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The paper reviews recent studies that evaluate the impact of free access open access on the behavior of scientists as authors, readers, and citers in developed Pokie Review Literature The Impact developing nations.

It also examines the extent to which the biomedical literature is used by the general public. The paper is a critical review of the literature, with systematic description of key studies. Researchers report that their access to the scientific literature is generally good and improving. For Pokies Wild Updos Hairstyles, the access status of a journal is not an important consideration when deciding where to publish.

There is clear evidence that free access increases the number of article downloads, although its impact on article citations is not clear. Recent studies indicate that large citation advantages are simply artifacts of the failure to adequately control for confounding variables. The effect of free access on the general public's use of the primary medical literature has not been thoroughly evaluated.

Recent studies provide little evidence to support the idea that there is a crisis in access to the scholarly literature. Further research is needed to investigate whether free access is making a difference in non-research contexts and to better understand the dissemination of scientific literature through peer-to-peer networks and other informal mechanisms. A principal argument in support of open access publishing rests on the belief that the subscription-based publishing model has produced a crisis of accessibility to the scientific literature [ 1 — 6 ].

This paper evaluates that claim, reviewing the current literature and showing the ways in which free access has or has not had an impact on scholars, clinicians, and the general public in developed and developing nations.

The review assesses impact in terms of reading, citation, and related forms Pokie Review Literature The Impact use. It does not evaluate the extent to which the freely available scientific literature is technically accessible, indexed, cataloged, or available for potential use. The discussion deals only with the scholarly literature, thereby excluding studies of online newspapers, magazines, and trade publications. It also focuses on the natural sciences, since most of the research on free access has dealt with fields such as the biomedical, physical, and computer sciences.

The paper first reviews the impact of free access on the research practices of scholars in developed and developing nations, then examines the use of freely available biomedical literature by health professionals and the lay public. It concludes with a discussion of avenues for further research. The analysis is based on a review of current empirical studies January through December that attempt to measure—directly or indirectly—access to and use of the scientific literature by academics, clinicians, and the lay public.

Relevant works were identified from several sources: Studies of how information is produced, published, and made publicly available, such as papers on the economics of scientific publishing, are excluded. Also excluded are works that rely solely on personal convictions and anecdotal evidence, as well as those that report redundant findings such as conference presentations, posters, and summary reports.

Current research on the use of the scientific literature follows two main methodological approaches.

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The first makes use of surveys and interviews to examine scholars' perceptions and opinions of the scholarly communication system. The second relies on bibliometric evidence—on unobtrusive studies of what scientists download, read, and cite.

Each approach has both strengths and weaknesses. Surveys can be used to elicit the responses of thousands of individuals in order to draw conclusions about a target population.

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In-depth interviews, while limited in their generalizability, can be used to explore a topic in detail and to examine the values and motivations of interview participants. Nonetheless, poorly constructed or poorly executed surveys and interviews are susceptible to many forms of bias, including sampling bias the inability to reach a representative target audience ; nonresponse bias the underrepresentation of particular subgroups in the sample ; response bias bias associated with the survey instrument itself—the framing, formulation, and ordering of survey questions, for example ; acquiescence bias the tendency for respondents, when in doubt, to respond in the affirmative ; and social desirability bias the tendency for respondents to provide a response they believe to be socially supportiveamong others [ 78 ].

Many of the studies described in this review suffer from one or more forms of bias.

Unobtrusive methods, such as counting article downloads or citations, offer a more direct approach to measuring Pokie Review Literature The Impact scientists actually do, rather than what they say they do.

While these methods avoid the potential biases of survey and interview research, many forms of unobtrusive methods are susceptible to limitations of their own, the most common of which is interpretive. Downloads are often equated with reading, for example, yet this connection is purely inferential.

Devoid of context, a download statistic does not reveal who was responsible for the download or whether the agent was even humanwhy the article was downloaded, or how the article was used if it was used at all. Moreover, download statistics can vary substantially based on the characteristics of the user interface [ 9 ]. Last, a citation implies—but does not require—that the document has been accessed and read.

