Pokie Machines Wikipedia Search

Each of them affects between five and ten others as well. Poker machines, and the expenditure they generate, are still concentrated in disadvantaged areas. Their effects are therefore felt most strongly by those who can least afford it. The problematic use of poker machines is also strongly associated with financial difficulties including bankruptcy, relationship difficulties including separation and divorce, crime both violent and financialthe neglect and abuse of children, mental and physical ill-health and, in extreme cases, suicide.

Poker machines are not benign taxing machines. They are active contributors to continued economic, social and health inequality and for the intergenerational transmission of disadvantage. This is not a legacy of which a reforming and progressive Labor premier would be proud.

It is little wonder, then, that along with former Liberal premier Jeff Kennett — who succeeded Kirner as premier and energetically oversaw the expansion of the gambling business — she regretted the expansion of poker machines into pubs and clubs.

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  • A slot machine (American English), informally fruit machine (British English), puggy (Scottish English slang), the slots (Canadian and American English), poker machine (or pokies in slang) or simply slot (American English), is a casino gambling machine with three or more reels which spin when a button is pushed.‎History · ‎Terminology · ‎Technology · ‎Legislation.

They both believed that poker machines should be limited to the casino, as occurs in Western Australia. It is easy in hindsight to see where policy decisions went awry. Gambling is a major social problem. Kirner was a great leader and a tireless political campaigner. It is interesting that she found herself premier at a moment in Victorian political history when she was convinced by the gambling industry and its political mates that gambling revenue was the answer to a fiscal prayer.

YorkTalks — York, York. Raising Horizons — York, York. Seeing past and present in the glazed cloister of Park Abbey — York, York. Available editions United Kingdom. Department of Internal Affairs. An Economically Significant Industry". Archived from the original on 4 May NZ Electronic Text Centre.

Retrieved from " https: Gambling in New Zealand New Zealand society.

All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from April Use dmy dates from April Views Read Edit View history. In other projects Wikimedia Commons. This page was last edited on 10 Octoberat The machines are regulated with integrated circuitsand have six different levels changing the odds of a Indeed, the Japanese slot machines are "beatable".

The parlor operators naturally set most of the machines to collect money, but intentionally place a few paying machines on the floor so that there will be at least someone winning, encouraging players on the losing machines to keep gambling, using the psychology of the gambler's fallacy. Despite the many varieties of the machines, there are certain rules and regulations put forward by the "Security Electronics and Communication Technology Association", an affiliate of the National Police Agency.

For example, there must be three reels.

Also, all reels must be accompanied by buttons which stop these reels, the reels may not spin faster than 80 revolutions per minute, and the reels must stop within 0. In practice, this translates to "the machines can't let the Pokie Machines Wikipedia Search slip more than 4 symbols".

Other rules include the following: While the machine is in bonus mode, the player is entertained with special winning scenes on the LCD display, and energizing music is heard, payout after payout. On many machines, when enough money to afford a bonus is taken in, the bonus is not immediately awarded.

Typically the game merely stops making the reels slip off the Pokies Big Baller Spinner symbols for a few games. If the player fails to hit the bonus during these "standby games", it is added to the "Stock" for later collection. Many current games, after finishing a bonus round, set the probability to release additional stock gained from earlier players failing to get a bonus last time the machine stopped making the reels slip for a bit very high for the first few games.

As a result, a lucky player may get to play several bonus rounds in a row a "Renchan"making payouts of 5, or even 10, coins possible. The lure of "Stock" waiting in the machine, and the possibility of "Renchan" tease the gambler to keep feeding the machine. This is called being a " hyena ".

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They are easy to recognize, roaming the aisles for a "Kamo" " sucker " in English to leave his machine. Many people may be gambling more than they can affordand the big payouts also lure unsavory "hyena" types into the gambling halls. To address these social issues, a new regulation Version 5. Moreover, all Pachisuro machines must be re-evaluated for regulation compliance every three years.

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Before slot machines were only in the casino and in small shops, but later slot clubs began to grow over the country. For example, believing that a particular dealer is unlucky against a particular winning player may lead to a decision to change dealers.

Only time will tell how these changes will affect the Japanese Pachisuro industry. Slot machines, commonly called "pokies", were introduced into New Zealand in A study linked the prevalence of slot machines with high crime levels. The provision of slot machines is covered by the Gambling Act This superseded the Gaming Act Slot machines in the UK are categorised by definitions produced by the Gambling Commission as part of the legislation brought in with the Gambling Act of Casinos built under the provisions of the Act are allowed to house up to twenty machines categories B to D or any number of C or D machines instead.

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As defined by the Act, large casinos will have a maximum of one hundred and fifty machines of any combination of machines in categories B to D, within the total limit of one hundred and fifty subject to machine to table ratio of 5: Category A games were defined in preparation for the planned " Super Casinos ".

Despite a lengthy bidding process, with Manchester being chosen as the single planned location, the development was cancelled soon after Gordon Brown became Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. As a result, there are no lawful Category A games in the UK.

Category B games are divided into subcategories. However, the differences between B1, B3 and B4 games are mainly the stake and prizes as defined in the above table. FOBTs are mainly found in licensed betting shopsor bookmakers, in the form of electronic roulette. The games are based on a random number generator e. If a pseudorandom number generator is used instead of one that is truly random, the probabilities are not truly independent, since each pseudorandom number is determined at least in part by the one generated before it.

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  1. Slot machine terminology, characteristics and regulations vary around the world. Contents. [hide]. 1 Slot machines by country. Australia; Japan; New Zealand; United Kingdom. Category A; Category B; Category C. United States. Native American casinos; Slot machine classes.:
    Pages in category "Slot machines". The following 17 pages are in this category, out of 17 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more). Slot machine. B. Bar-X. H. Hand pay. L. Liberty Bell (game). P. Pachinko · Paragon SWP · Pay table · Payazzo · Prize Bingo · Progressive jackpot. S. Slot machines by country. Video poker is an arcade or casino game based on five-card draw poker. It is played on a computerized console similar in size to a slot machine. Contents. [hide]. 1 History; 2 The game; 3 Regulation; 4 Variations; 5 Full pay games. Jacks or Better; Bally's All American; Tens or Better; Joker's Wild; Deuces. A slot machine (American English), called also fruit machine (British English), the slots (Canadian English), poker machine or "pokies" (slang) (Australian English and New Zealand English) or simply slot (American English), is a casino gambling machine with set of numbers or pictures that after putting money in it and.
  2. Antique slot machine operation[edit]. Does anyone know how the old slot machines could generate a random number? If it is not infact a random decision, what is the average number of spins before a full cycle is made? Rather, would the cycle take thousands of spins? millions? -Weylin —Preceding unsigned comment.:
    S. ▻ Slot machines (3 C, 17 P). V. ▻ Vending machines (4 C, 40 P). Pages in category "Commercial machines". The following 21 pages are in this category, out of 21 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more). B. BreakMate. C. Coca-Cola Freestyle. D. Dry pasta line. F. Fortune teller machine. Games available in most casinos are commonly called casino games. In a casino game, the players gamble casino chips on various possible random outcomes or combinations of outcomes. Casino games are also available in online casinos, where permitted by law. Casino games can also be played outside casinos for. Benjamin Crowell - The Modern Revolution in Physics. As an illustration of a general technique for calculating odds, suppose you are playing a cent slot machine. Eva Hemmungs Wirtén - Global Infatuation: explorations in transnational publishing and texts. The paperback selling slot-machine was only one.

