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  1. Construction Workers. Manual labor jobs are also under threat by automation. Robotic bricklayers will soon be introduced to construction sites that enable the machines to replace two to three human workers each, reports Technology Review. SAM (Semi-Automated Mason) can lay up to 1, bricks a day.:
    We all know, or at least suspect, that robots are taking people's jobs, but new research shows the dramatic degree to which industrial robots are replacing human workers and forcing down coinsluckyz.comg: pokie. The discussion tends toward a Manichean guessing game: which jobs will or won't be replaced by machines? In fact, as our research has begun to show, the story is more nuanced. While automation will eliminate very few occupations entirely in the next decade, it will affect portions of almost all jobs to a greater or lesser  Missing: pokie. Younger people go to casinos, but they don't like to gamble as much. Some casinos are testing slot machines that are more like video games — but these new machines still have some kinks to work out. STEVE INSKEEP, HOST: Casinos have a gambling problem. Young people are not playing slot.
  2. Australia's Chief Scientist Alan Finkel says while it's possible to build robots to take over jobs – including his own – humanity still has the edge over True, I now come in digital versions, through Twitter and Facebook and other platforms, but the availability of those tools hasn't stopped people from inviting.:
    The integration of robots into production processes will impact on traditional liability arrangements and raise a range of other legal issues for manufacturers to consider, including in relation to health, safety and data protection. A rise in the number of robots in operation might also prompt social and ethical. by John Wilson. If you want to find a group of superstitious people, look no further than your local casino, where you will be hard-pressed to find anyone more superstitious than an avid slot player. Lucky stuffed animals, good luck charms and wishes for “Lady Luck” are common in the casino. When a machine is finally on a.
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They might do this automatically, or you might have to push the spin button. In all cases, however, the machine knows where it was supposed to end up and will try to get to the same place again.

If another error comes up, it waits until the error is cleared and then tries again. Even if the machine has to be turned off so that some component can be replaced, the slot machine will retain the information about the game that was in progress so that it can continue when the power is turned back on.

Once more, this is a legal requirement of the gaming commission. And these situations are checked to make sure that the machine acts appropriately. Otherwise, that spin might have resulted in a jackpot and after the error you would get a different result.

Conversely, the game might have been a losing game and after the error it picked a jackpot. The gaming test labs and gaming commissions make sure that the machine works fairly. Fair applies to both the player and the casino. With these tickets, usually around 50 cents to one dollar each, there are five perforated sections that you peel open to see if you won.

There are various themes, including slot machines. Many people think that slot machines play like the pull-tab games. With the pull-tabs, the seller opens up a bag or box of tickets and puts them into a Lucite container. In the box is every possible combination of game outcome.

Suppose that we have tickets in the box and that there is only one jackpot prize. If you are the first customer, your chances are one in of hitting the jackpot. You now have 1 in as one losing ticket has been removed from the box.

This is twice the chance of hitting the jackpot as the first game you played. The key difference here is that in a pull-tab game winning and losing combinations are removed from the box and your chances of winning or losing changes after each game. If the first person wins the jackpot amount, then people will have no chance of winning the jackpot. If you win the super megamoney billion-dollar jackpot then you have beat great odds in winning that jackpot.

However, the next spin gives you the exact same odds of winning as you had the game before. Winning and losing games are not taken away or replaced. The slot machine does not keep track of the game before so that it affects the next game. A legal requirement of slot machines in all gaming jurisdictions is that each spin of the game must have precisely the same probability of winning or losing and that the probability of each particular type of payout three BARS, for example will remain constant.

As the machine picks random numbers, you might or might not have a winning combination selected from the random numbers. Resetting the machine does not reset the RNG. In fact, the machine will store the arithmetic process to determine the random number and it preserves this at all time.

This means the slot machine might have generated million random numbers when your hopper ran out of coins and the attendant had to reset it. However, the machines must retain the previous state of the random number generator and continue from this point. Even shutting off the machine and unplugging it will have no affect on this. The machine records all of the information in non-volatile memory so that when the power is shut off nothing changes.