Because an author may cite from the abstract of an article or simply copy a reference from another paper [ 1011 ], citation data may overstate the extent to which the scientific literature has been consulted. In evaluating scholars' use of the research literature, it is important to acknowledge the limits of what each study can add to knowledge of the issues. As most scientists are both readers and authors, their interests and priorities may vary with the role they assume at any particular time [ 12 Pokie Review Literature The Impact.

Over the past thirty years, periodic studies of the information-seeking and reading behavior of scientists in the United States have revealed three trends: Overall, most surveyed researchers indicate that they have adequate access to the scientific literature and that access conditions are generally improving.

Ware also surveyed small and medium-sized commercial enterprises in the United Kingdom, including companies involved in pharmaceuticals, chemicals, computing, and medical and precision instruments [ 26 ]. While greater access to the scientific literature has undoubtedly altered the behavior of scientists as readersit is not among their main priorities as authors. In deciding where to submit their work, an international survey of scientists revealed that authors were most concerned with each journal's reputation, readership, impact factor, and speed of publication [ 27 ].

In contrast, access status and copyright-related issues were ranked last. Although these large-scale studies are prone to several forms of bias, such as sampling bias and nonresponse bias, they are confirmed by a number of smaller but more rigorous studies of authors' preferences. For example, authors submitting manuscripts to the British Medical Journal reported that impact factor, reputation, readership, speed of publication, and quality of peer review were all major factors in deciding where to submit their work.

In-depth interviews with authors and other stakeholders reveal similar values and priorities. A series of interviews with faculty at the University of California, Berkeley, revealed that authors were most concerned about the mechanisms that ensure the quality of journal articles and the integrity of the peer-review process.

Other considerations, Novomatic Pokies Dancing With The Stars as the costs of the scholarly publication system, did not have much impact on their work [ 29 ].

A recent and more extensive study, by Harley and colleagues, explored the values, motivations, and behavior of interviewees at 45 research universities across the United States [ 30 ]. The recurring theme in this report is that the scholarly community is conservative, with a firm dedication to disciplinary norms and an unyielding commitment to external peer-review and assessment. There is little room for experimentation with new forms of publication, especially for new academics.

Pokie Review Appraiser Remote particular, many faculty view author-pays open access publishing with suspicion due to the potential conflict between publication fees and rigorous peer-review. The only faculty who perceived a crisis were some of those in the humanities, who noted that the diminishing output of university presses made it more difficult to publish their work as academic books.

Several months after the Harley report, Schonfeld and Housewright released another report on the perceptions and behavior of faculty with regard to scholarly communication [ 31 ]. Their findings, based on a series of longitudinal surveys conducted every three years sincewere remarkably consistent with those of the Harley report. With regard to publishing, faculty attitudes are fundamentally conservative and are guided almost entirely by career advancement.

Faculty expressed little interest in transforming the scholarly communication system, and across all disciplines, free access to journal content was consistently ranked last among the factors considered by authors when selecting a journal in which to publish. In contrast, the absence of publication fees was ranked as the second most important factor, suggesting, as Schonfeld and Housewright [ 31 ] pointed out, that the author-pays model of open access publishing might be at odds with the attitudes of many faculty.

As numerous studies have shown, the primary goal of most faculty is to publish in journals that are widely read by scholars in their field [ 23272832 ]. If transforming the scholarly publishing system is a goal of faculty, that goal is nonetheless eclipsed by issues of career advancement.

Table 1 online only presents a summary of the major studies described in this section. Usage data compiled from the online transaction logs of Elsevier and Oxford University Press reveal two major trends of the past several years: Publishers who offer package deals view these data as an indication that they are providing increasing value to the academic community [ 34 ]. While these trends suggest the importance of commercial access to the scientific literature, little is known about the effect of free access on readership.

A case study of article downloads for the journal Nucleic Acid Research revealed that moving from a subscription-access model to an open access model resulted in more than twice the number of article downloads portable document format [PDF] and hypertext markup language [HTML] combinedalthough most of this increase was attributed to Internet robots automated applications that index web pages rather than human intention [ 35 ].

Likewise, randomized controlled trials of open access publishing revealed that free access has a significant, independent impact on the number of downloads, although Pokie Review Literature The Impact account for roughly half of the increase [ 36 ]. Articles that were made freely available received about twice as many full-text downloads but correspondingly fewer PDF downloads, suggesting that the primary benefit to the non-subscriber community is in browsing [ 36 — 38 ].