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I am something of an expert in pseudorandom number generation and I assure you it is not down to poor programming.

All generators necessarily will repeat, since there are only so many numbers in the sequenece. Indeed it would be incredibly surprising if every number in the period appeared exactly once this would, of course, happen with dealing e. Some sequences can be surprisingly short. This is dealt with extensively in Knuth, Seminumerical Algorithms.

I think the reference to the main article is good enough but "poor programming" should be removed-- it is pejorative, or at leat not NPOV. It's a bit tiresome to read "slot machine" every time Quite obviously having set out our stall we are talking about slot machines, not rolling machines or washing machines. In most places, unless specifically mentioning the slot or perhaps the money put into it, I think it could be abbreviated just to "machine" and probably in some places with rewording be eliminated completely.

It would also make the article shorter-- not that 50k as such is eccessive, but it would be briefer to read without having lost any meaning. On the other hand, since "slot machine" is the definition and the subject of the article, I could see perhaps it should stay that way.

AWPs are usually use compensated maths models, so a machine which has not paid out in a while is more likely to pay out, whereas casino slots in the UK are random like their US counterparts and the result of a spin is not affected by the results of any previous spin, i. The new section should mention the games, Section 21, 31 and 16 games but all games in the UK fall under the auspices of the Gambling act and have categories B1, B2, B3, B4, C and D.

Category A is defined, but never used in the UK as their only legal location was to be in the larger "regional" casinos which The Daily Mail and the chattering classes, and subsequently the government decided the UK was not to have. I think that some stuff should be taken out of the lead and put into e.

But I am not confident to do it myself even under WP: I think some should be moved but cannot decide which. Good artcle and thanks for everyone who has contributed to it. Does anyone know whether slot machines are tuned to a certain musical key? The ambient "drone" in a casino sounds tuned and in my opinion is the same no matter which casino you are in.

I suspect there is a key that is preselected by the industry so that machines do not produce a cacophony of noise. When you get the feature, it moves to a screen where you select three 'bags' out of ten for bonus credit prizes. Anyone with the actual game will also be able to find a date in the Machine Identification screen, although I'm not sure if versions on the Aristocrat MK4 hardware show this information MK5 and later games do.

This date is the combination version e. To me this article, especially the history section seems too heavily slanted towards machines in the USA. FWIW, my person experience from travelling to Las Vegas a few times is that the machines there appear to be the older Australian machines. I'm going to try and dig up some references. The second paragraph of the "Fraud" section needs some attention.

It seems to have been written in good faith by someone without a through knowledge of what they are talking about. I am not an expert in the field of slot machines, so I do not consider myself knowledgeable enough to make a good impact on this section. As well this section might briefly address methods of fraud used to cheat mechanical slot machines for the first 70 years of pre-electronic slot machine history.

Wilke 30 Jan Are there any studies on the psychological aspects of this topic? For example it might relate to wishful thinking -- This section needs changing and sourcing. Its both much simpler and more complicated than currently stated. Native American casinos on a typical reservation this is really what makes it an 'Native American' casino are under the direct authority of the federal government and state government has no jurisdiction except that which has been allowed by treaty between the tribe and the federal government.

There are no treaties concerning gambling and it is therefore outside the jurisdiction of federal and state governments. This did not stop states from violating treaties and attempting to regulate and ban various types of gambling on tribal land.

Even in cases where the gambling in question was actually legal in the state such as Bingo voluntarily done in compliance with state law in many cases. Also in some cases, many traditional tribal activities were deemed to be gambling some actually where and forbidden.

As states could financially inhibit casino operations gaming machines manufactures typically are not based on tribal land, for instance.

The majority of customers are subject to state law even when on tribal land, etc Some tribes chose to negotiate deals with state governments.

These agreements were probably not allowed, as they were not done under the authority of the federal government who has jurisdiction over tribal land. Typically state governments would take a deal negotiated with a one tribe on one reservation and attempt to impose it on all tribes and across all reservations violating many treaties at once. Many tribes appealed to voters by creating state ballot measures that allowed anything from reasonable state interference to no interference whatsoever.

Most of them passed with an overwhelming authority. As the reservations were under federal authority, many state governments reasoned correctly they need no follow these laws. The Indian Gaming Regulatory Act theoretically put and end to all these disputes by classifying and minimally regulating gambling activities.

Basically is affirms that the Federal government by way of the Secretary of Interior and FBI and not local government and local law are authority on tribal land. While the regulations may required some form of compliance with local state laws, the state's involvement is incidental.

It also affirms tribal casinos cannot be taxed in the just as no other business on tribal land can be. IGRA also notably affirms that grants to improve economic conditions for Native Americans can include money for gambling establishments making the unique situation of US tax money being given to for-profit businesses that are tax exempt.

And there is another situation that exists. Some tribal lands are effectively full sovereign nations though not actually so. To the point that even the FBI cannot set foot on the land without express permission and does not have authority to arrest, detain or stop criminal acts. Anyone living on these lands is effectively subject only to the tribal authorities there. State law, most federal law, and IGRA do not apply. As far as I know, note of these nations is involved in anything but traditional tribal gambling activities.

The "Three classes" section seems to be about the USA only, as if slot machines didn't even exist anywhere else. The country-specific subsections after it seem like an afterthought, and also the section naming is wrong, as "Three classes" seems like a USA-specific name and not applicable to other countries.

As a Wisconsin resident, the law as I was aware of it only allowed gaming machines in Native American casinos and that the machines in bars and taverns had to be "for amusement only". Furthermore, as I am aware of it, paying out an "for amusement only" gaming machine in a bar or tavern is a felony in Wisconsin. I would like to see citations one way or the other to clarify this. I have just modified 2 external links on Slot machine. Please take a moment to review my edit.

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Please include details about your problem, to help other editors. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the talk page for discussing improvements to the Slot machine article. Some symbols are wild and can represent many, or all, of the other symbols to complete a winning line. Especially on older machines, the pay table is listed on the face of the machine, usually above and below the area containing the wheels.

Most video machines display the pay table when the player presses a "pay table" button or touches "pay table" on the screen; some have the pay table listed on the cabinet as well. Historically, all slot machines used revolving mechanical reels to display and determine results. Although the original slot machine used five reels, simpler, and therefore more reliable, three reel machines quickly became the standard.

This limited the manufacturer's ability to offer large jackpots since even the rarest event had a likelihood of 0. Although the number of symbols eventually increased to about 22, allowing 10, combinations, [20] this still limited jackpot sizes as well as the number of possible outcomes. In the s, however, slot machine manufacturers incorporated electronics into their products and programmed them to weight particular symbols. Thus the odds of losing symbols appearing on the payline became disproportionate to their actual frequency on the physical reel.

A symbol would only appear once on the reel displayed to the player, but could, in fact, occupy several stops on the multiple reel. With microprocessors now ubiquitous, the computers inside modern slot machines allow manufacturers to assign a different probability to every symbol on every reel. To the player it might appear that a winning symbol was 'so close', whereas in fact the probability is much lower. In the s in the UK machines embodying microprocessors became common.

These used a number of features to ensure the payout was controlled within the limits of the gambling legislation. As the coin was inserted into the machine it could go one of two routes, either direct into the cashbox for the benefit of the owner, or alternatively it would go into a channel that formed the payout reservoir, the microprocessor monitoring the number of coins in this channel. The drums themselves were driven by stepper motors, controlled by the processor and with proximity sensors monitoring the position of the drums.