It simply picks up from where it left off. If the machine has picked 50 million random numbers when it is turned off, the next number generated when it is turned back on will be the 50,,st number. This means that any restarting of the machine or resetting will not have any affect on the game outcome. Once such robot called the Tally is designed to audit shelves for out-of-stock items, misplaced items, and pricing errors, reports Inverse.

Tally roams the aisles and uses multiple sensors to scan the shelves, alerting human staff of its findings. Farmers are being replaced by artificially intelligent robots that can do everything from milk cows to pull lettuce. A family-owned dairy farm in Germany is one of the first to install Voluntary Milking System robots that allow cows to walk up to the machines at their leisure when they want to be milked, reports Modern Farmer. And more than 1 million of the U.

While traditional taxi drivers may be feeling the pinch from the likes of Uber and Lyft, drivers of all three will see their jobs dry up as autonomous vehicles hit the road. Uber is testing such vehicles and Singapore is the first country to already put up to a dozen on the roads.

A common refrain you hear from populist politicians the world over is that they will bring manufacturing jobs back to the U. Foxconn, the manufacturer who makes everything from iPhones to Xboxes, recently replaced 60, workers with robots.

Sadly, not even my job is safe. It turns out writing is not a problem for AI. In , the Associated Press began to use intelligent software to write quarterly earnings reports. Up to 3, reports are being written by AI every quarter, the Verge reported. Matter of fact, the use of CGI to bring actors to the big screen was recently the subject of an excellent sci-fi flick called The Congress , starring Robin Wright as herself. Is the world going to become a place in which automation is everywhere yet employment is scarce?

Automation Automation robots robotics unemployment wages technological unemployment economics technology science futurism. About the author George Dvorsky. George Dvorsky George is a contributing editor at Gizmodo and io9. More from our network.

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In our world, AI are the interlopers. We are the incumbents. And we make it extraordinarily hard. Think, for example, of a real estate negotiation. We could rationalise it as an exchange of one economic asset for another.

In reality, we know that our actions will be swayed by sentiment, insecurity and peer pressure. In that swirl of reason and emotion, the art of the real estate agent is to anticipate, pivot and nudge. The human real estate agent is the package deal. She can harness AI to sharpen her perceptions and overcome cognitive biases.

Then she can hit the human buttons to flatter, deflect or persuade. That human touch is hard to replicate, and even harder to reduce to a formula and scale. Team Human, three goals to nil. We humans have learned the habit of civilisation. Let me illustrate this point by a story. A few years ago, some researchers set out to investigate the way that people interact with robots. They sent out a small robot to patrol the local mall. That robot had a terrible time — and the villains of the story were children.

They kicked him, bullied him, smacked him in the head and called him a string of indelicate names. The point is not that the children were violent. The point is that the adults were not. They restrained whatever primitive impulse they might have felt in childhood to smack something smaller and weaker in the head, because they had absorbed the habit of living together.

We call it civilisation. Surgeons admit to mistakes in surgery and would use robots if they reduced the risks. Together, these points suggest to me that humanity has a powerful competitive edge.

We can coexist with our increasingly capable machines and we can make space for the full breadth of human talents to flourish. But if we want that future — that human future — we have to want it, claim it and own it. Take it from a human Chief Scientist: YorkTalks — York, York.

Social Personhood — Manchester, Manchester. The true language of religion — Egham, Surrey. The effects of automation on the insurance industry are already being felt. First it was the ATM that ate into human banking jobs, then the smartphone app.

Once thought indispensable to a company, keen-eyed financial analysts could spot a trend before it happened, allowing institutions to adjust their portfolios and potentially make billions of dollars. But human financial analysts can no longer compete with artificially intelligent financial analysis software that can read and recognize trends in historic data to predict future market moves.

Manual labor jobs are also under threat by automation. Robotic bricklayers will soon be introduced to construction sites that enable the machines to replace two to three human workers each, reports Technology Review. SAM Semi-Automated Mason can lay up to 1, bricks a day, compared to the to a human can do.