Due to the nature of these studies, which rely on transactional usage logs, it is only possible to make inferential statements about reader behavior. Further investigation is required to determine who is accessing these articles and for what purpose.

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The impact of online and open access on scholars' citation behavior is not entirely clear. There is some dispute over whether increased access has broadened the scope of cited material. Using a complex inferential model, Evans [ 39 ] reported that commercial access to the literature through large online collections and full-text databases has led to a reduction in the scope of the articles that are likely to be cited, with an emphasis on newer articles from a smaller number of journals.

McCabe and Snyder refuted these claims, asserting that Evans' model suffered from a methodological flaw [ 40 ]. Their findings are supported by a number of author surveys [ 13 — 21 ].

Several studies have indicated that free or open access to scientific publications leads to significant increases in the number of article citations [ 42 — 51 ]. These studies imply that the demand for access to the scientific literature has not been fully met by current distribution models. Other studies claim that free access is responsible for accelerating the citation process [ 52 — 57 ] or that it may have preferential effects for researchers in developing countries [ 5859 ].

Most studies investigating the association between access status and citations are based on various forms of unobtrusive, observational analysis. As Craig and colleagues [ 60 ] illustrate in their comprehensive review of the literature, many of these studies suffer from three methodological problems: As a number of critical studies have shown, these issues make it difficult to determine whether free access has a real, independent effect on citation rates [ 3654 — 5760 — 66 ].

McCabe and Snyder argue that the large citation effects reported in prior studies are simply artifacts of the researchers' inability to control for important covariates such as time and differences in article quality [ 40 ].

To isolate the effect of free access on article readership and citations, Davis and colleagues conducted several controlled experiments that allowed them to randomly assign free-access status to articles on the websites of various academic journals. In theory, random assignment allows the researchers to control for potential differences at the start of the experiment, including unobserved variables such as article quality, between the treatment and control group.

In their first study, involving eleven journals in physiology, they Pokie Review Literature The Impact that open access articles received more article downloads, yet no more citations than subscription articles in the first year after publication [ 36 ]. A larger trial involving thirty-six journals in the sciences, social sciences, and humanities demonstrated no citation difference at three years [ 3738 ].

Overall, Pokie Review Literature The Impact conclusions of Craig and colleagues [ 60 ] are well supported by subsequent work. After controlling statistically or methodologically for confounding effects, there is little evidence that open access status has an independent effect on citation counts. Table 2 online only presents a summary of the key papers that examine the impact of free access on citation rates. The high cost of Western scientific journals poses a major barrier to researchers in developing nations.

While researchers in North America and Western Europe rely primarily on institutional library access to scholarly journals, the situation is different in many developing nations. Researchers in India, for example, rely more heavily on informal access to the scientific literature because their institutions are unable to provide the research literature they require [ 59 ].

Several studies have attempted to ascertain whether researchers Paylines Pokies Blogspot Themes developing countries have benefited from free access by determining whether free access has influenced their authorship and citation behavior.

Her results were mixed: In some regions, citations to the participating journals increased, while in others, they decreased.

No systematic geographical pattern was reported. An analysis of open access and subscription journals in the field of biology revealed that authors in developing countries are no more likely than authors in developed countries to cite or to publish in open access journals [ 70 ].

Likewise, a study of conservation biology journals and book chapters revealed that authors in developing countries do not cite freely available articles at a higher rate than articles requiring subscriptions [ 64 ].

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In some regions, citations to the participating journals increased, while in others, they decreased. No systematic geographical pattern was reported.

An analysis of open access and subscription journals in the field of biology revealed that authors in developing countries are no more likely than authors in developed countries to cite or to publish in open access journals [ 70 ]. Likewise, a study of conservation biology journals and book chapters revealed that authors in developing countries do not cite freely available articles at a higher rate than articles requiring subscriptions [ 64 ].

Both these studies were based on small samples with high variability, so they might not have the statistical power to detect small effects. However, the absence of strong effects in both these studies suggests that the impact of free access on developing-country publishing or citation patterns, if it indeed exists, is likely to be small. A larger, comparative study of Swiss and Indian scholars revealed that articles written by Indian researchers had shorter reference lists and were more likely to cite articles from open access journals [ 59 ].