A "look up table" within the software allows the processor to know what symbols were being displayed on the drums to the gambler. This allowed the system to control the level of payout by stopping the drums at positions it had determined.

If the payout channel had filled up, the payout became more generous, if nearly empty, less so thus giving good control of the odds. The video slot machine is a more recent innovation, with no moving parts at all — instead a graphical representation of one appears on screen. In addition, because there are no mechanical constraints on the design of video slot machines, most display five reels rather than three.

This greatly expands the number of possibilities: As there are so many combinations given by five reels, the manufacturers do not need to weight the payout symbols although some may still do so. Instead, higher paying symbols will typically appear only once or twice on each reel, while more common symbols, earning a more frequent payout, will appear many times.

Video slot machines typically encourage the player to play multiple "lines", so rather than simply taking the middle of the three symbols displayed on each reel, a line could go from top left to bottom right, or any of the other patterns specified by the manufacturer.

As each symbol is equally likely, there is no difficulty for the manufacturer in allowing the player to take any or all of the possible lines on offer — the long-term return to player will be the same. The difference for the player is that the more lines he plays the more likely he is to get paid on a given spin — though of course he is betting more in the first place.

To avoid the feeling that the player's money is simply ebbing away whereas a payout of credits on a single line machine would be bets, and the player would feel they had made a substantial win, on a 20 line machine, it would only be 5 bets and would not seem significant , manufacturers commonly offer bonus games, which can return many times their bet. The player is encouraged to keep playing to reach the bonus: All modern machines are designed using pseudo random number generators "PRNGs" , which are constantly generating a sequence of simulated random numbers, at a rate of hundreds or perhaps thousands per second.

As soon as the "Play" button is pressed, the most recent random number is used to determine the result. This means that the result varies depending on exactly when the game is played. A fraction of a second earlier or later, and the result would be different. It is important that the machine contains a high-quality RNG implementation, because all PRNGs must eventually repeat their number sequence, [23] and if the period is short, or the PRNG is otherwise flawed, an advanced player may be able to 'predict' the next result.

Having access to the PRNG code and seed values, Ronald Dale Harris , a former slot machine programmer, discovered equations for specific gambling games like Keno that allowed him to predict what the next set of selected numbers would be based on the previous games played. Most machines are designed to defeat this by generating numbers even when the machine is not being played, so the player cannot tell where in the sequence they are, even if he knows how the machine was programmed.

This is known as the "theoretical payout percentage" or RTP, "return to player". The minimum theoretical payout percentage varies among jurisdictions and is typically established by law or regulation.

The winning patterns on slot machines — the amounts they pay and the frequencies of those payouts — are carefully selected to yield a certain fraction of the money played to the "house" the operator of the slot machine , while returning the rest to the players during play. Within some EGM development organizations this concept is referred to simply as "par.

A slot machine's theoretical payout percentage is set at the factory when the software is written. Changing the payout percentage after a slot machine has been placed on the gaming floor requires a physical swap of the software or firmware , which is usually stored on an EPROM but may be loaded onto non-volatile random access memory NVRAM or even stored on CD-ROM or DVD , depending on the capabilities of the machine and the applicable regulations. Based on current technology, this is a time-consuming process and as such is done infrequently.

Other jurisdictions, including Nevada, randomly audit slot machines to ensure that they contain only approved software. Historically, many casinos, both online and offline, have been unwilling to publish individual game RTP figures, making it impossible for the player to know whether they are playing a "loose" or a "tight" game. Since the turn of the century some information regarding these figures has started to come into the public domain either through various casinos releasing them - primarily this applies to online casino - or through studies by independent gambling authorities.

The return to player is not the only statistic that is of interest. The probabilities of every payout on the pay table is also critical.

For example, consider a hypothetical slot machine with a dozen different values on the pay table. However, the probabilities of getting all the payouts are zero except the largest one. Also, most people would not win anything, and having entries on the paytable that have a return of zero would be deceptive. As these individual probabilities are closely guarded secrets, it is possible that the advertised machines with high return to player simply increase the probabilities of these jackpots.

The added advantage is that these large jackpots increase the excitement of the other players. This game, in its original form, is obsolete, so these specific probabilities do not apply.

He only published the odds after a fan of his sent him some information provided on a slot machine that was posted on a machine in the Netherlands. The psychology of the machine design is quickly revealed. There are 13 possible payouts ranging from 1: Most players assume the likelihood increases proportionate to the payout. The one midsize payout that is designed to give the player a thrill is the It is programmed to occur an average of once every plays.

In contrast the The highest payout of 2, The player who continues to feed the machine is likely to have several midsize payouts, but unlikely to have a large payout. He quits after he is bored or has exhausted his bankroll. Despite the fact that they are confidential, occasionally a PAR sheet is posted on a website.

They have limited value to the player, because usually a machine will have 8 to 12 different possible programs with varying payouts. In addition, slight variations of each machine e. The casino operator can choose which EPROM chip to install in any particular machine to select the payout desired. The result is that there is not really such a thing as a high payback type of machine, since every machine potentially has multiple settings.

Without revealing the proprietary information, he developed a program that would allow him to determine with usually less than a dozen plays on each machine which EPROM chip was installed. Then he did a survey of over machines in 70 different casinos in Las Vegas. He averaged the data, and assigned an average payback percentage to the machines in each casino. The resultant list was widely publicized for marketing purposes especially by the Palms casino which had the top ranking.

One reason that the slot machine is so profitable to a casino is that the player must play the high house edge and high payout wagers along with the low house edge and low payout wagers. Other bets have a higher house edge, but the player is rewarded with a bigger win up to thirty times in craps. The player can choose what kind of wager he wants to make. A slot machine does not afford such an opportunity. Theoretically, the operator could make these probabilities available, or allow the player to choose which one so that the player is free to make a choice.

However, no operator has ever enacted this strategy. Different machines have different maximum payouts, but without knowing the odds of getting the jackpot, there is no rational way to differentiate. In many markets where central monitoring and control systems are used to link machines for auditing and security purposes, usually in wide area networks of multiple venues and thousands of machines, player return must usually be changed from a central computer rather than at each machine.

A range of percentages is set in the game software and selected remotely. In , the Nevada Gaming Commission began working with Las Vegas casinos on technology that would allow the casino's management to change the game, the odds, and the payouts remotely.

The change cannot be done instantaneously, but only after the selected machine has been idle for at least four minutes. After the change is made, the machine must be locked to new players for four minutes and display an on-screen message informing potential players that a change is being made.

Often machines are linked together in a way that allows a group of machines to offer a particularly large prize, or "jackpot". Each slot machine in the group contributes a small amount to this progressive jackpot , awarded to a player who gets, for example, a royal flush on a video poker machine or a specific combination of symbols on a regular or nine-line slot machine.

The amount paid for the progressive jackpot is usually far higher than any single slot machine could pay on its own. In some cases multiple machines are linked across multiple casinos. In these cases, the machines may be owned by the manufacturer, who is responsible for paying the jackpot. The casinos lease the machines rather than owning them outright.

Casinos in New Jersey, Nevada, and South Dakota now offer multi-state progressive jackpots, which now offer bigger jackpot pools. Mechanical slot machines and their coin acceptors were sometimes susceptible to cheating devices and other scams.

One historical example involved spinning a coin with a short length of plastic wire. The weight and size of the coin would be accepted by the machine and credits would be granted.

However, the spin created by the plastic wire would cause the coin to exit through the reject chute into the payout tray. This particular scam has become obsolete due to improvements in newer slot machines.

