Pokie Machines New Used To Cut Things

There is certainly no surprise that everyone can make a fortune from Soccer Betting but One particular need to have to understand the loophole inside the method in order to results inside the method.

Meanwhile Crossrail trains to Maidenhead and Reading will be stopping at West Ealing, but won't be stopping at Acton Mainline and Hanwell. Overall, the Medium Duty Electric Slot Punch is ideal Pokie Machines New Used To Cut Things any business that produces a large number of ID cards, key cards, name badges, or any other item needing a slot.

Representing the North Star (historically used by sailors use for navigation a nautical star tattoo was believed to keep a sailor on course.

Insert six 50 inch dowel rods diagonally across the three wall panels (see Figure 1) and slot the 35½ inch rod through the fillets above the door panel.

A 10,000 coin non-progressive jackpot is present in this title, which although old, is still a major crowd pleaser.

In at the present time in addition to age, practically anything will be on the web and it ought to go with out saying that together with calculators. I work about a quarter of the time, which may not sound much but it's still more than I'm contracted to do. The graphics are designed with a realistic art style, showcasing Aristocrat?s talent for creating beautifully-designed games.

Tanya's tenth birthday was a week later, on the Thursday.

In this article we will give you information Pokies Big Xii Expansion the top 10 free video conference call app available for enterprises and individuals.

May 11, 2015Make a Contribution.

Hidden SECRETS Casinos Don't Want You To Know

The drummer, bass, and others are just accompaniment to the said guitar. Slot winners in vegas 2012, slot game old machines for sale michigan. Learn from an unique animal well being technician as she explains tips on how to properly introduce Syrian or Real Money Pokies Family Tumblr Pictures hamsters to different animals on this free online video.

Sometimes I plan for things and they don't come together or I fall short of a task.

  • During the recession in the early s, state legislatures started looking to increase revenue without raising taxes — and many of them settled on bills to allow machine gaming. "It was much easier to push through legislation [expanding the availability of slot machines] than things that carried a weightier.
  • Feel that Microgaming Pokies Female Anatomy get the identical odds gamers who play for large
  • Fairly like this Pokies Aus Login Banner Mohammadu Buhari Way Then
  • When designing new games, the slot machine manufacturers (IGT, Bally, WMS, and others) focus on features that will increase this number. One way to look at a Most casino games use a deck of cards or a pair of dice or something comparable to generate their random results. Those are examples of.
  • Casino token are small discs used in lieu of currency in casinos. Colored metal, injection-molded plastic or compression molded clay tokens of various denominations are used primarily in table games, as opposed to metal token coins, used primarily in slot machines. Casino tokens are also widely used as play money in.
  • Even when the use of these gambling devices was banned in his home state after a few years, Fey still couldn't keep up with demand for the game elsewhere. The Liberty Bell machine was so popular that it was copied by many slot machine manufacturers. Thus in , manufacturer Herbert Mills from Chicago produced a.

Publisher: Paul Burrard Staterooms or standard rooms are the most economical and smallest of all with only the essential furnishings available and no window most of the time. It is encouraging to know that you will only need to use 0.

This exciting new slot has 5-reels set on a 3-4-3-4-3 grid with 15 paylines. Thats not an issue though, as it means we have a game where players trigger multiple wins in standard play and can enter a bonus game where the majority of the symbols can become wilds.

Of course, it also means that if you do win, you're not really winning real cash - but that doesn't imply that you shouldn't start using these free demos.

Even the balls run out after a few rounds, and you continuously want to buy extra.

We have reviewed the top sites in these areas including the best options where to play casino for US players. A licensed organization could conduct bingo only within the county in which the group has its principal office.

If perhaps youre starting to notice just simply so why it is so essential move on as soon as youre in advance, superb. well,currently let us play the game with our friends.

If you are willing to review a little, you can save your few 500 cash.

Train bicycles now are available two major kinds - recumbent and upright. Through the unconventional to the purposeful, to the opulent in addition to cost-efficient, there is a factor for everyone. We offers high quality IBM 000-975 Test Dumps. Initially this was used in quaint water mills, nonetheless in the first half of the twentieth century extra modern units utilizing turbines to generate electricty had been used.

One can not create and sustain success, if his thoughts, beliefs and emotions are not adjusted to success.

Some of NetEnt?s most recently released pokies include titles like Go Bananas, Creature from the Black Lagoon, South Park Reel Chaos (South Park 2), Cosmic Fortune, The Invisible Man, Tornado: Farm Escape, Steam Tower, Spinata Grande and Universal Monsters Dracula.

New Cut To Pokie Machines Used Things game

Bstrz afbanner themenewbtc 250x250

Wish we've got more Pokie Review Xfinity Home our e-newsletter service distributes pertinent

  1. Casinos often replace their cards at table games and either sell or give away the used decks. These decks are usually cut or altered before they are sold or given away. This to prevent cheaters from buying used decks and then using the cards to cheat at table games. Slot machines: Methods exist for altering the outcome of.:
    Slot machines are becoming mobile. slot machines. By Frank Costello, a mobster in New York, raked in $25m a year from his 25, slots. Today Where video machines are used, they sometimes feature displays that allow the video reels to align imperfectly, as on an old spinning-wheel machine. The ban forced thousands of casinos to sell their slot machines at steep discounts to whatever customers they could find. Some of those cut-rate slots wound up in the hands of counterfeiters eager to learn how to load new games onto old circuit boards. Others apparently went to Murat Bliev's bosses in St. On July 3, , he walked alone into the high-limit room at the Silverton Casino in Las Vegas and sat down at a video poker machine called the Up feature on all of the Game Kings—he was aware that Kane used the option copiously, and he figured it must have something to do with his run of luck.
  2. But because these different versions look the same, players have no way of knowing the payout percentage of any individual machine they are playing. So while it is possible to calculate the odds of winning and losing with other forms of gambling, only slot machines withhold the information needed to figure out those odds.:
  3. :
  4. :
  5. :

Can find makes use Pokie Machines New Used To Cut Things has also posted some Stars With out

the

There are many different kinds of gambling slot machines in places such as Las Vegas as well as casinos modeled after those in Las Vegas, including those operated on Native American reservations. Some of the most popular are the video poker machines, in which players hope to obtain a set of symbols corresponding to a winning poker hand.

Depending on the machine, players can play one, , or more hands at one time. Another popular type of machine internationally are video bingo machines, where a player can play Latin style bingo or American style bingo.

Depending on the machine players can play one bingo card or more at a time. Multi-line slot machines have become more popular since the s. These machines have more than one payline, meaning that visible symbols that are not aligned on the main horizontal may be considered for winning combinations. Reel slot machines commonly have three or five paylines, while video slot machines may have 9, 15, 25, or as many as different paylines.

Most video slot machines have a themed game, some of which feature graphics and music based on popular entertainers, motion pictures or TV programs The Addams Family , I Dream of Jeannie , Happy Days , etc. Most accept variable numbers of credits to play, with 1 to 15 credits per line being typical.

The higher the amount bet, the higher the payout will be if the player wins. There are also standard 3 to 5 reel electromechanical machines, of various types. These are the typical "one-armed bandits. One of the main differences between video slot machines and reel machines is in the way payouts are calculated.