While a human is still required to work with SAM to complete the more nuanced tasks, the use of SAM reduces the need for the three other bricklayers it would take to do the same job. Other on-site construction jobs such as crane operators and bulldozer drivers can also expect to see their positions filled by AI-controlled machines in the next decade.

The supermarket employee restocking the cans in aisle three may soon no longer be a person. As robots become more advanced, they are capable of performing actions that previously required a pair of eyeballs, such as managing inventory on a store shelf.

Once such robot called the Tally is designed to audit shelves for out-of-stock items, misplaced items, and pricing errors, reports Inverse. Tally roams the aisles and uses multiple sensors to scan the shelves, alerting human staff of its findings. Farmers are being replaced by artificially intelligent robots that can do everything from milk cows to pull lettuce.

A family-owned dairy farm in Germany is one of the first to install Voluntary Milking System robots that allow cows to walk up to the machines at their leisure when they want to be milked, reports Modern Farmer.

And more than 1 million of the U. While traditional taxi drivers may be feeling the pinch from the likes of Uber and Lyft, drivers of all three will see their jobs dry up as autonomous vehicles hit the road. Uber is testing such vehicles and Singapore is the first country to already put up to a dozen on the roads.

A common refrain you hear from populist politicians the world over is that they will bring manufacturing jobs back to the U. Foxconn, the manufacturer who makes everything from iPhones to Xboxes, recently replaced 60, workers with robots. Sadly, not even my job is safe. It turns out writing is not a problem for AI.

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Other on-site construction jobs such as crane operators and bulldozer drivers can also expect to see their positions filled by AI-controlled machines in the next decade. The supermarket employee restocking the cans in aisle three may soon no longer be a person. As robots become more advanced, they are capable of performing actions that previously required a pair of eyeballs, such as managing inventory on a store shelf.

Once such robot called the Tally is designed to audit shelves for out-of-stock items, misplaced items, and pricing errors, reports Inverse.

Tally roams the aisles and uses multiple sensors to scan the shelves, alerting human staff of its findings. Farmers are being replaced by artificially intelligent robots that can do everything from milk cows to pull lettuce.

A family-owned dairy farm in Germany is one of the first to install Voluntary Milking System robots that allow cows to walk up to the machines at their leisure when they want to be milked, reports Modern Farmer. And more than 1 million of the U. While traditional taxi drivers may be feeling the pinch from the likes of Uber and Lyft, drivers of all three will see their jobs dry up as autonomous vehicles hit the road. Uber is testing such vehicles and Singapore is the first country to already put up to a dozen on the roads.

A common refrain you hear from populist politicians the world over is that they will bring manufacturing jobs back to the U. Foxconn, the manufacturer who makes everything from iPhones to Xboxes, recently replaced 60, workers with robots. Sadly, not even my job is safe.

It turns out writing is not a problem for AI. In , the Associated Press began to use intelligent software to write quarterly earnings reports. Up to 3, reports are being written by AI every quarter, the Verge reported. Matter of fact, the use of CGI to bring actors to the big screen was recently the subject of an excellent sci-fi flick called The Congress , starring Robin Wright as herself.

Is the world going to become a place in which automation is everywhere yet employment is scarce? Burton-Cartledge says it all depends on the kinds of policies governments deploy to manage this problem. Similarly, the baby boomer generation are retiring and withdrawing from the workplace, and the generational cohorts following them are less numerous. With tighter labor markets, wage pressures are likely to build, and the solution to protect profits is to invest in more automation.

Therefore the worst case is sharpening unemployment. Other errors occur when the machine is not working properly and tells the staff to check the machine and repair the problem. In some cases the machine may encounter a serious problem that prevents it from completing the game. Perhaps one of the reels gets stuck and cannot move properly. The error code displayed on the machine will inform the technician about the problem and the machine will lock up to prevent you from continuing to use it.

More than likely, the reels will go into a mode where they spin very slowly and continually to indicate that a problem has occurred. Once the problem has been fixed, the machine then needs to be reset.

In reality, this sends a notification to the slot machine that a technician has seen the error and performed some form of diagnostics to fix the error.