Another obsolete method of defeating slot machines was to use a light source to confuse the optical sensor used to count coins during payout.

Modern slot machines are controlled by EPROM computer chips and, in large casinos, coin acceptors have become obsolete in favor of bill acceptors. These machines and their bill acceptors are designed with advanced anti-cheating and anti-counterfeiting measures and are difficult to defraud. Early computerized slot machines were sometimes defrauded through the use of cheating devices, such as the "slider" or "monkey paw". Computerized slot machines are fully deterministic and thus outcomes can be sometimes successfully predicted.

Malfunctioning electronic slot machines are capable of indicating jackpot winnings far in excess of those advertised. In the United States, the public and private availability of slot machines is highly regulated by state governments. Many states have established gaming control boards to regulate the possession and use of slot machines. Nevada is the only state that has no significant restrictions against slot machines both for public and private use.

In New Jersey , slot machines are only allowed in hotel casinos operated in Atlantic City. Several states Illinois , Indiana , Louisiana and Missouri allow slot machines as well as any casino-style gambling only on licensed riverboats or permanently anchored barges. Since Hurricane Katrina , Mississippi has removed the requirement that casinos on the Gulf Coast operate on barges and now allows them on land along the shoreline.

Delaware allows slot machines at three horse tracks; they are regulated by the state lottery commission. In Wisconsin, bars and taverns are allowed to have up to five machines. These machines usually allow a player to either take a payout, or gamble it on a double-or-nothing "side game". A player redeems his winnings by pressing a button to print a ticket, which the bartender redeems for cash.

The territory of Puerto Rico places significant restrictions on slot machine ownership, but the law is widely flouted and slot machines are common in bars and coffeeshops. Conversely, in Connecticut , Hawaii , Nebraska , South Carolina , and Tennessee , private ownership of any slot machine is completely prohibited. The remaining states allow slot machines of a certain age typically 25—30 years or slot machines manufactured before a specific date.

For a detailed list of state-by-state regulations on private slot machine ownership, see U. Native American casinos located in reservations are not permitted to have slot machines unless the tribe first reaches a pact with the state in which it is located per Indian Gaming Regulatory Act.

Typically, a pact entitles the state to receive a fraction of the gross revenue from slot machines. Some states have restrictions on the type called "class" of slot machines that can be used in a casino or other gaming area. The Indian Gaming Regulatory Act establishes three classes of games with a different regulatory scheme for each: Class I gaming is defined as 1 traditional Indian gaming, which may be part of tribal ceremonies and celebrations, and 2 social gaming for minimal prizes. Regulatory authority over class I gaming is vested exclusively in tribal governments and is not subject to IGRA's requirements.

Class II gaming is defined as the game of chance commonly known as bingo whether or not electronic, computer, or other technological aids are used in connection therewith and, if played in the same location as the bingo , pull tabs, punch board, tip jars, instant bingo, and other games similar to bingo.

Class II gaming also includes non-banked card games , that is, games that are played exclusively against other players rather than against the house or a player acting as a bank. The Act specifically excludes slot machines or electronic facsimiles of any game of chance from the definition of class II games. Tribes retain their authority to conduct, license, and regulate class II gaming, provided it complies with the Act - including the requirement that the Tribal government adopt a gaming ordinance approved by the National Indian Gaming Commission NIGC.

Tribal governments are the primary entity responsible for regulating class II gaming on its lands. Only Hawaii and Utah continue to prohibit all types of gaming. The definition of class III gaming is broad. It includes all forms of gaming that are neither class I nor II. Games commonly played at casinos , such as slot machines , blackjack , craps , and roulette , clearly fall in the class III category, as well as wagering games and electronic facsimiles of any game of chance.

Generally, class III is often referred to as casino-style gaming. The regulatory scheme for class III gaming is more complex than a casual reading of the statute might suggest. Although Congress clearly intended regulatory issues to be addressed in Tribal-State compacts , it left a number of key functions in federal hands, including approval authority over compacts, management contracts, and Tribal gaming ordinances.

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Random number games may be played at a table, such as roulette , or through the purchase of paper tickets or cards, such as keno or bingo. Casino games generally provide a predictable long-term advantage to the casino, or "house", while offering the player the possibility of a large short-term payout. Some casino games have a skill element, where the player makes decisions; such games are called "random with a tactical element".

While it is possible through skillful play to minimize the house advantage, it is extremely rare that a player has sufficient skill to completely eliminate his inherent long-term disadvantage the house edge HE or house vigorish in a casino game.

The player's disadvantage is a result of the casino not paying winning wagers according to the game's "true odds", which are the payouts that would be expected considering the odds of a wager either winning or losing.

For example, if a game is played by wagering on the number that would result from the roll of one die, true odds would be 5 times the amount wagered since there is a 1 in 6 chance of any single number appearing, assuming that you get the original amount wagered back. However, the casino may only pay 4 times the amount wagered for a winning wager. The house edge or vigorish is defined as the casino profit expressed as the percentage of the player's original bet. In games such as blackjack or Spanish 21 , the final bet may be several times the original bet, if the player double and splits.

In American roulette , there are two "zeroes" 0, 00 and 36 non-zero numbers 18 red and 18 black. This leads to a higher house edge compared to the European roulette. Therefore, the house edge is 5. After 10 spins, betting 1 unit per spin, the average house profit will be 10 x 1 x 5.

Of course, the casino may not win exactly 53 cents of a unit; this figure is the average casino profit from each player if it had millions of players each betting for 10 spins at 1 unit per spin. Poker has become one of the most popular games played in the casino. It is a game of skill and the only game where the players are competing against each other and not the house. There are several variations of poker that are played in casino card rooms.

The house edge of casino games vary greatly with the game, with some games having as low as 0. It's always important to look for the casino game with the lowest house advantage. The calculation of the roulette house edge was a trivial exercise; for other games, this is not usually the case. In games which have a skill element, such as blackjack or Spanish 21 , the house edge is defined as the house advantage from optimal play without the use of advanced techniques such as card counting , on the first hand of the shoe the container that holds the cards.

The set of the optimal plays for all possible hands is known as " basic strategy " and is highly dependent on the specific rules and even the number of decks used. Good blackjack and Spanish 21 games have house edges below 0.

Traditionally, the majority of casinos have refused to reveal the house edge information for their slots games and due to the unknown number of symbols and weightings of the reels, in most cases this is much more difficult to calculate than for other casino games. However, due to some online properties revealing this information and some independent research conducted by Michael Shackleford in the offline sector, this pattern is slowly changing.

The luck factor in a casino game is quantified using standard deviations SD. The binomial distribution assumes a result of 1 unit for a win, and 0 units for a loss, rather than -1 units for a loss, which doubles the range of possible outcomes.

Furthermore, if we flat bet at 10 units per round instead of 1 unit, the range of possible outcomes increases 10 fold. After 10 rounds, the expected loss will be 10 x 1 x 5. As you can see, standard deviation is many times the magnitude of the expected loss. The standard deviation for pai gow poker is the lowest out of all common casinos. Many, particularly slots, have extremely high standard deviations.

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Most machines are designed to defeat this by generating numbers even when the machine is not being played, so the player cannot tell where in the sequence they are, even if he knows how the machine was programmed.