Considering that Indian research institutions have far poorer access to the published literature than their Swiss counterparts, the impact of free access appears to be modest. Some respondents admitted asking former students who had moved to North American or European institutions for help with access to the journal literature. On a global scale, Evans and Reimer [ 58 ] reported that free access to the published literature had a small but significant effect on citation behavior, especially for authors in developing nations.

However, McCabe and Snyder concluded that the apparent geographical differences in citation rates were an artifact of the methods Evans and Reimer used.

Using a similar dataset, McCabe and Snyder found no regional differences in citation rates [ 40 ]. While the developing world benefits from online access to the scientific literature, McCabe and Snyder report, that gain is no greater than the benefit derived by scholars in the United States and other English-speaking Western countries.

The greatest reported impact of free online access was mentioned in a press release from Research4Life [ 71 ]. Unfortunately, the press release did not provide information on the methods used to reach that conclusion, and no attempt was made to control for potentially important confounding factors, such as country wealth, national expenditures on research and development, number of active scientists, emergence of research centers in high-impact fields such as medicine, or improvements in library and information technology infrastructures.

The authors also provided no data on the number of articles published in each country, as even modest increases in article publication in countries with historically low output can result in high percentage increases.

In the absence of more detailed information, the Research4Life results should be considered speculative at this point. To date, only one study has evaluated the clinical implications of free access to the medical literature. In a pair of related experiments, Hardisty and Haaga [ 72 ] investigated whether increased access to relevant journal articles had an impact on the use of the articles in clinical psychotherapy. Participating mental health professionals were provided with 1 of 4 access conditions: In both studies, participants in group 4 were most likely to report having read the article.

However, in only 1 study did reading the article translate into making a recommendation consistent with the information it presented. These results indicate that while free access increases the likelihood of downloading and reading research articles, it does not necessarily influence clinical practice. Further research is necessary, however, because Hardisty and Haaga's study represents just one clinical setting and one of several possible evaluation methods. The empowerment of health care consumers through universal access to original research has been cited as a key benefit of free access to the scientific literature [ 73 ].

However, relatively little is known about the use of scientific literature by the general public. Anecdotal descriptions are not uncommon—for instance, patients bringing medical literature they found online into the doctor's office—but relatively few studies have investigated how the public uses the primary research literature rather than consumer-focused websites, blogs, and discussion lists.

It is clear, however, that Americans are actively seeking health information online. Periodic telephone surveys of American adults conducted by the Pew Research Center reveal that the percentage of adults who look for health information online increased substantially between and [ 74 ].

That figure, unchanged in , varies with income, race, and other demographic and socioeconomic characteristics [ 76 ]. Those with chronic conditions are also especially likely to report that online searching has affected their treatment decisions and their interactions with doctors. Respondents who experienced recent health crises are also more likely to get a second opinion or to ask their doctor new questions based on their online research, and, not surprisingly, individuals with home broadband access are more than twice as likely as dial-up users to conduct health research online [ 78 ].

According to the Pew telephone surveys, most Internet users begin their research on health or medical topics by using a general search engine such as Google rather than a health-related website [ 75 ].

These results are confirmed by naturalistic observational studies of how laypersons search for online health information in an experimental setting [ 79 — 81 ].

The Pew telephone surveys list many sources of medical information including websites, blogs, commentary, and podcasts, but they do not ask respondents to distinguish between scholarly and non-scholarly resources [ 74 , 82 ]. Likewise, the Health Information National Trends Survey HINTS of the National Cancer Institute asks several questions about sources of health information, but the available responses represent a potentially confusing set of information providers, media, and delivery mechanisms [ 84 ].

It is difficult to discern what the researcher is implying—or, indeed, what the survey respondent might be thinking—when asked about Internet use. Magazines, books, brochures, and health care providers can all be accessed via the Internet, just as doctors and other health care providers communicate in person, via the Internet, and through books, brochures, and magazines.

Neither of these studies distinguished between the primary medical literature e. Most medical and health-related websites suffer from significant problems in terms of accuracy, bias, and completeness [ 86 , 87 ]. Nongovernmental websites are especially prone to these problems [ 88 ]. While laypersons claim that they use a number of criteria in evaluating the credibility of medical websites, few of them actually check the authority of web resources or are able to later recall the sources of their information [ 79 ].