With reel machines, the only way to win the maximum jackpot is to play the maximum number of coins usually 3, sometimes 4, or even 5 coins per spin. With video machines, the fixed payout values are multiplied by the number of coins per line that is being bet. As an example, on the Wheel of Fortune reel machine based on the popular Wheel of Fortune TV game show created by Merv Griffin , the player must play 3 coins per spin to be eligible to trigger the bonus round and possibly win the jackpot.

On the Wheel of Fortune video machine, the chances of triggering the bonus round or winning the maximum jackpot are exactly the same regardless of the number of coins bet on each line. Large denomination slot machines are usually cordoned off from the rest of the casino into a "High Limit" area, often with a separate team of attendants to cater to the needs of those who play there.

In the last few years, new multi-denomination slot machines have been introduced. With these slot machines, the player can choose the value of each credit wagered the stake from a list of options.

Based upon the player's selection, the slot machine automatically calculates the number of credits the player receives in exchange for the cash inserted and displays the number of available credits to the player. Bonus is a special feature of the particular game theme, which is activated when certain symbols appear in a winning combination.

Bonuses vary depending upon the game. In other bonus rounds, the player is presented with several items on a screen from which to choose. As the player chooses items, a number of credits is revealed and awarded.

Some bonuses use a mechanical device, such as a spinning wheel, that works in conjunction with the bonus to display the amount won. Some machines feature two or more of these bonus styles as part of the same game. Candle is a light on top of the slot machine.

It flashes to alert the operator that change is needed, hand pay is requested or a potential problem with the machine. It can be lit by the player by pressing the "service" or "help" button. Coin hopper is a container where the coins that are immediately available for payouts are held. When a certain preset coin capacity is reached, a coin diverter automatically redirects, or "drops," excess coins into a "drop bucket" or "drop box.

Credit meter is a visual LED display of the amount of money or number of credits on the machine. On video reel machines this is either a simulated LED display, or represented in a different font altogether, based on the design of the game graphics.

Drop bucket or drop box is a container located in a slot machine's base where excess coins are diverted from the hopper. Typically, a drop bucket is used for low denomination slot machines and a drop box is used for high denomination slot machines. A drop box contains a hinged lid with one or more locks whereas a drop bucket does not contain a lid.

The contents of drop buckets and drop boxes are collected and counted by the casino on a scheduled basis. Free Spin Free Spin is a term used in video slot games and online slot games to specify that the spin will be completed without a charge or on the same wager.

Free spins can get triggered by a number of things, each game use a different method. Usually, landing a number of special symbols on reels is required to activate the free spins bonus round. Mostly scatter symbols are preferred for this activation, although wild symbols or a completely different symbol dedicated for this feature can be used too. In most slot games, landing at least three special symbols on reels is mandatory to trigger the feature. Once triggered, free spins bonus round award a number of spins free of charge to the player.

The number of free spins differ from game to game, and can be 5 or The spins are automatically used by the game and the player keeps any profit after the spins are complete. Hand pay refers to a payout made by an attendant or at an exchange point "cage" , rather than by the slot machine itself. A hand pay occurs when the amount of the payout exceeds the maximum amount that was preset by the slot machine's operator.

Usually, the maximum amount is set at the level where the operator must begin to deduct taxes. A hand pay could also be necessary as a result of a short pay. Hopper fill slip is a document used to record the replenishment of the coin in the coin hopper after it becomes depleted as a result of making payouts to players. The slip indicates the amount of coin placed into the hoppers, as well as the signatures of the employees involved in the transaction, the slot machine number and the location and the date.

MEAL book M achine e ntry a uthorization l og is a log of the employee's entries into the machine. Low Level or Slant Top slot machines include a stool so the player has sitdown access. Stand Up or Upright slot machines are played while standing. Optimal play is a payback percentage based on a gambler using the optimal strategy in a skill-based slot machine game.

Payline is a line that crosses through one symbol on each reel, along which a winning combination is evaluated. Classic spinning reel machines usually have up to nine paylines, while video slot machines may have as many as one hundred. Paylines could be of various shapes horizontal, vertical, oblique, triangular, zigzag, etc. Rollup is the process of dramatizing a win by playing sounds while the meters count up to the amount that has been won.

Short pay refers to a partial payout made by a slot machine, which is less than the amount due to the player. This occurs if the coin hopper has been depleted as a result of making earlier payouts to players. The remaining amount due to the player is either paid as a hand pay or an attendant will come and refill the machine. Scatter Symbol It is required to place at least two of the same symbols on a pay line to get paid in slot games.

However, scatter symbols work differently and award a prize whether they are placed on a pay line or not. But the player still needs to get at least two of them in modern slot games.

The more, the better. Scatter symbols are usually used to award a number of free spins. The number of free spins differs from game to game; i.

They can also award coin prizes, based on their number. The prizes are usually small, but they are paid in addition to other winnings. Scatter symbol is a special symbol, which means the wild symbol cannot replace it. Slot variance is a measure of risk associated with playing a slot machine. A low variance slot machine has regular but smaller wins and a high variance slot machine has fewer but bigger wins. Taste is a reference to the small amount often paid out to keep a player seated and continuously betting.

Only rarely will machines fail to pay out even the minimum placed a bet over the course of several pulls. Tilt Electromechanical slot machines usually include an electromechanical " tilt switch ", which makes or breaks a circuit if the machine is tilted or otherwise tampered with, and so triggers an alarm.

While modern machines no longer have tilt switches, any kind of technical fault door switch in the wrong state, reel motor failure, out of paper, etc. Theoretical Hold Worksheet A document provided by the manufacturer for all slot machines, which indicates the theoretical percentage that the slot machine should hold based on the amount paid in.

The worksheet also indicates the reel strip settings, number of coins that may be played, the payout schedule, the number of reels and other information descriptive of the particular type of slot machine. Weight count is an American term, referring to the dollar amount of coins or tokens removed from a slot machine's drop bucket or drop box and counted by the casino's hard count team through the use of a weigh scale.

Wild Symbol Wild symbols act like joker cards in a slot game. Basically, they substitute for all other symbols in the game, usually except for other special symbols, such as scatter and jackpot.

They can appear on any of the reels. However, this is not mandatory and can be changed from game to game. In some games, wild symbols can appear only on certain reels. Or, they can appear only during the bonus rounds.

The player must refer to the rules and paytable of the game to learn about the landing rules. Mobile is when the slot machine is hosted for online gambling and it is usually available for use on a phone, tablet, or other portable device. These are often standalone mobile casino applications but are also found as part of the online casino site. Each machine has a table that lists the number of credits the player will receive if the symbols listed on the pay table line up on the pay line of the machine.

Some symbols are wild and can represent many, or all, of the other symbols to complete a winning line. Especially on older machines, the pay table is listed on the face of the machine, usually above and below the area containing the wheels. Most video machines display the pay table when the player presses a "pay table" button or touches "pay table" on the screen; some have the pay table listed on the cabinet as well.

Historically, all slot machines used revolving mechanical reels to display and determine results. Although the original slot machine used five reels, simpler, and therefore more reliable, three reel machines quickly became the standard. This limited the manufacturer's ability to offer large jackpots since even the rarest event had a likelihood of 0.

Although the number of symbols eventually increased to about 22, allowing 10, combinations, [20] this still limited jackpot sizes as well as the number of possible outcomes. In the s, however, slot machine manufacturers incorporated electronics into their products and programmed them to weight particular symbols. Thus the odds of losing symbols appearing on the payline became disproportionate to their actual frequency on the physical reel. A symbol would only appear once on the reel displayed to the player, but could, in fact, occupy several stops on the multiple reel.