This is known as the "theoretical payout percentage" or RTP, "return to player". The minimum theoretical payout percentage varies among jurisdictions and is typically established by law or regulation. The winning patterns on slot machines — the amounts they pay and the frequencies of those payouts — are carefully selected to yield a certain fraction of the money played to the "house" the operator of the slot machine , while returning the rest to the players during play. Within some EGM development organizations this concept is referred to simply as "par.

A slot machine's theoretical payout percentage is set at the factory when the software is written. Changing the payout percentage after a slot machine has been placed on the gaming floor requires a physical swap of the software or firmware , which is usually stored on an EPROM but may be loaded onto non-volatile random access memory NVRAM or even stored on CD-ROM or DVD , depending on the capabilities of the machine and the applicable regulations.

Based on current technology, this is a time-consuming process and as such is done infrequently. Other jurisdictions, including Nevada, randomly audit slot machines to ensure that they contain only approved software. Historically, many casinos, both online and offline, have been unwilling to publish individual game RTP figures, making it impossible for the player to know whether they are playing a "loose" or a "tight" game. Since the turn of the century some information regarding these figures has started to come into the public domain either through various casinos releasing them - primarily this applies to online casino - or through studies by independent gambling authorities.

The return to player is not the only statistic that is of interest. The probabilities of every payout on the pay table is also critical. For example, consider a hypothetical slot machine with a dozen different values on the pay table. However, the probabilities of getting all the payouts are zero except the largest one.

Also, most people would not win anything, and having entries on the paytable that have a return of zero would be deceptive. As these individual probabilities are closely guarded secrets, it is possible that the advertised machines with high return to player simply increase the probabilities of these jackpots.

The added advantage is that these large jackpots increase the excitement of the other players. This game, in its original form, is obsolete, so these specific probabilities do not apply. He only published the odds after a fan of his sent him some information provided on a slot machine that was posted on a machine in the Netherlands. The psychology of the machine design is quickly revealed. There are 13 possible payouts ranging from 1: Most players assume the likelihood increases proportionate to the payout.

The one midsize payout that is designed to give the player a thrill is the It is programmed to occur an average of once every plays. In contrast the The highest payout of 2, The player who continues to feed the machine is likely to have several midsize payouts, but unlikely to have a large payout. He quits after he is bored or has exhausted his bankroll.

Despite the fact that they are confidential, occasionally a PAR sheet is posted on a website. They have limited value to the player, because usually a machine will have 8 to 12 different possible programs with varying payouts. In addition, slight variations of each machine e. The casino operator can choose which EPROM chip to install in any particular machine to select the payout desired. The result is that there is not really such a thing as a high payback type of machine, since every machine potentially has multiple settings.

Without revealing the proprietary information, he developed a program that would allow him to determine with usually less than a dozen plays on each machine which EPROM chip was installed. Then he did a survey of over machines in 70 different casinos in Las Vegas.

He averaged the data, and assigned an average payback percentage to the machines in each casino. The resultant list was widely publicized for marketing purposes especially by the Palms casino which had the top ranking. One reason that the slot machine is so profitable to a casino is that the player must play the high house edge and high payout wagers along with the low house edge and low payout wagers. Other bets have a higher house edge, but the player is rewarded with a bigger win up to thirty times in craps.

The player can choose what kind of wager he wants to make. A slot machine does not afford such an opportunity. Theoretically, the operator could make these probabilities available, or allow the player to choose which one so that the player is free to make a choice.

However, no operator has ever enacted this strategy. Different machines have different maximum payouts, but without knowing the odds of getting the jackpot, there is no rational way to differentiate.

In many markets where central monitoring and control systems are used to link machines for auditing and security purposes, usually in wide area networks of multiple venues and thousands of machines, player return must usually be changed from a central computer rather than at each machine.

A range of percentages is set in the game software and selected remotely. In , the Nevada Gaming Commission began working with Las Vegas casinos on technology that would allow the casino's management to change the game, the odds, and the payouts remotely. The change cannot be done instantaneously, but only after the selected machine has been idle for at least four minutes.

After the change is made, the machine must be locked to new players for four minutes and display an on-screen message informing potential players that a change is being made.

Often machines are linked together in a way that allows a group of machines to offer a particularly large prize, or "jackpot". Each slot machine in the group contributes a small amount to this progressive jackpot , awarded to a player who gets, for example, a royal flush on a video poker machine or a specific combination of symbols on a regular or nine-line slot machine.

The amount paid for the progressive jackpot is usually far higher than any single slot machine could pay on its own. In some cases multiple machines are linked across multiple casinos. In these cases, the machines may be owned by the manufacturer, who is responsible for paying the jackpot. The casinos lease the machines rather than owning them outright.

Casinos in New Jersey, Nevada, and South Dakota now offer multi-state progressive jackpots, which now offer bigger jackpot pools. Mechanical slot machines and their coin acceptors were sometimes susceptible to cheating devices and other scams. One historical example involved spinning a coin with a short length of plastic wire.

The weight and size of the coin would be accepted by the machine and credits would be granted. However, the spin created by the plastic wire would cause the coin to exit through the reject chute into the payout tray. This particular scam has become obsolete due to improvements in newer slot machines. Another obsolete method of defeating slot machines was to use a light source to confuse the optical sensor used to count coins during payout.

Modern slot machines are controlled by EPROM computer chips and, in large casinos, coin acceptors have become obsolete in favor of bill acceptors. These machines and their bill acceptors are designed with advanced anti-cheating and anti-counterfeiting measures and are difficult to defraud. Early computerized slot machines were sometimes defrauded through the use of cheating devices, such as the "slider" or "monkey paw".

Computerized slot machines are fully deterministic and thus outcomes can be sometimes successfully predicted. Malfunctioning electronic slot machines are capable of indicating jackpot winnings far in excess of those advertised. In the United States, the public and private availability of slot machines is highly regulated by state governments.

Many states have established gaming control boards to regulate the possession and use of slot machines. Nevada is the only state that has no significant restrictions against slot machines both for public and private use. In New Jersey , slot machines are only allowed in hotel casinos operated in Atlantic City. Several states Illinois , Indiana , Louisiana and Missouri allow slot machines as well as any casino-style gambling only on licensed riverboats or permanently anchored barges.

Since Hurricane Katrina , Mississippi has removed the requirement that casinos on the Gulf Coast operate on barges and now allows them on land along the shoreline. Delaware allows slot machines at three horse tracks; they are regulated by the state lottery commission.

In Wisconsin, bars and taverns are allowed to have up to five machines. These machines usually allow a player to either take a payout, or gamble it on a double-or-nothing "side game". A player redeems his winnings by pressing a button to print a ticket, which the bartender redeems for cash.

The territory of Puerto Rico places significant restrictions on slot machine ownership, but the law is widely flouted and slot machines are common in bars and coffeeshops. Conversely, in Connecticut , Hawaii , Nebraska , South Carolina , and Tennessee , private ownership of any slot machine is completely prohibited.

The remaining states allow slot machines of a certain age typically 25—30 years or slot machines manufactured before a specific date. For a detailed list of state-by-state regulations on private slot machine ownership, see U.

Native American casinos located in reservations are not permitted to have slot machines unless the tribe first reaches a pact with the state in which it is located per Indian Gaming Regulatory Act. Typically, a pact entitles the state to receive a fraction of the gross revenue from slot machines. Some states have restrictions on the type called "class" of slot machines that can be used in a casino or other gaming area.

The Indian Gaming Regulatory Act establishes three classes of games with a different regulatory scheme for each: Class I gaming is defined as 1 traditional Indian gaming, which may be part of tribal ceremonies and celebrations, and 2 social gaming for minimal prizes.