Evaluating websites retrieved through a series of online searches for medical terms, Laurent and colleagues found that the user-generated online encyclopedia, Wikipedia, ranked higher in the search results than professional sites such as MedlinePlus, which is maintained by the National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health [ 90 ]. Indeed, Wikipedia appeared on the first page, among the first ten results, for the overwhelming majority of medical keyword searches conducted in Google, Google UK, Yahoo, and MSN.

Despite significant errors of omission and the absence of source attribution [ 87 ], Wikipedia is a prominent source of online health information. No study has systematically evaluated the extent to which the general public makes use of the primary medical literature rather than secondary and user-generated sources such as Wikipedia and WebMD.

Research has shown that the quality of consumer health information can be improved through better integration of the primary literature into online health resources and through public involvement in the development of such resources.

However, even these efforts involve the use of tools and interfaces that repackage, summarize, and simplify the results of medical research—not on the unmediated reading of the scientific literature by the general public [ 91 — 93 ]. Overall, the published evidence does not indicate how or whether free access to the scientific literature influences consumers' reading or behavior.

Access to the scientific literature is not a serious concern of most scholars in developed nations, and most researchers feel that their access to the literature is steadily improving.

While free access leads to greater readership, its overall impact on citations is still under investigation. The large access-citation effects found in many early studies appear to be artifacts of improper analysis and not the result of a causal relationship. Current research reveals no evidence of unmet demand for the primary medical or health sciences literature among the general public. This does not necessarily reflect the absence of unmet demand; it may simply indicate that the question has not been addressed adequately.

Likewise, almost no studies have evaluated whether free access to the scientific literature has had an impact on the use of scientific information in non-research contexts such as teaching, medical practice, industry, and government. Most studies on the use of the primary scientific literature reflect the opinions and behaviors of those who are well integrated into the system of scholarly communication. This might be regarded as a form of bias because the true population of interest includes not just those who currently rely on the research literature, but those who might make good use of it if they were more fully aware of its utility.

Arguably, the greatest value of open access journals and archives is their potential to make scholarly information available to those who consume, but do not contribute to, the scientific literature. At present, however, there is little evidence that this potential has been realized.

Admittedly, the existence of a resource such as a library collection or a body of open access literature has value independent of the number of downloads, citations, or other indicators of use: However, these kinds of utility are difficult to measure; are not as readily apparent to authors, readers, and publishers; and are of less immediate value than the indicators of use that drive the present-day scholarly communication system. The studies presented here suggest that publication fees are perhaps the greatest impediment to broader participation in open access initiatives.

Moreover, the proportion is much higher for particular disciplines and publisher types. At the same time, there is clear evidence that faculty generally do not like publication fees [ 31 ], and many fear that the pay-to-publish model may compromise the integrity of peer review [ 30 ].

It is important to realize that individuals' opinions of general publishing practices may be contrary to their attitudes about particular journals. The business model adopted by these 2 journals may or may not be transferable to other journals or publishers, but it does demonstrate that at least some free-access journals have the potential to transcend the limitations noted here.

Most research on access to the scientific literature assumes a traditional and hierarchical flow of information from the publisher to the reader, with the library often serving as an intermediary between the two. Very little has been done to investigate alternative routes of access to the scientific literature.

If consumers of the scientific literature operate in the same way as consumers of cultural media music and video, for example , studies that focus on publisher-initiated communication might overlook important components of the scholarly communication system.

While interlibrary lending is one such component, the direct transfer of documents among colleagues may represent an even larger flow of information. For authors, the practice of fulfilling reprint requests by physical post has largely been replaced by transmtting articles by email or by directing readers to publicly accessible online archives or the public Internet [ 96 ]. A mandate of the US National Institutes of Health requires researchers in receipt of federal funding to deposit their final, peer-reviewed manuscripts in PubMed Central [ 97 ].

Several research universities have also set forth their own self-archiving requirements [ 98 ]. Open access archives such as PubMed Central may attenuate existing access inequalities, but only if authors' manuscripts are adequate substitutes for the published record. This requires, among other things, that manuscripts are posted online in a timely fashion, made readily discoverable by readers through indexing or other mechanisms , and preserved for future use.