With microprocessors now ubiquitous, the computers inside modern slot machines allow manufacturers to assign a different probability to every symbol on every reel. To the player it might appear that a winning symbol was 'so close', whereas in fact the probability is much lower. In the s in the UK machines embodying microprocessors became common. These used a number of features to ensure the payout was controlled within the limits of the gambling legislation.

As the coin was inserted into the machine it could go one of two routes, either direct into the cashbox for the benefit of the owner, or alternatively it would go into a channel that formed the payout reservoir, the microprocessor monitoring the number of coins in this channel. The drums themselves were driven by stepper motors, controlled by the processor and with proximity sensors monitoring the position of the drums. A "look up table" within the software allows the processor to know what symbols were being displayed on the drums to the gambler.

This allowed the system to control the level of payout by stopping the drums at positions it had determined. If the payout channel had filled up, the payout became more generous, if nearly empty, less so thus giving good control of the odds. The video slot machine is a more recent innovation, with no moving parts at all — instead a graphical representation of one appears on screen. In addition, because there are no mechanical constraints on the design of video slot machines, most display five reels rather than three.

This greatly expands the number of possibilities: As there are so many combinations given by five reels, the manufacturers do not need to weight the payout symbols although some may still do so. Instead, higher paying symbols will typically appear only once or twice on each reel, while more common symbols, earning a more frequent payout, will appear many times.

Video slot machines typically encourage the player to play multiple "lines", so rather than simply taking the middle of the three symbols displayed on each reel, a line could go from top left to bottom right, or any of the other patterns specified by the manufacturer. As each symbol is equally likely, there is no difficulty for the manufacturer in allowing the player to take any or all of the possible lines on offer — the long-term return to player will be the same. The difference for the player is that the more lines he plays the more likely he is to get paid on a given spin — though of course he is betting more in the first place.

To avoid the feeling that the player's money is simply ebbing away whereas a payout of credits on a single line machine would be bets, and the player would feel they had made a substantial win, on a 20 line machine, it would only be 5 bets and would not seem significant , manufacturers commonly offer bonus games, which can return many times their bet.

The player is encouraged to keep playing to reach the bonus: All modern machines are designed using pseudo random number generators "PRNGs" , which are constantly generating a sequence of simulated random numbers, at a rate of hundreds or perhaps thousands per second. As soon as the "Play" button is pressed, the most recent random number is used to determine the result.

This means that the result varies depending on exactly when the game is played. A fraction of a second earlier or later, and the result would be different. It is important that the machine contains a high-quality RNG implementation, because all PRNGs must eventually repeat their number sequence, [23] and if the period is short, or the PRNG is otherwise flawed, an advanced player may be able to 'predict' the next result.

Having access to the PRNG code and seed values, Ronald Dale Harris , a former slot machine programmer, discovered equations for specific gambling games like Keno that allowed him to predict what the next set of selected numbers would be based on the previous games played. Most machines are designed to defeat this by generating numbers even when the machine is not being played, so the player cannot tell where in the sequence they are, even if he knows how the machine was programmed.

This is known as the "theoretical payout percentage" or RTP, "return to player". The minimum theoretical payout percentage varies among jurisdictions and is typically established by law or regulation. The winning patterns on slot machines — the amounts they pay and the frequencies of those payouts — are carefully selected to yield a certain fraction of the money played to the "house" the operator of the slot machine , while returning the rest to the players during play.

Within some EGM development organizations this concept is referred to simply as "par. A slot machine's theoretical payout percentage is set at the factory when the software is written. Changing the payout percentage after a slot machine has been placed on the gaming floor requires a physical swap of the software or firmware , which is usually stored on an EPROM but may be loaded onto non-volatile random access memory NVRAM or even stored on CD-ROM or DVD , depending on the capabilities of the machine and the applicable regulations.

Based on current technology, this is a time-consuming process and as such is done infrequently. This may involve using suspect apparatus, interfering with apparatus, chip fraud or misrepresenting games.

The formally prescribed sanctions for cheating depend on the circumstances and gravity of the cheating and the jurisdiction in which the casino operates. In Nevada , for a player to cheat in a casino is a felony under Nevada law.

In most other jurisdictions, specific statutes do not exist, and alleged instances of cheating are resolved by the gambling authority who may have more or less authority to enforce its verdict. Advantage play techniques are not cheating. Card counting , for example, is a legitimate advantage play strategy that can be employed in blackjack and other card games.

In almost all jurisdictions, casinos are permitted to ban from their premises customers they believe are using advantage play, regardless of whether they are in fact doing so and even though it is not cheating, though this practice of barring law-abiding citizens from public places is subject to judicial review.

So far, courts in New Jersey and North Las Vegas, Nevada have found the practice of barring law-abiding citizens to be illegal. Online casinos are also vulnerable to certain cheating methods. All US states where gambling is legal require that casino chips have a unique combination of edge spots for identification, the name and location of the casino and the chip's value, if any, impressed, printed, or molded onto the obverse and reverse of the token.

In 19th-century America, there was enough of a tradition of using blue chips for higher values that "blue chip" in noun and adjective senses signaling high-value chips and high-value property are attested since and , respectively. Because eight is considered a lucky number in Chinese culture, chips denominated 8, 88, and e. They will sometimes contain an image of the animal associated with the year and are issued in a variety of colors.

Low-denomination yellow chips vary in value: Such chips are often yellow or orange. Casinos often use gaming plaques for these denominations: These plaques are about the size of a playing card, and must be marked with serial numbers. Each casino has a unique set of chips, even if the casino is part of a greater company.

This distinguishes a casino's chips from others, since each chip and token on the gaming floor has to be backed up with the appropriate amount of cash. In addition, with the exception of Nevada, casinos are not permitted to honor another casino's chips.

The security features of casino chips are numerous. Artwork is of a very high resolution or of photographic quality. Custom color combinations on the chip edge edge spots are usually distinctive to a particular casino. UV markings can be made on the inlay.

Also, makers' marks are difficult to reproduce. Also being used by one manufacturer, Palm Gaming, is an audible taggant incorporated into the ceramic chip blank. A simple handheld reader will beep if the gaming chip is authentic. Palm Gaming is even manufacturing custom made molds for their ceramic gaming chips- adding yet another high level of security to its gaming chip. Counterfeit chips are rare. High levels of surveillance, along with staff familiarity with chip design and coloring, make passing fake chips difficult.

Casinos, though, are prepared for this situation. All states require that casinos have a set of chips in reserve with alternate markings, [ citation needed ] though they may not be required to have exactly the same number of reserve chips as they do on the floor. Casino chips used in tournaments are usually much cheaper and of much simpler design.

Because the chips have no cash value, usually chips are designed with a single color usually differing in shade or tone from the version on the casino floor , a smaller breadth, and a basic mark on the interior to distinguish denominations; however, at certain events such as the World Series of Poker or other televised poker , chips approach quality levels of chips on the floor.

Several casinos, such as the Hard Rock Hotel and Casino in Las Vegas, issue "limited edition" varied-designed chips, commemorating various events, though retaining a common color scheme.