The reset simply acknowledges that the error was identified and corrective action taken. The slot machine then records this and the central computer receives an acknowledgement. The machine will preserve its status before tilting and displaying the error code. Once the error has been corrected, it will resume from the point where it stopped. In all cases of tilts the machine records the symbols that should come up on the payline for the game that had the error.

It then respins the reels to land on the same place they were supposed to land. They might do this automatically, or you might have to push the spin button.

In all cases, however, the machine knows where it was supposed to end up and will try to get to the same place again. If another error comes up, it waits until the error is cleared and then tries again. Even if the machine has to be turned off so that some component can be replaced, the slot machine will retain the information about the game that was in progress so that it can continue when the power is turned back on.

Once more, this is a legal requirement of the gaming commission. And these situations are checked to make sure that the machine acts appropriately. Otherwise, that spin might have resulted in a jackpot and after the error you would get a different result. Conversely, the game might have been a losing game and after the error it picked a jackpot. The gaming test labs and gaming commissions make sure that the machine works fairly. Fair applies to both the player and the casino. With these tickets, usually around 50 cents to one dollar each, there are five perforated sections that you peel open to see if you won.

There are various themes, including slot machines. Many people think that slot machines play like the pull-tab games. With the pull-tabs, the seller opens up a bag or box of tickets and puts them into a Lucite container. In the box is every possible combination of game outcome. Suppose that we have tickets in the box and that there is only one jackpot prize. If you are the first customer, your chances are one in of hitting the jackpot.

You now have 1 in as one losing ticket has been removed from the box. This is twice the chance of hitting the jackpot as the first game you played.

The key difference here is that in a pull-tab game winning and losing combinations are removed from the box and your chances of winning or losing changes after each game.

If the first person wins the jackpot amount, then people will have no chance of winning the jackpot. If you win the super megamoney billion-dollar jackpot then you have beat great odds in winning that jackpot. However, the next spin gives you the exact same odds of winning as you had the game before.

Winning and losing games are not taken away or replaced. The slot machine does not keep track of the game before so that it affects the next game. A legal requirement of slot machines in all gaming jurisdictions is that each spin of the game must have precisely the same probability of winning or losing and that the probability of each particular type of payout three BARS, for example will remain constant.

As the machine picks random numbers, you might or might not have a winning combination selected from the random numbers. Resetting the machine does not reset the RNG. In fact, the machine will store the arithmetic process to determine the random number and it preserves this at all time. This means the slot machine might have generated million random numbers when your hopper ran out of coins and the attendant had to reset it.

However, the machines must retain the previous state of the random number generator and continue from this point. Even shutting off the machine and unplugging it will have no affect on this.

The machine records all of the information in non-volatile memory so that when the power is shut off nothing changes. It simply picks up from where it left off. If the machine has picked 50 million random numbers when it is turned off, the next number generated when it is turned back on will be the 50,,st number.

This means that any restarting of the machine or resetting will not have any affect on the game outcome. This is done for fairness.

Nothing that a slot person does can affect how the machine plays or pays. The games are specifically required by law to preserve the information about each game so that if a tilt or error occurs, the machine will provide you with the same outcome that it would have prior to the tilt condition. There are literally hundreds of safeguards within the machine so that nobody tampers with anything. An extensive nationwide listing of casino entertainment.

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We humans have learned the habit of civilisation. Let me illustrate this point by a story. A few years ago, some researchers set out to investigate the way that people interact with robots. They sent out a small robot to patrol the local mall. That robot had a terrible time — and the villains of the story were children. They kicked him, bullied him, smacked him in the head and called him a string of indelicate names. The point is not that the children were violent. The point is that the adults were not.

They restrained whatever primitive impulse they might have felt in childhood to smack something smaller and weaker in the head, because they had absorbed the habit of living together.

We call it civilisation. Surgeons admit to mistakes in surgery and would use robots if they reduced the risks. Together, these points suggest to me that humanity has a powerful competitive edge. We can coexist with our increasingly capable machines and we can make space for the full breadth of human talents to flourish. But if we want that future — that human future — we have to want it, claim it and own it. Take it from a human Chief Scientist: YorkTalks — York, York.