Regulatory authority over class I gaming is vested exclusively in tribal governments and is not subject to IGRA's requirements. Class II gaming is defined as the game of chance commonly known as bingo whether or not electronic, computer, or other technological aids are used in connection therewith and, if played in the same location as the bingo , pull tabs, punch board, tip jars, instant bingo, and other games similar to bingo.

Class II gaming also includes non-banked card games , that is, games that are played exclusively against other players rather than against the house or a player acting as a bank. The Act specifically excludes slot machines or electronic facsimiles of any game of chance from the definition of class II games. Tribes retain their authority to conduct, license, and regulate class II gaming, provided it complies with the Act - including the requirement that the Tribal government adopt a gaming ordinance approved by the National Indian Gaming Commission NIGC.

Tribal governments are the primary entity responsible for regulating class II gaming on its lands. Only Hawaii and Utah continue to prohibit all types of gaming. The definition of class III gaming is broad. It includes all forms of gaming that are neither class I nor II. Games commonly played at casinos , such as slot machines , blackjack , craps , and roulette , clearly fall in the class III category, as well as wagering games and electronic facsimiles of any game of chance. Generally, class III is often referred to as casino-style gaming.

The regulatory scheme for class III gaming is more complex than a casual reading of the statute might suggest. Although Congress clearly intended regulatory issues to be addressed in Tribal-State compacts , it left a number of key functions in federal hands, including approval authority over compacts, management contracts, and Tribal gaming ordinances.

Congress also vested the Commission with broad authority to issue regulations in furtherance of the purposes of the Act. Many American casinos offer free memberships in "slot clubs", which return a fraction of the amount of money that is bet in the form of comps complimentary food, drinks, hotel rooms, or merchandise , or sometimes as cash or a promise to pay cash at a later date.

These clubs require that players use cards that are inserted into the slot machines, to allow the casinos to track the players' "action" how much each player bets and for how long , which is often used to establish levels of play that may make players eligible for additional comps.

These fall under the jurisdiction of the province or territory without reference to the federal government. Thus no two provincial regulatory or operational regimes are the same. The 10 provinces all have gaming departments and slot machine play is available in venues across all.

Part of the revenues go to the local government which in turn gives a percentage to the federal government. Choice of slots available is a province by province negotiation with the local Gaming Department. Individual territories have such small populations that there are no dedicated departments or land based facilities to play.

The history of First Nation's gaming in Canada is short but contentious. Only 12 First Nation casinos exist scattered over five provinces.

The Assembly of First Nations view jurisdiction over gaming on First Nation land as part of their constitutional rights protected by section 35 1 of the Constitution Act, However the Supreme Court of Canada has rejected First Nation's claims to a right to conduct gaming activities.

Nevertheless, the First Nation casino's largest revenue driver is from slot machine play and the regulation of these is by agreement with an Indigenous Gaming Regulator, a delegated sub-group of each province Gaming Authority.

All provinces have dedicated problem gambling help lines and research, and the territories have health and social service support for individuals with gambling problems. In Australia "Poker Machines" or "pokies" [38] are officially termed "gaming machines". Australian-style gaming machines frequently use video displays to simulate physical reels, usually five.

These machines have additional bonusing and second-screen features such as free games and bonus levels. They also allow for multiple lines up to or multiple ways up to 3, to be played. Late in , there were , poker machines operating in Australia, which was 2. On multiway games, players play the entire position of each reel instead of fixed lines or patterns. For instance, if a player plays 1 reel on a way game, they receive three symbols in the first reel which pay anywhere in the three positions, while all other reels pay in the centre only, with unused areas darkened.

On the other end of the scale, if the player plays 5 reels, symbols can appear anywhere in the window and will pay as long as there is one in each reel. Most games however still require the symbols appearing left to right, sometimes this even includes scatters.

Other multiway games give you even more ways by using a 4x5 or 5x5 pattern, where there are up to 5 symbols in each reel, allowing for up to 1, and 3, ways to win respectively. These games typically cost more than their way Reel Power counterparts. Recently, IGT has also started to manufacture multiway games.

Gaming machine manufacturer Konami Australia also made an alternative way of gaming by using patterns, where symbols pay adjacent to one another. Most of these games have a hexagonal reel formation, and much like multiway games, any patterns not played are darkened out of use. On both systems, scatter symbols still pay in the darkened areas just like standard machines where scatters don't have to appear on a payline. The laws regulating the use of gaming machines in Australia are a matter for State governments, and as such they vary between States.

Gaming machines are found in casinos approximately one in each major city as well as pubs and clubs in some states usually sports, social, or RSL clubs. The first Australian state to legalize this style of gambling was New South Wales in when they were made legal in all registered clubs in the state. There are suggestions that the proliferation of poker machines has led to increased levels of problem gambling ; however, the precise nature of this link is still open to research.

The primary reason for this is that gaming machines have been legal in the state of New South Wales since and over that time the number of machines has grown to 97, at December , including the Australian Capital Territory.

Casino games generally provide a predictable long-term advantage to the casino, or "house", while offering the player the possibility of a large short-term payout. Some casino games have a skill element, where the player makes decisions; such games are called "random with a tactical element". While it is possible through skillful play to minimize the house advantage, it is extremely rare that a player has sufficient skill to completely eliminate his inherent long-term disadvantage the house edge HE or house vigorish in a casino game.

The player's disadvantage is a result of the casino not paying winning wagers according to the game's "true odds", which are the payouts that would be expected considering the odds of a wager either winning or losing. For example, if a game is played by wagering on the number that would result from the roll of one die, true odds would be 5 times the amount wagered since there is a 1 in 6 chance of any single number appearing, assuming that you get the original amount wagered back.

However, the casino may only pay 4 times the amount wagered for a winning wager. The house edge or vigorish is defined as the casino profit expressed as the percentage of the player's original bet. In games such as blackjack or Spanish 21 , the final bet may be several times the original bet, if the player double and splits. In American roulette , there are two "zeroes" 0, 00 and 36 non-zero numbers 18 red and 18 black.

This leads to a higher house edge compared to the European roulette. Therefore, the house edge is 5. After 10 spins, betting 1 unit per spin, the average house profit will be 10 x 1 x 5.

Of course, the casino may not win exactly 53 cents of a unit; this figure is the average casino profit from each player if it had millions of players each betting for 10 spins at 1 unit per spin. Poker has become one of the most popular games played in the casino. It is a game of skill and the only game where the players are competing against each other and not the house.

There are several variations of poker that are played in casino card rooms. The house edge of casino games vary greatly with the game, with some games having as low as 0. It's always important to look for the casino game with the lowest house advantage.

The calculation of the roulette house edge was a trivial exercise; for other games, this is not usually the case. In games which have a skill element, such as blackjack or Spanish 21 , the house edge is defined as the house advantage from optimal play without the use of advanced techniques such as card counting , on the first hand of the shoe the container that holds the cards.

The set of the optimal plays for all possible hands is known as " basic strategy " and is highly dependent on the specific rules and even the number of decks used. FOBTs are mainly found in licensed betting shops , or bookmakers, in the form of electronic roulette. The games are based on a random number generator e.

If a pseudorandom number generator is used instead of one that is truly random, the probabilities are not truly independent, since each pseudorandom number is determined at least in part by the one generated before it. Fruit machines are commonly found in pubs , clubs , and arcades. Machines commonly have three reels, but can be found with four or five reels with around sixteen to twenty-four symbols printed around them. The reels are spun each play, and if certain combinations of symbols appear then winnings are paid by the machine, or a subgame is played.