This encourages customers to keep them for souvenirs, at a profit to the casino. In certain casinos, such as the Wynn and Encore Casinos in Las Vegas, chips are embedded with RFID tags to help casinos keep better track of them, determine gamblers' average bet sizes, and to make them harder for counterfeiters to reproduce. However, this technique is costly and considered by many to be unnecessary to profit. Also, this technology provides minimal benefits in games with layouts that do not provide gamblers with their own designated betting areas, such as craps.

The first game show to use them, Duel , had a variation in which the contestants answer questions using oversized casino tokens. The World Series of Poker at one time actually used its casino tokens for the poker tournaments, but in more recent years has had special Paulson WSOP clay sets made for the tournaments.

one specific

And what the laboratory research on this shows is that people experience this in their brains as a win. One of the arguments in my book is that t he whole culture is turning to this time-on-device model of gambling.

It's not so much about volatility and risk and chance. It's about the numbing comfortable experience that you're going to get — it's referred to as a smoother ride. And n one of that would be possible with the old three reel, non-computerized machines. One thing that struck me in your book is that most people aren't playing in the hopes of winning a big jackpot or playing for the thrill of it.

They're essentially playing to escape — to lose themselves in the machines. For many people it's not about winning at all. I heard repeated stories of people who would actually get angry or frustrated or irritated when they won, because it would freeze up the machine. To me, that throws into relief that it's not about winning — it's more about the zone and time on device.

This is not gambling as we often understand it, it's not about excitement and thrill. It's about relaxing back with this glaze on your face. One of the algorithm designers for these games told me that they want people to "recline" on the mathematical model. So let's talk about the business model here. In the old days, casinos were interested in the high rollers who flew into Las Vegas for a weekend and blew all their money. But now it seems like they're looking at repeat customers who will play video slots for as long as possible.

T his is what some have termed the "CostCo model," where casinos make their profits from volume. You're not just fleecing the big whale and getting him out. Money is made from low-rollers who are playing much, much more. So you don't want to tap your consumers out. It's more about how to get customers to come back, or looking at the value of a customer over their whole lifetime.

One place you see this is in Las Vegas and the Midwest is in a shift toward locals. T here's this massive residential gambling community with their own casinos, designed in slightly different ways, and catering to this time-on-device model. Because this is what the locals want — to sit in front of the machine and zone out.

These are not people who are flying into Vegas to lose everything they can in one weekend and then go home. There have also been huge advances in payment systems to — essentially making it easier for people to put money in these machines. That's another level of smoothing, another way to make the experience more effortless. And what that does, it really just speeds things up. We haven't even talked about the addiction aspect. But these games are solitary, they're really fast, they're continuous and uninterrupted.

In a way, it's similar to how casinos try to avoid having pathways with right angles. Because what that does, that makes the consumer come to a stop and call on the decision-making part of their brains. Casinos don't want that. They want to curve you gently to where they want you to go. And it's the same thing with the money technology. They don't want you to make a decision about paying to gamble more.

They want it to be so readily accessible at your fingertips that it's almost a non-decision to continue. And this is why you see in various countries a discussion of whether those kinds of features are something that should be regulated. So there are ideas like slowing down the reel. Or things like reducing the amount of credit you can put into a machine, or forcing people to pay with cash.

Australia and Canada, mostly. You see long debates that themselves seem absurd, like should we slow the reels down to 2. But that's because addiction is really about the intensity, the immediacy, the speed. Something happens right away, and then it can happen right away again. Slot machines are like that. The event frequency is really intensified. On a slot machine you're playing up to 1, spins an hour.

That's very different from a horse race or even a poker game, where you have to wait for the cards to come around. And every event that happens is another opportunity to reinforce the behavior. So that's where the addictiveness lies. It's solitary, continuous, and really rapid.

How would you characterize the regulatory environment in the United States? A lot more lenient? Especially, post, the idea is that state legislatures — whether its New Hampshire or Massachusetts — have gone through the trouble of loosening their standards to allow these machines.

A nd once these bills pass it, no one wants these machines to fail. And the regulators and legislators talk quite openly about this — you hear them at expos and conferences talk a lot about how it's a "partnership," how they need to work together to get innovations passed. Your book suggests that player tracking is going to be the next big advance in the gaming industry. It's really become super critical to the industry.

If the industry is focused on regular customers or repeat players, they're going to need to get a sense of each individual's habits via data tracking, and then refine the way they market to that person. And part of that involves mail marketing or offering bonuses. But in the future we're likely to see a shift to online or server-based games.

And tracking will be critical there. So the way this might work is you sit down at a machine and it downloads particular games based on what it knows about you — the kind of games you would like, they sort of volatility you prefer. It also seems that player tracking can be used to manage the moods of existing players. Like if you see that a player's having a bad streak, a casino worker can come by and offer a free drink or a free breakfast to perk them up and stop them from leaving. We were talking about lax regulations and this is one perfect example of this.

It is technically illegal for casinos to change the odds of game once you sit down and start playing. But casinos can watch you play and, if they notice that you're nearing your pain point and about to leave, they can dispatch a "luck ambassador" to come give you a lunch bonus.

And they can get around the rules about changing odds by classifying that as "marketing. Although, casinos have actually found that those luck ambassadors backfired — a lot of players didn't want to be interrupted. So now they're trying to find better ways to do this. And recently there are some experiments with changing the machine mid-game. You can go in and change the volatility of the game while preserving the overall payback percentage. So you're taking a volatile machine and turning it into a smooth drip feed for a period — to get a player who's on a bad streak back on track.

And technically that circumvents the rules on changing the odds. And they're doing that by classifying some of these mathematical operations as "marketing" — even though they're actually changing the algorithm of the game.

Now walk me through the debate over addiction and problem gambling. There are a couple different camps here. Some people — including the gaming industry — place the onus on managing the problem on the individual.

Typically, this side will also argue that there are a few poor souls out there who have just been dealt a bad hand and especially prone to addiction. If they weren't gambling they'd be doing something else. But, the argument goes, this is only 1 to 2 percent of the population. And everybody else can gamble with immunity. I take a very different position in the book, which is that of course some people are more predisposed to these kinds of problems by virtue of biography or brain chemistry.

But by the same token, certain technologies are more liable to addict. And I'd like to put some of the responsibility back there. The whole modus operandi of the industry is to approach the human being as something that's manipulable. So how do you address problem gambling? I mean in the book you describe a whole bunch of people who have real problems with this machine gambling — people who will spend days at end in the casinos, maxing out credit cards, neglecting their kids….

I do think in terms of treatment, once one is an addict, it's very important to do whatever works — whether that's Gambling Anonymous, therapy, possible medication, or just avoiding these kinds of environments. But in terms of prevention, I do think regulation needs to be part of that discussion. There's no equivalent of the FDA for these machines.

And I'm not holding up the FDA as some model of consumer protection, but these machines are affecting people far more than some over-the-counter drugs that are heavily regulated out there. It seems absurd that we draw a line between aspirin and these machines.

And yet there's no discussion — because so much focus is on how people are choosing to spend money this way. So I see my work as trying to open the door to discussion of this technology and to figure out whether some sort of accountability and regulation of it might be appropriate.

Are there regulations or preventions that have actually been shown to reduce problem gambling? So scholars have gone through the evidence on this, looking at various proposals, and some proposed fixes really do seem to backfire. F or example, slowing down the reels might actually make people sit there longer. And that's the industry's position, that you can't fix this through the technology, because the addict will compensate by changing her own behavior.