Social Personhood — Manchester, Manchester. The true language of religion — Egham, Surrey. Available editions United Kingdom.

The rise of the ChiefBot. The real Chief Scientists, Alan Finkel, dancing with a robot. Australia's Chief Scientist , Author provided Let me suggest a third advantage: The human future A few years ago, some researchers set out to investigate the way that people interact with robots. Employment Jobs Automation Robots humans. Help knowledge-based, ethical journalism today. If you tell a robot secrets, you might want to make sure it can forget them too. Social Personhood — Manchester, Manchester Poetry: The true language of religion — Egham, Surrey More events.

Expert Database Find experts with knowledge in: Follow us on social media. Regulatory and social-acceptance issues, such as the degree to which machines are acceptable in any particular setting, must also be weighed. A robot may, in theory, be able to replace some of the functions of a nurse, for example.

But for now, the prospect that this might actually happen in a highly visible way could prove unpalatable for many patients, who expect human contact.

The potential for automation to take hold in a sector or occupation reflects a subtle interplay between these factors and the trade-offs among them. Even when machines do take over some human activities in an occupation, this does not necessarily spell the end of the jobs in that line of work.

On the contrary, their number at times increases in occupations that have been partly automated, because overall demand for their remaining activities has continued to grow. For example, the large-scale deployment of bar-code scanners and associated point-of-sale systems in the United States in the s reduced labor costs per store by an estimated 4.

It also enabled a number of innovations, including increased promotions. But cashiers were still needed; in fact, their employment grew at an average rate of more than 2 percent between and Almost one-fifth of the time spent in US workplaces involves performing physical activities or operating machinery in a predictable environment: Through the adaptation and adoption of currently available technologies, we estimate the technical feasibility of automating such activities at 78 percent, the highest of our seven top-level categories Exhibit 2.

Since predictable physical activities figure prominently in sectors such as manufacturing, food service and accommodations, and retailing, these are the most susceptible to automation based on technical considerations alone. The activities range from packaging products to loading materials on production equipment to welding to maintaining equipment.

Because of the prevalence of such predictable physical work, some 59 percent of all manufacturing activities could be automated, given technical considerations. The overall technical feasibility, however, masks considerable variance.

Within manufacturing, 90 percent of what welders, cutters, solderers, and brazers do, for example, has the technical potential for automation, but for customer-service representatives that feasibility is below 30 percent.

The potential varies among companies as well. Our work with manufacturers reveals a wide range of adoption levels—from companies with inconsistent or little use of automation all the way to quite sophisticated users. Manufacturing, for all its technical potential, is only the second most readily automatable sector in the US economy. A service sector occupies the top spot: According to our analysis, 73 percent of the activities workers perform in food service and accommodations have the potential for automation, based on technical considerations.

Some of this potential is familiar. Automats, or automated cafeterias, for example, have long been in use. Now restaurants are testing new, more sophisticated concepts, like self-service ordering or even robotic servers. But while the technical potential for automating them might be high, the business case must take into account both the benefits and the costs of automation, as well as the labor-supply dynamics discussed earlier. For some of these activities, current wage rates are among the lowest in the United States, reflecting both the skills required and the size of the available labor supply.

Retailing is another sector with a high technical potential for automation. We estimate that 53 percent of its activities are automatable, though, as in manufacturing, much depends on the specific occupation within the sector.

Retailers can take advantage of efficient, technology-driven stock management and logistics, for example. Packaging objects for shipping and stocking merchandise are among the most frequent physical activities in retailing, and they have a high technical potential for automation. So do maintaining records of sales, gathering customer or product information, and other data-collection activities.

But retailing also requires cognitive and social skills. Advising customers which cuts of meat or what color shoes to buy requires judgment and emotional intelligence. The jobs of bookkeepers, accountants, and auditing clerks, for example, require skills and training, so they are scarcer than basic cooks. But the activities they perform cost less to automate, requiring mostly software and a basic computer.