These games often have many extra features, trails and subgames with opportunities to win money; usually more than can be won from just the payouts on the reel combinations. Fruit machines in the UK almost universally have the following features, generally selected at random using a pseudorandom number generator:.

It is known for machines to pay out multiple jackpots, one after the other this is known as a streak or rave but each jackpot requires a new game to be played so as not to violate the law about the maximum payout on a single play.

These machines also operate differently from truly random slot machines. The latter are programmed to pay a percentage over the long run. Fruit machines in the UK are usually based on a compensated mathematical model , which means that a machine that has paid out above its target percentage is less likely to pay out than were it to have paid out below that percentage. In the United States, the public and private availability of slot machines is highly regulated by state governments.

Many states have established gaming control boards to regulate the possession and use of slot machines. Nevada is the only state that has no significant restrictions against slot machines both for public and private use.

In New Jersey , slot machines are only allowed in hotel casinos operated in Atlantic City. Several states Illinois , Indiana , Iowa , Louisiana and Missouri allow slot machines as well as any casino-style gambling only on licensed riverboats or permanently anchored barges.

Since Hurricane Katrina, Mississippi has removed the requirement that casinos on the Gulf Coast operate on barges and now allows them on land along the shoreline.

Delaware allows slot machines at three horse tracks; they are regulated by the state lottery commission. For a list of state-by-state regulations on private slot machine ownership, see U. Native American casinos located in reservations are not permitted to have slot machines unless the tribe first reaches a pact with the state in which it is located per Indian Gaming Regulatory Act.

Typically, a pact entitles the state to receive a fraction of the gross revenue from slot machines. The following statements are generalities, not actual laws for every jurisdiction. These classifications may vary from state to state. This provision is known as the Johnson Act. Some states have restrictions on the type called "class" of slot machines that can be used in a casino or other gaming area.

In this way, Class II slot machines mimic scratch-off lottery tickets in that each machine has an equal chance of winning a series of limited prizes. Either class of slot machines may or may not have a player skill element. There is no such restriction for Class II games. Class II games are not so tightly regulated by the state. Many American casinos offer free memberships in "slot clubs", which return a fraction of the amount of money that is bet in the form of comps complimentary food, drinks, hotel rooms, or merchandise , or sometimes as cash or a promise to pay cash at a later date.

These clubs require that players use cards that are inserted into the slot machines, to allow the casinos to track the players' "action" how much each player bets and for how long , which is often used to establish levels of play that may make players eligible for additional comps. Comps or "cash back" from these clubs can make significant differences in the maximum theoretical returns when playing over long periods. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is an orphan , as no other articles link to it.

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Video poker machines are tested to ensure compliance with this requirement before they are offered to the public. There are many variations of video poker. They include Deuces Wild, where a two serves as a wild card ; Joker's Wild, where a joker serves as a wild card; pay schedule modification, where four aces with a five or smaller kicker pays an enhanced amount these games usually have some adjective in the title such as "bonus", "double", or "triple" ; and multi-play poker, where the player starts with a base hand, and each additional played hand draws from a different set of cards with the base hand.

In games which do not have a wild card, a player on average will receive the rare four-of-a-kind hand approximately once every hands, while a player may play tens of thousands of hands before a royal flush, which usually has the highest payout. Video poker games online are now available in the US in 3 different states: New Jersey, Delaware, and Nevada. Players in all three states are able to enjoy fully regulated online video poker games on the proviso that they are physically present in the respective state, of legal age to gamble, and can validate their identity.

When modern video poker games first appeared, the highest-paying common variant of a particular game was called "Full-Pay". Game variants that returned a lower payback percentage were termed "Short-Pay". Though the term Full-Pay is still in use, today, there are many game variants that return more.

Payback percentage expresses the long-term expected value of the player's wager as a percentage if the game is played perfectly. Full-pay Jacks or Better, for example, offers a payback percentage of Some Payback percentages on full-pay games are often close to or even in excess of percent. Casinos do not usually advertise payback percentages, leaving it up to the player to identify which video poker machines offer the best schedules.

The payoff schedules for most video poker machines are configured with a pay schedule that pays proportionally more for certain hands such as a royal flush when the maximum number of credits typically 5 coins is bet. Therefore, players who do not play with the maximum number of credits at a time are playing with a smaller theoretical return.

Payoffs begin at a pair of jacks. All American is based on Jacks or Better with an increased payout for flushes, straights and straight flushes, but reduced payout for full houses and two pairs versus The full pay version quads return 50 bets , once common but now rare, is one of the highest return versions of video poker offered, but the play strategy is very complex and mastered by few.

The minimum paying hand is a pair of tens, rather than a pair of Jacks. Strategy is similar between the two games, in spite of the very different full house and flush payouts. The joker is fully wild and substitutes to make stronger hands.

The inclusion of the wild joker also adds another winning hand in 5-of-a-kind. The game's name inspired a game show of the same name.

The full pay version of Joker Two Pair or better, once common but now rare, is one of the highest return versions of video poker offered, but the play strategy is very complex and mastered by few. Wild cards substitute for any other card in the deck in order to make a better poker hand. Deuces Wild can be found with pay schedules that offer a theoretical return as high as This full-pay version is found only in Nevada. It is also available with other pay schedules that have lesser theoretical returns:.

Variations are available that pay different amounts for the quad "deuces", such as Double Deuces , Loose Deuces , Triple Deuces , and Royal Deuces The full-pay version of this game returns This variation offers up to a theoretical return of Although the full-pay version has a theoretically-positive return, few play well enough to capitalize on it.

Double Bonus is a complex game. Full pay Double Double Bonus can be found with pay schedules that offer up to a theoretical return of Often casinos choose to use pay tables which reduce the maximum payout percentage as compared to other commonly available game variants.

This increases the house edge, but generally reduces net revenue for the casino as players experience less "play time" on the machine, busting out of their buyin at an earlier point. Sjc, if you have some political axe to grind against the historical record of this American invention, please at least find a better example than picking on a Bavarian immigrant who came to America to set up shop and create his inventions.

I would be eager to read all about it, to help dispel the "Americanocentric" bias you claim lingers "in these here parts". Are slot clubs offered by gaming establishments outside of the United States? I added a subsection to the "United States slot machines" section that describes these clubs, as they are a significant part of gaming in the United States, especially for frequent slot players.

This article has now been substantially modified since my original comments were made nearly two years ago. If you look at the article which then existed by going to the history, you will probably immediately discern why I made those comments, and they probably need no more explanation than that.

The official term for these machines in Australia is 'Gaming Machines'. The term 'pokies' or 'poker machines' is pure local slang. I'm not sure of the position of other countries but a quick google on 'Gaming Machines' will reveal that the term is at least used in Australia, UK and USA. Never the less, the other names of them should definatly redirect here, which they don't currently. In Nevada, slot machines are also called "gaming machines" - I guess it sounds better than "gambling".

The real reason I'm writing is that when I worked for a casino mid's , the coin areas of the machine included the coin hopper and the drop box. Anything inserted into the machine went into a separate area of the machine at the bottom known as the "drop box", yet there's no mention of this in the article. I'm pretty sure it's still true, so it would be cool if someone could check this out. I'll ask one of my friends at the casino when I have a chance.