But there's also evidence that some of these measures do work. So, for instance, if the time that people are spending on these machines is a problem, you cut people off after a certain amount of time. Some countries do this — the machine at least will beep some message saying you've been gambling for this long, would you like to take a break?

Some states like Massachusetts are experimenting with some other regulations. Classic spinning reel machines usually have up to nine paylines, while video slot machines may have as many as one hundred. Paylines could be of various shapes horizontal, vertical, oblique, triangular, zigzag, etc.

Rollup is the process of dramatizing a win by playing sounds while the meters count up to the amount that has been won. Short pay refers to a partial payout made by a slot machine, which is less than the amount due to the player.

This occurs if the coin hopper has been depleted as a result of making earlier payouts to players. The remaining amount due to the player is either paid as a hand pay or an attendant will come and refill the machine.

Scatter Symbol It is required to place at least two of the same symbols on a pay line to get paid in slot games. However, scatter symbols work differently and award a prize whether they are placed on a pay line or not. But the player still needs to get at least two of them in modern slot games.

The more, the better. Scatter symbols are usually used to award a number of free spins. The number of free spins differs from game to game; i. They can also award coin prizes, based on their number. The prizes are usually small, but they are paid in addition to other winnings. Scatter symbol is a special symbol, which means the wild symbol cannot replace it.

Slot variance is a measure of risk associated with playing a slot machine. A low variance slot machine has regular but smaller wins and a high variance slot machine has fewer but bigger wins. Taste is a reference to the small amount often paid out to keep a player seated and continuously betting. Only rarely will machines fail to pay out even the minimum placed a bet over the course of several pulls.

Tilt Electromechanical slot machines usually include an electromechanical " tilt switch ", which makes or breaks a circuit if the machine is tilted or otherwise tampered with, and so triggers an alarm. While modern machines no longer have tilt switches, any kind of technical fault door switch in the wrong state, reel motor failure, out of paper, etc.

Theoretical Hold Worksheet A document provided by the manufacturer for all slot machines, which indicates the theoretical percentage that the slot machine should hold based on the amount paid in. The worksheet also indicates the reel strip settings, number of coins that may be played, the payout schedule, the number of reels and other information descriptive of the particular type of slot machine.

Weight count is an American term, referring to the dollar amount of coins or tokens removed from a slot machine's drop bucket or drop box and counted by the casino's hard count team through the use of a weigh scale.

Wild Symbol Wild symbols act like joker cards in a slot game. Basically, they substitute for all other symbols in the game, usually except for other special symbols, such as scatter and jackpot.

They can appear on any of the reels. However, this is not mandatory and can be changed from game to game. In some games, wild symbols can appear only on certain reels.

Or, they can appear only during the bonus rounds. The player must refer to the rules and paytable of the game to learn about the landing rules. Mobile is when the slot machine is hosted for online gambling and it is usually available for use on a phone, tablet, or other portable device. These are often standalone mobile casino applications but are also found as part of the online casino site.

Each machine has a table that lists the number of credits the player will receive if the symbols listed on the pay table line up on the pay line of the machine. Some symbols are wild and can represent many, or all, of the other symbols to complete a winning line.

Especially on older machines, the pay table is listed on the face of the machine, usually above and below the area containing the wheels. Most video machines display the pay table when the player presses a "pay table" button or touches "pay table" on the screen; some have the pay table listed on the cabinet as well.

Historically, all slot machines used revolving mechanical reels to display and determine results. Although the original slot machine used five reels, simpler, and therefore more reliable, three reel machines quickly became the standard.

This limited the manufacturer's ability to offer large jackpots since even the rarest event had a likelihood of 0. Although the number of symbols eventually increased to about 22, allowing 10, combinations, [20] this still limited jackpot sizes as well as the number of possible outcomes. In the s, however, slot machine manufacturers incorporated electronics into their products and programmed them to weight particular symbols.

Thus the odds of losing symbols appearing on the payline became disproportionate to their actual frequency on the physical reel. A symbol would only appear once on the reel displayed to the player, but could, in fact, occupy several stops on the multiple reel.

With microprocessors now ubiquitous, the computers inside modern slot machines allow manufacturers to assign a different probability to every symbol on every reel. To the player it might appear that a winning symbol was 'so close', whereas in fact the probability is much lower.

In the s in the UK machines embodying microprocessors became common. These used a number of features to ensure the payout was controlled within the limits of the gambling legislation. As the coin was inserted into the machine it could go one of two routes, either direct into the cashbox for the benefit of the owner, or alternatively it would go into a channel that formed the payout reservoir, the microprocessor monitoring the number of coins in this channel.

The drums themselves were driven by stepper motors, controlled by the processor and with proximity sensors monitoring the position of the drums. A "look up table" within the software allows the processor to know what symbols were being displayed on the drums to the gambler.

This allowed the system to control the level of payout by stopping the drums at positions it had determined. If the payout channel had filled up, the payout became more generous, if nearly empty, less so thus giving good control of the odds. The video slot machine is a more recent innovation, with no moving parts at all — instead a graphical representation of one appears on screen.

In addition, because there are no mechanical constraints on the design of video slot machines, most display five reels rather than three. This greatly expands the number of possibilities: As there are so many combinations given by five reels, the manufacturers do not need to weight the payout symbols although some may still do so. Instead, higher paying symbols will typically appear only once or twice on each reel, while more common symbols, earning a more frequent payout, will appear many times.

Video slot machines typically encourage the player to play multiple "lines", so rather than simply taking the middle of the three symbols displayed on each reel, a line could go from top left to bottom right, or any of the other patterns specified by the manufacturer.

As each symbol is equally likely, there is no difficulty for the manufacturer in allowing the player to take any or all of the possible lines on offer — the long-term return to player will be the same. The difference for the player is that the more lines he plays the more likely he is to get paid on a given spin — though of course he is betting more in the first place. To avoid the feeling that the player's money is simply ebbing away whereas a payout of credits on a single line machine would be bets, and the player would feel they had made a substantial win, on a 20 line machine, it would only be 5 bets and would not seem significant , manufacturers commonly offer bonus games, which can return many times their bet.

The player is encouraged to keep playing to reach the bonus: All modern machines are designed using pseudo random number generators "PRNGs" , which are constantly generating a sequence of simulated random numbers, at a rate of hundreds or perhaps thousands per second. As soon as the "Play" button is pressed, the most recent random number is used to determine the result.

This means that the result varies depending on exactly when the game is played. A fraction of a second earlier or later, and the result would be different.

It is important that the machine contains a high-quality RNG implementation, because all PRNGs must eventually repeat their number sequence, [23] and if the period is short, or the PRNG is otherwise flawed, an advanced player may be able to 'predict' the next result. Having access to the PRNG code and seed values, Ronald Dale Harris , a former slot machine programmer, discovered equations for specific gambling games like Keno that allowed him to predict what the next set of selected numbers would be based on the previous games played.

Most machines are designed to defeat this by generating numbers even when the machine is not being played, so the player cannot tell where in the sequence they are, even if he knows how the machine was programmed.

This is known as the "theoretical payout percentage" or RTP, "return to player". The minimum theoretical payout percentage varies among jurisdictions and is typically established by law or regulation. The winning patterns on slot machines — the amounts they pay and the frequencies of those payouts — are carefully selected to yield a certain fraction of the money played to the "house" the operator of the slot machine , while returning the rest to the players during play.