As noted earlier, there is a clear need for empirical research dealing with the impact of free access on the use of the scientific literature by the general public and by communities that consume, but do not contribute to, the scholarly literature.

It is also important to gain a better understanding of the constructs and measures that are commonly used in studies of scholarly publishing. For instance, to what extent do downloads and citations correspond to the careful reading of articles? Research on free access might also be improved through more careful attention to the various forms of bias that persist in both surveys and observational studies.

For instance, studies of the impact of free access on citation rates have been hindered by a number of methodological problems including selection bias and incomplete model specification e. Studies of free access are likely to benefit from a greater understanding of these problems and a stronger consensus on the most effective ways of dealing with them.

Finally, further research should investigate the extent to which scholars rely on informal sharing of the scientific literature. This kind of sharing is often poorly documented, since individuals are not required to track and report document transactions to the publisher, nor are institutional repositories, subject repositories, public websites, or peer-to-peer file sharing programs.

By relying entirely on publisher-provided usage data, researchers may under estimate the extent to which scholarly works are disseminated through such secondary and tertiary pathways. It is possible that these alternate methods of access help to attenuate the current inequalities in formal access to the scholarly literature. EC Supplemental Tables 1 and 2 are available with the online version of this journal.

National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. J Med Libr Assoc. Received Dec; Accepted Feb. Readers may use articles without permission of copyright owners, as long as the author and MLA are acknowledged and the use is educational and not for profit. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Researchers in the sciences do not see access to the scientific literature as an especially important problem. Authors consider factors such as journal reputation and the absence of publication fees when deciding where to submit their work.

In contrast, free access is not a significant factor in their submission decisions. While open access has the potential to expand the authorship and readership of the scientific literature, that potential has not yet been realized. Librarians who encourage scientists to publish in open access journals should be aware of the authors' priorities and perspectives. Authors in the sciences tend to focus on citation impact, reputation, and accessibility to a specialized readership—not breadth of readership, copyright, or access status.

Journal publishers that charge publication fees may want to consider alternative sources of revenue. Authors' resistance to publication fees is a major barrier to greater participation in open access initiatives.

METHODS The analysis is based on a review of current empirical studies January through December that attempt to measure—directly or indirectly—access to and use of the scientific literature by academics, clinicians, and the lay public.

Studies based on unobtrusive methods Downloads Usage data compiled from the online transaction logs of Elsevier and Oxford University Press reveal two major trends of the past several years: Citations The impact of online and open access on scholars' citation behavior is not entirely clear.

Distinguishing primary literature from secondary and user-generated sources The Pew telephone surveys list many sources of medical information including websites, blogs, commentary, and podcasts, but they do not ask respondents to distinguish between scholarly and non-scholarly resources [ 74 , 82 ].

Sources of bias in the research literature Most studies on the use of the primary scientific literature reflect the opinions and behaviors of those who are well integrated into the system of scholarly communication. Impediments to broader access The studies presented here suggest that publication fees are perhaps the greatest impediment to broader participation in open access initiatives. Alternative routes of access to the scientific literature Most research on access to the scientific literature assumes a traditional and hierarchical flow of information from the publisher to the reader, with the library often serving as an intermediary between the two.

Further research As noted earlier, there is a clear need for empirical research dealing with the impact of free access on the use of the scientific literature by the general public and by communities that consume, but do not contribute to, the scholarly literature.

Click here for additional data file. Table 2 Journal of the Medical Library Association: Footnotes EC Supplemental Tables 1 and 2 are available with the online version of this journal. Association of Research Libraries. Create change [Internet] Washington, DC: The crisis in scholarly communication.

Scholarly communication and the academy: In Oldenburg's long shadow: Creating the digital future: Association of Research Libraries; Encyclopedia of social science research methods. Encyclopedia of survey research methods. Ejournal interface can influence usage statistics: A mathematical theory of citing. An investigation of the validity of bibliographic citations.

J Am Soc Inf Sci. Tenopir C, King D. Special Libraries Association; Chapter 7, Readership of scientific scholarly journals. Reading behaviour and electronic journals. Chapter 8, Information-seeking and readership patterns. Using and reading scholarly literature. Annu Rev Inform Sci. Patterns of journal use by scientists through three evolutionary phases.