This prevents the hopper from overflowing and shorting out a circuit board or something. The hopper sits in the bottom of the game, under the reel shelf or monitor-- Pilotsmoe Added a controversial part to European section about alleged fraud. Only one source, so cleanup, wikify, add counterpoints etc as you see fit. Added for completeness of article. I disagree with this information being presented as fact.

One finds books that make these same claims. However, it is fundamentally illogical to have multiple hits on a variety of machines from pm, then hit nothing at all by 5 am the next day, after the "multiple hits" money, and then some, is depleted!

I actually question the "hot and cold machines" assertion as a "myth". As the author asserted, some machines "force" wins to attain a "payout percentage". This payout percentage is not calculated daily, so it may not manifest over several hours, or even days; however it is logically possible that a machine would pay more if it hasn't paid out for a long period of time. It's just that this "long period" could be as long as several days, and few would be sufficiently vigilant to scrutinise such patterns.

Is it worth having a section dedicated to online slots? There's far more variety in online slot games. Paylines alone they range from single paylines up to 20 payline games. Also some of the most popular online slot games have bonus games. Some of these bonus games are luck based, for example wheel of fortune style, but others are skill based. If anything the increase in slots popularity is coming from more people playing online.

It seems wrong to describe "video poker" as "slot machines". They seem fundamentally different games, in terms of appearance, game play, and strategy. However, I can see the argument being made that these are just variations in the type of slot machine game. I'd like to read what others think. Perhaps some reference could be made to the NZ English and Australian? From the NZ Herald: Fruit machines is an older name which is no longer used officially in the UK.

AWP - never heard of it Could someone take a look at the two links posted for http: They are linked as references for slot fraud techniques, but the sites themselves appear to be selling potentially illegal - or not - items.

No, I wouldn't say so, there are pretty detailed descriptions of tools for fraud yes, but legality is defined I suppose by your local laws and country of residence. There have been repeated attempts in the UK and USA to prevent marketing of them, but I think there is a reluctance on the part of legislators to do so as the industry itself is commonly seen as corrupt too.

The descriptions are educational, and you wouldn't be tempted to buy one unless a conman yourself would you? As such, it is sensible to watch for people playing these machines but not winning as the likelihood of a win increases. This, however, is called Sharking. UK fruit machines operate in exactly the same way by paying out to a percentage over an indefinite period of time. A UK machine can pay out over its percentage and will then make up the shortfall later.

This can be proven with emulation. I believe it is true. Were a machine not to have the ability to pay out two jackpots in a row, it would contravene the Lotteries and Gaming Acts.

Rules for "Games of skill" differ. I remember often playing quiz machines etc where there was a notable bias to a payout depending on how much money had been stuffed in it. While deliberate streaking does contravene the gaming regulations, that doesn't mean it didn't happen.

Machines very often did deliberately have hot and cold cycles. It's just difficult to prove it. Machines are required to eventually seek their percentage over a period of say, 10, spins.

They do this by dynamically adjusting the odds. In fact, many of the club machines will actually go so far as to deliberately block the jackpot until there's enough money in the machine to pay for it. If the "hoppers full" sensor isn't tripped, the odds of spinning in a jackpot are zero. More examples will make things clear. Take a typical machine from the not so distant past. This game is known to have a 40 pound block. This means that when the game hasn't taken enough to afford a jackpot without going over percentage, any attempt to gain more than that amount of money will fail.

This means if you are ever offered more than that amount of money by the machine, it is prepared to offer a jackpot, and you should try to go all the way on the turbo gamble ladder. If you fail to go all the way, you will get another chance within a few spins.

Clearly you want to be playing it when the jackpot is on, and to not be playing it when it's not. By watching it played, you can get yourself a good idea of when it's likely to be ready to pay out. The class C machines, despite what the law will tell you, were very often especially with MayGay programmed to play under the programmed percentage to save up a large sum of extra money, which is then paid out in a streak once the "rave bank" is full.

Anyone who doesn't believe this is welcome to play on a machine that someone else has just got 60 pounds out of and lost 5 afterwards. Marvel at how horrible your luck is. Now it was also true that many games can be brought well blow their payout percentage due to poor play. Eventually, the game will start being extra generous to catch up. This isn't a deliberately programmed streak, though it may seem like one.

Skilled play includes taking good feature when offered the, using the so called cheats to give yourself a winning spin, etc. Generally when the game wants you to win, it will make it difficult to lose, and when it wants you to lose, there's nothing you can do to change it's mind. Fruit machines are programmed to be profitable regardless of player skill OR luck. It is this fact that allows players to take advantage of streaks.

It is NOT a myth, and it can be corroborated with emulation. Since when have our machines commonly had 6 reels? By my experience they normally have 3; I'd normally expect one that doesn't to have 4 rather than 6. The article is already long enough 50 KB. I was thinking it may be a good idea to break it up in chunks. I was thinking on separating the AWP and pachisuro Sections into different articles. There are some terms concerning slot machines not covered in the terminology section but would be helpful for the article e.

Adding them to the original article will make it even longer. There is a point in creating a separate article dedicated to Slot machine glossary e. Are there any objections or suggestions? Previously, the article read: Probably a decimal point was omitted, but because the link is dead, I can't collect the correct figure. Perhaps the original contributor or someone else can find where the Commission's paper resides now and get the correct amount, then reinsert the statement.

Ordinary Person talk Expenditure is more than double what it was a decade ago in real terms — at least for legal gambling — and treble that of 15 years ago figure 1. I notice the image page specifies that the image is being used under fair use but there is no explanation or rationale as to why its use in this Wikipedia article constitutes fair use.

In addition to the boilerplate fair use template , you must also write out on the image description page a specific explanation or rationale for why using this image in each article is consistent with fair use. Please go to the image description page and edit it to include a fair use rationale. Using one of the templates at Wikipedia: Fair use rationale guideline is an easy way to ensure that your image is in compliance with Wikipedia policy, but remember that you must complete the template.

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If you have any questions please ask them at the Media copyright questions page. I am something of an expert in pseudorandom number generation and I assure you it is not down to poor programming. All generators necessarily will repeat, since there are only so many numbers in the sequenece. Indeed it would be incredibly surprising if every number in the period appeared exactly once this would, of course, happen with dealing e. Some sequences can be surprisingly short.

This is dealt with extensively in Knuth, Seminumerical Algorithms. I think the reference to the main article is good enough but "poor programming" should be removed-- it is pejorative, or at leat not NPOV. It's a bit tiresome to read "slot machine" every time Quite obviously having set out our stall we are talking about slot machines, not rolling machines or washing machines.

In most places, unless specifically mentioning the slot or perhaps the money put into it, I think it could be abbreviated just to "machine" and probably in some places with rewording be eliminated completely. It would also make the article shorter-- not that 50k as such is eccessive, but it would be briefer to read without having lost any meaning.

On the other hand, since "slot machine" is the definition and the subject of the article, I could see perhaps it should stay that way. AWPs are usually use compensated maths models, so a machine which has not paid out in a while is more likely to pay out, whereas casino slots in the UK are random like their US counterparts and the result of a spin is not affected by the results of any previous spin, i.

Kids get Pokie Machines Wikipedia Search actual fact, Amazon

A slot machine (American English), (Canadian and American English), poker machine (or pokies in slang) (Australian English and New Zealand English). Look up pokey, poky, or pokie in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Pokey, Poky or Pokie may refer to: Pokie, Australian slang for a slot machine; Other uses. Search. Edit this page; Slot machines by country. This article is an orphan, Slot machines, commonly called "pokies", were introduced into New Zealand in

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