Within some EGM development organizations this concept is referred to simply as "par. A slot machine's theoretical payout percentage is set at the factory when the software is written. Changing the payout percentage after a slot machine has been placed on the gaming floor requires a physical swap of the software or firmware , which is usually stored on an EPROM but may be loaded onto non-volatile random access memory NVRAM or even stored on CD-ROM or DVD , depending on the capabilities of the machine and the applicable regulations.

Based on current technology, this is a time-consuming process and as such is done infrequently. Other jurisdictions, including Nevada, randomly audit slot machines to ensure that they contain only approved software.

Historically, many casinos, both online and offline, have been unwilling to publish individual game RTP figures, making it impossible for the player to know whether they are playing a "loose" or a "tight" game. Since the turn of the century some information regarding these figures has started to come into the public domain either through various casinos releasing them - primarily this applies to online casino - or through studies by independent gambling authorities.

The return to player is not the only statistic that is of interest. The probabilities of every payout on the pay table is also critical. For example, consider a hypothetical slot machine with a dozen different values on the pay table. However, the probabilities of getting all the payouts are zero except the largest one.

Also, most people would not win anything, and having entries on the paytable that have a return of zero would be deceptive. As these individual probabilities are closely guarded secrets, it is possible that the advertised machines with high return to player simply increase the probabilities of these jackpots.

The added advantage is that these large jackpots increase the excitement of the other players. This game, in its original form, is obsolete, so these specific probabilities do not apply.

He only published the odds after a fan of his sent him some information provided on a slot machine that was posted on a machine in the Netherlands. The psychology of the machine design is quickly revealed. There are 13 possible payouts ranging from 1: Most players assume the likelihood increases proportionate to the payout. The one midsize payout that is designed to give the player a thrill is the It is programmed to occur an average of once every plays.

In contrast the The highest payout of 2, The player who continues to feed the machine is likely to have several midsize payouts, but unlikely to have a large payout. He quits after he is bored or has exhausted his bankroll. Despite the fact that they are confidential, occasionally a PAR sheet is posted on a website.

They have limited value to the player, because usually a machine will have 8 to 12 different possible programs with varying payouts. In addition, slight variations of each machine e. The casino operator can choose which EPROM chip to install in any particular machine to select the payout desired.

The result is that there is not really such a thing as a high payback type of machine, since every machine potentially has multiple settings. Without revealing the proprietary information, he developed a program that would allow him to determine with usually less than a dozen plays on each machine which EPROM chip was installed.

Then he did a survey of over machines in 70 different casinos in Las Vegas. He averaged the data, and assigned an average payback percentage to the machines in each casino. The resultant list was widely publicized for marketing purposes especially by the Palms casino which had the top ranking. One reason that the slot machine is so profitable to a casino is that the player must play the high house edge and high payout wagers along with the low house edge and low payout wagers.

Other bets have a higher house edge, but the player is rewarded with a bigger win up to thirty times in craps. The player can choose what kind of wager he wants to make. A slot machine does not afford such an opportunity. Theoretically, the operator could make these probabilities available, or allow the player to choose which one so that the player is free to make a choice. However, no operator has ever enacted this strategy. Different machines have different maximum payouts, but without knowing the odds of getting the jackpot, there is no rational way to differentiate.

In many markets where central monitoring and control systems are used to link machines for auditing and security purposes, usually in wide area networks of multiple venues and thousands of machines, player return must usually be changed from a central computer rather than at each machine. A range of percentages is set in the game software and selected remotely. In , the Nevada Gaming Commission began working with Las Vegas casinos on technology that would allow the casino's management to change the game, the odds, and the payouts remotely.

The change cannot be done instantaneously, but only after the selected machine has been idle for at least four minutes. After the change is made, the machine must be locked to new players for four minutes and display an on-screen message informing potential players that a change is being made.

Often machines are linked together in a way that allows a group of machines to offer a particularly large prize, or "jackpot". Each slot machine in the group contributes a small amount to this progressive jackpot , awarded to a player who gets, for example, a royal flush on a video poker machine or a specific combination of symbols on a regular or nine-line slot machine. The amount paid for the progressive jackpot is usually far higher than any single slot machine could pay on its own.

In some cases multiple machines are linked across multiple casinos. In these cases, the machines may be owned by the manufacturer, who is responsible for paying the jackpot. The casinos lease the machines rather than owning them outright. Casinos in New Jersey, Nevada, and South Dakota now offer multi-state progressive jackpots, which now offer bigger jackpot pools. Mechanical slot machines and their coin acceptors were sometimes susceptible to cheating devices and other scams.

One historical example involved spinning a coin with a short length of plastic wire. The weight and size of the coin would be accepted by the machine and credits would be granted. However, the spin created by the plastic wire would cause the coin to exit through the reject chute into the payout tray.

This particular scam has become obsolete due to improvements in newer slot machines. Another obsolete method of defeating slot machines was to use a light source to confuse the optical sensor used to count coins during payout. Modern slot machines are controlled by EPROM computer chips and, in large casinos, coin acceptors have become obsolete in favor of bill acceptors. These machines and their bill acceptors are designed with advanced anti-cheating and anti-counterfeiting measures and are difficult to defraud.

Early computerized slot machines were sometimes defrauded through the use of cheating devices, such as the "slider" or "monkey paw". Computerized slot machines are fully deterministic and thus outcomes can be sometimes successfully predicted. Malfunctioning electronic slot machines are capable of indicating jackpot winnings far in excess of those advertised. In the United States, the public and private availability of slot machines is highly regulated by state governments.

Many states have established gaming control boards to regulate the possession and use of slot machines. Nevada is the only state that has no significant restrictions against slot machines both for public and private use. In New Jersey , slot machines are only allowed in hotel casinos operated in Atlantic City. Several states Illinois , Indiana , Louisiana and Missouri allow slot machines as well as any casino-style gambling only on licensed riverboats or permanently anchored barges.

Since Hurricane Katrina , Mississippi has removed the requirement that casinos on the Gulf Coast operate on barges and now allows them on land along the shoreline. Delaware allows slot machines at three horse tracks; they are regulated by the state lottery commission.

In Wisconsin, bars and taverns are allowed to have up to five machines. These machines usually allow a player to either take a payout, or gamble it on a double-or-nothing "side game". A player redeems his winnings by pressing a button to print a ticket, which the bartender redeems for cash.

The territory of Puerto Rico places significant restrictions on slot machine ownership, but the law is widely flouted and slot machines are common in bars and coffeeshops.

Conversely, in Connecticut , Hawaii , Nebraska , South Carolina , and Tennessee , private ownership of any slot machine is completely prohibited. The remaining states allow slot machines of a certain age typically 25—30 years or slot machines manufactured before a specific date. For a detailed list of state-by-state regulations on private slot machine ownership, see U.

Native American casinos located in reservations are not permitted to have slot machines unless the tribe first reaches a pact with the state in which it is located per Indian Gaming Regulatory Act. Typically, a pact entitles the state to receive a fraction of the gross revenue from slot machines.