W, Tenopir C, Montgomery C. Patterns of journal use by faculty at three diverse universities. Electronic journals and changes in scholarly article seeking and reading patterns. W, Edwards S, Wu L. Scholarly journal information-seeking and reading patterns of faculty at five US universities.

Scholarly communication in the digital environment: Rowlands I, Olivieri R. Journals and scientific productivity: Publishing Research Consortium; [cited 28 Mar ]. Peer review in scholarly journals: Rowlands I, Nicholas D. New journal publishing models: Perceptions of open access publishing: Harley D, Acord S. Assessing the future landscape of scholarly communication: Schroter S, Tite L. Open access publishing and author-pays business models: J Roy Soc Med. UK House of Commons.

Scientific publications [uncorrected transcript of oral evidence] Science and Technology Committee; Open access in context: Open access publishing, article downloads and citations: Open access, readership, citations: Does open access lead to increased readership and citations? Electronic publication and the narrowing of science and scholarship. Significantly elevated FRN was also reported by Ulrich and Hewig in addition to significantly higher P amplitude following near misses.

Elevated P was reported for wins and near misses by Alicart et al. EEG band-power in the alpha, low beta, theta, and beta-gamma ranges were also found to be elevated for near misses and wins but not losses Alicart et al. However, inconsistent with these findings, Lole et al. In terms of the brain areas subtending the response to near miss events, five studies assessed brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imagery fMRI. Diffuse activity, including significantly higher blood oxygenation level dependent BOLD signal in the prefrontal cortex, insular cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus, and bilateral inferior thalamic activity was observed by Dymond et al.

Habib and Dixon reported unique activity in the inferior parietal lobule to near misses relative to losses. One study attempted to directly relate the role of the insular cortex in motivating continued play when experiencing near misses by comparing patients with insular cortex lesions to healthy controls Clark et al. They reported that lesions to the insular cortex but not the amygdala were necessary to abolish the motivation response to near misses.

The potential effect of near misses on problem or at-risk gamblers, both psychologically and physiologically, was examined by nine studies. In one study of the physiological response following a near miss, problem gamblers were not shown to differ from healthy controls in their SCL responses or post reinforcement pause times Dixon et al.

Six studies assessed the neural activity subtending the response to a near miss event in pathological or problem gamblers. Using EEG, Lole et al. Five studies used a neural imagery technique, such as fMRI or magneto-encephalography MEG to explore differences between healthy and pathological gamblers.

Unique brain activity in response to a near miss was reported in the right occipital gyrus, right uncus extending into the amygdala, midbrain, and cerebellum, in one study Habib and Dixon Chase and Clark reported that midbrain activity in response to near miss outcomes was predicted by the degree of gambling severity in a regression analysis.

The authors also reported that problem gamblers showed an increased response in the striatum to both wins and near misses relative to healthy controls.

Van Holst et al. In terms of real-time activity, one study showed through the use of MEG that increased theta power in the insular and orbitofrontal cortices was correlated with the gambling severity Dymond et al. Only one study evaluated whether the behavioural response to near misses could be reduced in pathological gamblers through a clinical intervention, an acceptance and commitment intervention Nastally and Dixon Using a series of informational slides providing information on near misses and separate mindfulness exercises, the authors reportedthat self-reported proximity to win at each near miss event could be reduced through an intervention of this type.

To determine whether any differences in the observed psychological, behavioural, or neurobiological responses to near misses across the sampled studies could be accounted for by the fidelity of the gambling task, rather than the phenomenon of a near miss itself, the way each study provided feedback about the outcome of the game was extracted from each of the sampled studies. In terms of auditory feedback, 9 of the 41 studies provided some form of auditory feedback throughout play of the game.

Using this classification system, a thematic analysis identical to that of the overall analysis was used to identify whether game feedback produced any consistent psychological, behavioural, of neurobiological response.

As for near misses, the effects of LDW in each study were extracted and classified as being either behavioural, psychological, or psychophysiological. Studies independently investigating each of these effects in problem or at-risk gamblers were extracted and examined separately. Finally, to assess the influence of the specifics of the gambling task on producing any effect of LDWs, the effect of specific feedback features each the game were examined.