Considerations such as these have led to an observed tendency for higher rates of automation for activities common in some middle-skill jobs—for example, in data collection and data processing. As automation advances in capability, jobs involving higher skills will probably be automated at increasingly high rates. The heat map in Exhibit 3 highlights the wide variation in how automation could play out, both in individual sectors and for different types of activities within them.

For a deeper look across all sectors in the US economy, please see the data representations from McKinsey on automation and US jobs, on public. Across all occupations in the US economy, one-third of the time spent in the workplace involves collecting and processing data.

Both activities have a technical potential for automation exceeding 60 percent. Long ago, many companies automated activities such as administering procurement, processing payrolls, calculating material-resource needs, generating invoices, and using bar codes to track flows of materials.

But as technology progresses, computers are helping to increase the scale and quality of these activities. For example, a number of companies now offer solutions that automate entering paper and PDF invoices into computer systems or even processing loan applications.

Financial services and insurance provide one example of this phenomenon. The world of finance relies on professional expertise: Yet about 50 percent of the overall time of the workforce in finance and insurance is devoted to collecting and processing data, where the technical potential for automation is high. Insurance sales agents gather customer or product information and underwriters verify the accuracy of records.

Securities and financial sales agents prepare sales or other contracts. Bank tellers verify the accuracy of financial data. Once again, the potential is far higher for some occupations than for others. For example, we estimate that mortgage brokers spend as much as 90 percent of their time processing applications. Putting in place more sophisticated verification processes for documents and credit applications could reduce that proportion to just more than 60 percent.

This would free up mortgage advisers to focus more of their time on advising clients rather than routine processing. Both the customer and the mortgage institution get greater value. Other activities in the middle range of the technical potential for automation involve large amounts of physical activity or the operation of machinery in unpredictable environments. These types of activities make up a high proportion of the work in sectors such as farming, forestry, and construction and can be found in many other sectors as well.

Examples include operating a crane on a construction site, providing medical care as a first responder, collecting trash in public areas, setting up classroom materials and equipment, and making beds in hotel rooms. The latter two activities are unpredictable largely because the environment keeps changing.

Schoolchildren leave bags, books, and coats in a seemingly random manner. Likewise, in a hotel room, different guests throw pillows in different places, may or may not leave clothing on their beds, and clutter up the floor space in different ways.

These activities, requiring greater flexibility than those in a predictable environment, are for now more difficult to automate with currently demonstrated technologies: Should technology advance to handle unpredictable environments with the same ease as predictable ones, the potential for automation would jump to 67 percent.

Already, some activities in less predictable settings in farming and construction such as evaluating the quality of crops, measuring materials, or translating blueprints into work requirements are more susceptible to automation.

The hardest activities to automate with currently available technologies are those that involve managing and developing people 9 percent automation potential or that apply expertise to decision making, planning, or creative work 18 percent. These activities, often characterized as knowledge work, can be as varied as coding software, creating menus, or writing promotional materials. For now, computers do an excellent job with very well-defined activities, such as optimizing trucking routes, but humans still need to determine the proper goals, interpret results, or provide commonsense checks for solutions.

The importance of human interaction is evident in two sectors that, so far, have a relatively low technical potential for automation: Overall, healthcare has a technical potential for automation of about 36 percent, but the potential is lower for health professionals whose daily activities require expertise and direct contact with patients. For dental hygienists, that proportion drops to 13 percent. Nonetheless, some healthcare activities, including preparing food in hospitals and administering non-intravenous medications, could be automated if currently demonstrated technologies were adapted.

Data collection, which also accounts for a significant amount of working time in the sector, could become more automated as well. Nursing assistants, for example, spend about two-thirds of their time collecting health information.

Even some of the more complex activities that doctors perform, such as administering anesthesia during simple procedures or reading radiological scans, have the technical potential for automation.

Of all the sectors we have examined, the technical feasibility of automation is lowest in education, at least for now. To be sure, digital technology is transforming the field, as can be seen from the myriad classes and learning vehicles available online.

Yet the essence of teaching is deep expertise and complex interactions with other people.

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