Some states have restrictions on the type called "class" of slot machines that can be used in a casino or other gaming area. The Indian Gaming Regulatory Act establishes three classes of games with a different regulatory scheme for each: Class I gaming is defined as 1 traditional Indian gaming, which may be part of tribal ceremonies and celebrations, and 2 social gaming for minimal prizes. Regulatory authority over class I gaming is vested exclusively in tribal governments and is not subject to IGRA's requirements.

Class II gaming is defined as the game of chance commonly known as bingo whether or not electronic, computer, or other technological aids are used in connection therewith and, if played in the same location as the bingo , pull tabs, punch board, tip jars, instant bingo, and other games similar to bingo.

Class II gaming also includes non-banked card games , that is, games that are played exclusively against other players rather than against the house or a player acting as a bank. The Act specifically excludes slot machines or electronic facsimiles of any game of chance from the definition of class II games. Tribes retain their authority to conduct, license, and regulate class II gaming, provided it complies with the Act - including the requirement that the Tribal government adopt a gaming ordinance approved by the National Indian Gaming Commission NIGC.

Tribal governments are the primary entity responsible for regulating class II gaming on its lands. Only Hawaii and Utah continue to prohibit all types of gaming. The definition of class III gaming is broad. It includes all forms of gaming that are neither class I nor II.

Games commonly played at casinos , such as slot machines , blackjack , craps , and roulette , clearly fall in the class III category, as well as wagering games and electronic facsimiles of any game of chance. Generally, class III is often referred to as casino-style gaming. The regulatory scheme for class III gaming is more complex than a casual reading of the statute might suggest. Although Congress clearly intended regulatory issues to be addressed in Tribal-State compacts , it left a number of key functions in federal hands, including approval authority over compacts, management contracts, and Tribal gaming ordinances.

Congress also vested the Commission with broad authority to issue regulations in furtherance of the purposes of the Act. Many American casinos offer free memberships in "slot clubs", which return a fraction of the amount of money that is bet in the form of comps complimentary food, drinks, hotel rooms, or merchandise , or sometimes as cash or a promise to pay cash at a later date.

These clubs require that players use cards that are inserted into the slot machines, to allow the casinos to track the players' "action" how much each player bets and for how long , which is often used to establish levels of play that may make players eligible for additional comps. These fall under the jurisdiction of the province or territory without reference to the federal government. Thus no two provincial regulatory or operational regimes are the same.

The 10 provinces all have gaming departments and slot machine play is available in venues across all. Part of the revenues go to the local government which in turn gives a percentage to the federal government. Choice of slots available is a province by province negotiation with the local Gaming Department.

Individual territories have such small populations that there are no dedicated departments or land based facilities to play. The history of First Nation's gaming in Canada is short but contentious. Only 12 First Nation casinos exist scattered over five provinces.

The Assembly of First Nations view jurisdiction over gaming on First Nation land as part of their constitutional rights protected by section 35 1 of the Constitution Act, However the Supreme Court of Canada has rejected First Nation's claims to a right to conduct gaming activities. Nevertheless, the First Nation casino's largest revenue driver is from slot machine play and the regulation of these is by agreement with an Indigenous Gaming Regulator, a delegated sub-group of each province Gaming Authority.

All provinces have dedicated problem gambling help lines and research, and the territories have health and social service support for individuals with gambling problems. In Australia "Poker Machines" or "pokies" [38] are officially termed "gaming machines".

Australian-style gaming machines frequently use video displays to simulate physical reels, usually five. These machines have additional bonusing and second-screen features such as free games and bonus levels. They also allow for multiple lines up to or multiple ways up to 3, to be played. Late in , there were , poker machines operating in Australia, which was 2. On multiway games, players play the entire position of each reel instead of fixed lines or patterns.

For instance, if a player plays 1 reel on a way game, they receive three symbols in the first reel which pay anywhere in the three positions, while all other reels pay in the centre only, with unused areas darkened. On the other end of the scale, if the player plays 5 reels, symbols can appear anywhere in the window and will pay as long as there is one in each reel.

Most games however still require the symbols appearing left to right, sometimes this even includes scatters. Other multiway games give you even more ways by using a 4x5 or 5x5 pattern, where there are up to 5 symbols in each reel, allowing for up to 1, and 3, ways to win respectively.

These games typically cost more than their way Reel Power counterparts. Recently, IGT has also started to manufacture multiway games. Gaming machine manufacturer Konami Australia also made an alternative way of gaming by using patterns, where symbols pay adjacent to one another.

Most of these games have a hexagonal reel formation, and much like multiway games, any patterns not played are darkened out of use. On both systems, scatter symbols still pay in the darkened areas just like standard machines where scatters don't have to appear on a payline.

The laws regulating the use of gaming machines in Australia are a matter for State governments, and as such they vary between States. Gaming machines are found in casinos approximately one in each major city as well as pubs and clubs in some states usually sports, social, or RSL clubs.

The first Australian state to legalize this style of gambling was New South Wales in when they were made legal in all registered clubs in the state.

refer them

So let's talk about the business model here. In the old days, casinos were interested in the high rollers who flew into Las Vegas for a weekend and blew all their money. But now it seems like they're looking at repeat customers who will play video slots for as long as possible.

T his is what some have termed the "CostCo model," where casinos make their profits from volume. You're not just fleecing the big whale and getting him out. Money is made from low-rollers who are playing much, much more. So you don't want to tap your consumers out. It's more about how to get customers to come back, or looking at the value of a customer over their whole lifetime. One place you see this is in Las Vegas and the Midwest is in a shift toward locals.

T here's this massive residential gambling community with their own casinos, designed in slightly different ways, and catering to this time-on-device model. Because this is what the locals want — to sit in front of the machine and zone out.

These are not people who are flying into Vegas to lose everything they can in one weekend and then go home. There have also been huge advances in payment systems to — essentially making it easier for people to put money in these machines. That's another level of smoothing, another way to make the experience more effortless. And what that does, it really just speeds things up.

We haven't even talked about the addiction aspect. But these games are solitary, they're really fast, they're continuous and uninterrupted. In a way, it's similar to how casinos try to avoid having pathways with right angles. Because what that does, that makes the consumer come to a stop and call on the decision-making part of their brains.

Casinos don't want that. They want to curve you gently to where they want you to go. And it's the same thing with the money technology. They don't want you to make a decision about paying to gamble more. They want it to be so readily accessible at your fingertips that it's almost a non-decision to continue. And this is why you see in various countries a discussion of whether those kinds of features are something that should be regulated.

So there are ideas like slowing down the reel. Or things like reducing the amount of credit you can put into a machine, or forcing people to pay with cash. Australia and Canada, mostly. You see long debates that themselves seem absurd, like should we slow the reels down to 2. But that's because addiction is really about the intensity, the immediacy, the speed. Something happens right away, and then it can happen right away again.

Slot machines are like that. The event frequency is really intensified. On a slot machine you're playing up to 1, spins an hour. That's very different from a horse race or even a poker game, where you have to wait for the cards to come around.

And every event that happens is another opportunity to reinforce the behavior. So that's where the addictiveness lies. It's solitary, continuous, and really rapid. How would you characterize the regulatory environment in the United States?

A lot more lenient? Especially, post, the idea is that state legislatures — whether its New Hampshire or Massachusetts — have gone through the trouble of loosening their standards to allow these machines.

A nd once these bills pass it, no one wants these machines to fail. And the regulators and legislators talk quite openly about this — you hear them at expos and conferences talk a lot about how it's a "partnership," how they need to work together to get innovations passed. Your book suggests that player tracking is going to be the next big advance in the gaming industry.

