is probably the most commonly drunk, so those from Kentucky should feel right at home. Spirits are also available as pre-mixed bottles and cans but are subject to higher taxation in this form, so it is cheaper to mix them yourself.

Spirits are served in all pubs and bars, but not in all restaurants. The legal drinking age throughout Australia is 18 years. It is illegal to purchase alcohol for yourself if you are under 18 years of age. It is illegal to purchase alcohol on behalf of someone who is under 18 years of age.

The only legally acceptable proof-of-age is an Australian drivers licence, state-issued proof-of-age card or a passport, and it would be wise to carry one if you want to purchase alcohol or tobacco and look under It is illegal to go into a gambling area of a pub or club when under Often there is a lounge, restaurant or bistro area in a pub or club that permits under-age people provided they are accompanied by a responsible adult over 18 and don't approach the bar or wander around.

Some city pubs even have video games and playgrounds for children. Some country pubs have large open areas out in the back where kids can run and play.

In general, you can take alcohol say a bottle of wine or beer to consume at a park or beach. However, in the state of Queensland public consumption of Alcohol is illegal. Alcohol consumption is banned in some public places as 'street drinking'.

These are often indicated by signs and is particularly the case in parks and footpaths where public drunkenness has been a problem. However, if you are a family with your picnic basket and blanket out at lunchtime with a bottle of wine, you are unlikely to encounter any problems.

Alcohol can be purchased for consumption on premises only in licensed venues: You can purchase alcohol for private consumption in bottle shops , which are separate stores selling bottled alcohol. In some but not all states you can buy alcohol in supermarkets. In those states where you can't, bottle shops and major supermarkets are often found in very close proximity. Outside of these hours though, it is almost impossible to buy alcohol to take home; so if you're planning on a party at home, it's a good idea to stock up and check on the local trading hours so you don't run out at In the state of New South Wales, takeaway alcohol cannot be sold after 10pm.

Alcohol is not available at petrol stations or hour convenience stores anywhere in Australia. Public drunkenness varies in acceptability. You will certainly find a great deal of it in close proximity to pubs and clubs at night time but much less so during the day. Public drunkenness is an offence but you would only likely ever be picked up by the police if you were causing a nuisance.

You may spend the night sobering up in a holding cell or be charged. Driving while affected by alcohol is both stigmatized and policed by random breath testing police patrols in Australia, as well as being inherently dangerous.

Drink driving is a very serious offence in Australia, punishable by a range of mechanisms including loss of license. The acceptable maximum blood alcohol concentration is 0. Police officers are also empowered to randomly test drivers for the recent use of prohibited drugs. The operation of a motor vehicle while under the influence of prohibited drugs or alcohol will always result in arrest and a required court appearance many weeks from the date of arrest and it can comprehensively disrupt travel plans.

Random breath testing is common early Saturday and Sunday mornings, and many people are caught the morning after. Buying a round of drinks is a custom in Australia, as in many corners of the world. It is generally expected in a pub that when you arrive and make your first trip to the bar that you will offer to buy a drink for others you are drinking with.

This is what's known as a 'shout'. In entering a shout you are expected to take turns buying drinks for everyone in your shout when it is your turn. It is considered poor etiquette to drink something much more expensive that what others in the shout are drinking. If you cannot keep pace during a shout you are still expected to buy a round of drinks when it is your turn and as such it is advisable to drink with people who pace themselves at a similar rate.

If someone from outside the shout offers to buy you a drink politely decline and let them know you are already in a shout. Likewise if someone buys you a drink don't be surprised if they expect one from you later on in the evening as it's now your shout. If you don't want to join a shout, or would like to drop out of one this can be awkward in some groups, however if you provide a viable reason such as having to drive or being on medication people will normally respect this explanation.

It is considered very poor etiquette to leave before your shout. If you are intending to study in Australia, you may need to be on a visa class that allows this, rather than a tourist visa. Students and academics invited to visit Australian universities will generally also need an appropriate visa, even if their visit is of a short enough period to be covered by a tourist electronic visa.

For extremely short term or part time courses, check with your Australian consulate or embassy. Australian students attend high school for six years, and enter university at seventeen or eighteen years of age. In Australia, neither "school" nor "college" are used to refer to tertiary institutions; they are referred to only as "universities" - in fact, some primary and secondary educational institutions are referred to as 'colleges'.

Australian undergraduate programs are usually three to four years in length. A fifth year is compulsory in some professional undergraduate programs such as engineering, law, medicine and dentistry.

Students in three-year degree programs can take an optional fourth year known as honours if they want to proceed into a postgraduate research program, whereas students enrolled in four year programs can typically incorporate their honours thesis into their fourth year.

All tuition at university level is in English , save for courses that specifically focus on other languages. Students who have not previously earned a qualification in an English speaking program or passed high school English will have to take one of a number of English competency tests before being allowed to enrol. Postgraduate studies in Australia fall into two classes: Coursework degrees are generally at the Masters level.

Research degrees are at the Masters and Doctoral level. There are 42 Universities in Australia that all compete vigorously for overseas students. All have administrative departments and sections on their websites which describe the courses available to overseas students, and they will help you to apply and obtain accommodation and transport.

Applications for university courses and the appropriate visa will need to be lodged before coming to Australia. Courses range from single year diplomas to full length undergraduate and post-graduate degrees. There is a choice of the sandstone universities, with their history and prestige, modern city universities with their vocational programs, and regional country town universities, with open space and cheaper accommodation.

Undergraduate admission to university is centralised at the state level. You make a single application for admission to the state admissions body stating your course preferences. The universities select students from this common applicant pool based upon their ranking and preferences.

Unless you are applying for a creative arts degree, your ranking will be based solely on previous academic performance at both high school and previous university studies. Postgraduate admission is managed by individual universities and you will need to apply separately to each institution you are considering. The full fees payable by overseas students are competitive compared to many Western universities.

Australian citizens have the option of substantially reduced fees and also have the option of deferring payment until they are earning income. Other students will generally be required to pay full tuition on enrolment each semester. Scholarships are rarely awarded for undergraduate or postgraduate coursework degrees.

A comparatively large number of scholarships are available for postgraduate research usually covering both tuition, where required, and living costs. These are awarded by individual universities. Accommodation is readily available in most Australian cities and tourist destinations. It comes in a number of different styles. Camping is a popular pastime. Most caravan parks will rent camping sites by the night, where you can pitch a tent, and these are available in most towns and cities.

The caravan park will provide showers and toilets, and sometimes washing and cooking facilities. Sometimes for an additional fee. You can even find caravan parks right on the beach, with lagoon swimming pools and playgrounds all free for guests.

National parks often provide free camping sites, which expect you to be more self-sufficient. Often toilets are provided and sometimes cold showers. Camping permits are sometimes required at popular parks, with some popular spots filling up during the holidays in summer. In Australia it is common to be within an hours drive of a national park or recreation area that will permit some form of camping, even in the capital cities.

Wilsons Promontory National Park, Kosciuszko National Park, etc , however entry and camping is free in the majority of national parks further from population and tourist centres.

Some other camping areas are run by government or even local landowners. You can try your luck sleeping on a beach or pitching a tent overnight in a highway rest area, or out in the bush for a free bed. Most rest areas and beaches prohibit camping and many even prohibit overnight parking to discourage this.

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