It's really become super critical to the industry. If the industry is focused on regular customers or repeat players, they're going to need to get a sense of each individual's habits via data tracking, and then refine the way they market to that person.

And part of that involves mail marketing or offering bonuses. But in the future we're likely to see a shift to online or server-based games. And tracking will be critical there.

So the way this might work is you sit down at a machine and it downloads particular games based on what it knows about you — the kind of games you would like, they sort of volatility you prefer. It also seems that player tracking can be used to manage the moods of existing players. Like if you see that a player's having a bad streak, a casino worker can come by and offer a free drink or a free breakfast to perk them up and stop them from leaving. We were talking about lax regulations and this is one perfect example of this.

It is technically illegal for casinos to change the odds of game once you sit down and start playing. But casinos can watch you play and, if they notice that you're nearing your pain point and about to leave, they can dispatch a "luck ambassador" to come give you a lunch bonus. And they can get around the rules about changing odds by classifying that as "marketing. Although, casinos have actually found that those luck ambassadors backfired — a lot of players didn't want to be interrupted.

So now they're trying to find better ways to do this. And recently there are some experiments with changing the machine mid-game. You can go in and change the volatility of the game while preserving the overall payback percentage. So you're taking a volatile machine and turning it into a smooth drip feed for a period — to get a player who's on a bad streak back on track. And technically that circumvents the rules on changing the odds. And they're doing that by classifying some of these mathematical operations as "marketing" — even though they're actually changing the algorithm of the game.

Now walk me through the debate over addiction and problem gambling. There are a couple different camps here. Some people — including the gaming industry — place the onus on managing the problem on the individual. Typically, this side will also argue that there are a few poor souls out there who have just been dealt a bad hand and especially prone to addiction.

If they weren't gambling they'd be doing something else. But, the argument goes, this is only 1 to 2 percent of the population. And everybody else can gamble with immunity. I take a very different position in the book, which is that of course some people are more predisposed to these kinds of problems by virtue of biography or brain chemistry. But by the same token, certain technologies are more liable to addict.

And I'd like to put some of the responsibility back there. The whole modus operandi of the industry is to approach the human being as something that's manipulable. So how do you address problem gambling?

I mean in the book you describe a whole bunch of people who have real problems with this machine gambling — people who will spend days at end in the casinos, maxing out credit cards, neglecting their kids….

I do think in terms of treatment, once one is an addict, it's very important to do whatever works — whether that's Gambling Anonymous, therapy, possible medication, or just avoiding these kinds of environments. But in terms of prevention, I do think regulation needs to be part of that discussion.

There's no equivalent of the FDA for these machines. And I'm not holding up the FDA as some model of consumer protection, but these machines are affecting people far more than some over-the-counter drugs that are heavily regulated out there. It seems absurd that we draw a line between aspirin and these machines. And yet there's no discussion — because so much focus is on how people are choosing to spend money this way.

So I see my work as trying to open the door to discussion of this technology and to figure out whether some sort of accountability and regulation of it might be appropriate. Are there regulations or preventions that have actually been shown to reduce problem gambling? So scholars have gone through the evidence on this, looking at various proposals, and some proposed fixes really do seem to backfire. F or example, slowing down the reels might actually make people sit there longer.

And that's the industry's position, that you can't fix this through the technology, because the addict will compensate by changing her own behavior. But there's also evidence that some of these measures do work. So, for instance, if the time that people are spending on these machines is a problem, you cut people off after a certain amount of time.

Some countries do this — the machine at least will beep some message saying you've been gambling for this long, would you like to take a break? Some states like Massachusetts are experimenting with some other regulations. They'll make it easier for people to make pre-commitments. So people are regulating themselves through self-tracking modules. That's one approach you see more and more.

Can't casinos use these player-tracking systems to figure out who's sliding into problem gambling and intervene? That kind of thing was discussed in Massachusetts — but they eventually moved away from it. The idea is that casinos could track players to see when they are sliding into addiction. Because you can pick that up quite reliably with tracking. But then there's a tricky question of whether casinos have a legal duty of care to freeze up the machine or intervene when these patterns are detected.

Some players get so hooked by the flow of the game that they actually get annoyed when they win a jackpot. The stereotypical gambler in Las Vegas is no longer an older man playing cards — but a year-old mother hooked on slots. Some proposed interventions may even end up backfiring. But these devices are now driving the gambling industry and bringing in the majority of profits One of the reasons these machines rose to popularity had to do with the recession in the s.

Where are those regulatory discussions happening? A casino cannot use a weighted dice or a stacked deck of cards, but weighted reels are common in slot machines, and most players are not aware of this.

To learn more, click on the video below:. Unbalanced reels are created when one reel contains fewer jackpot symbols than the other reels. This makes it more likely that players will see two jackpot symbols but less likely they will see three. This creates a type of near miss. When players watch the reels spinning, it looks as if all symbols have an equal chance of coming up, but this is not the case. Players would have no way of knowing that one of the reels is lacking in jackpot symbols and could believe they have a better chance of winning than they really do.

A false win occurs when the amount the player wins on a spin is less than the amount wagered. The slot machine celebrates this as a win even though the player lost money on the spin. Players may feel as if they are winning when they are not. A near miss occurs when a jackpot symbol appears directly above or below the payline, making it appear that it was one spot away from a win. Players may believe that they almost won, but the truth is that a loss is a loss.

The symbols displayed above or below the payline have nothing to do with how close the player was to winning the jackpot. In Ontario, it is legal to program near misses above and below the payline to occur up to 12 times more often than they would occur naturally as a result of chance.

The stop button may give players the illusion of control but has no impact on the outcome of the game. In fact, by the time the reels are spinning, the outcome has already been determined; the game is over. The outcome was decided the instant the player pressed the spin button, but the reels spin for five to six seconds before displaying that outcome to the player.

When someone puts money into a slot machine, it is automatically converted into credits. The focus on credits means that players are less aware of the amount of money they are spending.

This may lead players to overspend. Players have to multiply the number of credits by the cost per credit to determine how much they have actually spent. In Ontario, many machines will also display the dollar amount, but in a position and size that makes it harder to notice. When playing a slot machine, a player may experience frequent small wins.

These small wins are not enough to compensate for the amount of money lost, and the money from the wins is usually rolled back into the game. Like false wins, small wins give players the feeling that they are doing better than they really are. This may create the illusion that continuing to play will lead to a large win, when in fact extended play typically leads to more losses. Players are more likely to stop playing when they have a large win and more likely to continue gambling when they have a smaller win.

That is because with multi-line games, players can choose to play many credits over many lines. Often, the machines themselves will encourage players to play the maximum number of lines, as shown in the picture below. Slot machines are huge revenue generators, and many of their features are designed to keep players in their seats in order to maximize revenue for the operator. Players need to be aware of these game features, as some of the same elements that make slot machine play exciting for some people can be misleading and cause problems for others.

Kevin is a professor who teaches computer-game design and conducts research on slot machines. His team also produced the videos used in this section. About Gambling What are Odds?

Information on this site is not to be used for diagnosis, treatment or referral services and CAMH does not provide diagnostic, treatment or referral services through the Internet.

Pokies Wincleaner Serial Key

How To Hack Arcade Claw Machines