Five studies addressing LDWs identified the tendency for players to report inflated estimates of their win frequencies Jensen et al. Of these, two of these studies found that the tendency to overestimate winning was influenced by the number of LDWs experienced throughout the play session Jensen et al.

Players experiencing LDWs without the presence of near misses were found to report significantly higher levels of enjoyment and motivation than those who did not experience LDWs. Three studies provided evidence of the tendency of multiline EGMs, allowing for LDWs, to influence which machines gamblers prefer to play on.

Another study revealed that gamblers prefer multiline EGMs to single line EGMs, when afforded a choice between the two Templeton et al. Players were also reported to be able to consciously plan how they play on multiline EGMs, maximizing the number of LDWs over losses by betting on more lines at once MacLaren In addition to potentially influencing game selection, the presence of LDWs resulted in longer post-reinforcement pausing in two studies Dixon et al.

No consistent effect of the presence of LDWs on heart rate and heart rate variability HRV was observed across the three studies that examined them. A significantly higher heart rate variability was also observed in LDWs relative to real wins in another study Dixon et al.

Two studies investigated the role of gambling status in the effect of LDWs. In a separate study, problem gamblers were shown to be hyposensitive to stimuli, showing reduced SCL in response to reward when gambling Lole et al.

The sound effects experienced when gambling on multiline EGMs shown to be associated with the tendency to overestimate wins in two studies Dixon et al. Both reinforcing visuals Dixon et al. This systematic review examined the psychological, behavioural, and psychobiological responses of individual players in response to near misses and LDWs across 51 studies published from to For near misses, a number of consistent findings were observed.

A number of studies suggest that near misses increase the frequency with which a player will estimate that they are winning and motivate continued play nine studies ; encourage longer play three studies ; lead to overestimation of the frequency of winning four studies.

Near misses also appear to result in an increase in SCL in a large number of studies 10 out of 11 studies. Near misses were also found to be viewed as negative or aversive events in 6 out of 9 studies. The present review also found no evidence for these effects to be the product of game feedback, suggesting that the response to near misses is a product of the phenomenology of seeing matching symbols alone and not some byproduct of how the EGM produces an exciting or engaging gameplay experience to generalize near misses as wins, such as through the use of visuals, animations, and sounds.

Notably, however, findings were not completely uniform across all the sampled studies, with considerable spread in the reported effects of near misses in a variety of different measured outcomes. The precise reasons for this inconsistency is presently unclear. However, existing work on gambling behaviour has found that the choice of behaviour is likely influenced by a number of individual such as traits, motives, and gambling status and situational options to play, amount of money available, etc.

Another inconsistent result was observed in how players respond emotionally to a near miss event, both in terms of self-reported measures and in the neuroimaging data. One likely possibility for the inconsistency in these studies is that the response to a loss event, or an event which is similar to a loss, like a near miss, is driven by more complex cognitive constructs such as the degree of counterfactual thinking, see: Henderson and Norris , leading to more varied responses when this and other variables are not accounted for.

Other work has also shown that individual differences with response to gambling losses is strongly associated with the expectation of success and the degree to which the game is enjoyable or reinforcing Campbell-Meiklejohn et al. Taken as a whole, betting and gambling behaviour appears to be the result of a potentially large number of different factors which vary between players, each of which must be better identified and measured in further studies so that the precise reason for the effect of near misses can more completely and accurately be understood.

This is considered particularly important, in light of the consistent finding that EGMs featuring near misses appear to encourage or extend play—the underlying reason for the motivation to play remains unclear, at least at present. Another area that requires further investigation is the ability for near miss events to produce a response in the player at the physiological level, such as is the case in heart rate and HRV outcomes. Despite finding that 10 out of 11 studies showed a significant elevation in SCL in response to a near miss, no such consensus was observed for heart rate or HRV and near misses.

One reason for this may be that skin conductance responses are physical responses brought on by fundamentally different types of processing, but both occurring, at least in part, through activity in the autonomic nervous system. For example, when recording SCL during rest versus the performance of eight different tasks, tasks which captured both internalized processing such as, solving complex arithmetic problems and the processing of external stimuli i.

In contrast, heart rate was shown to decelerate in response to tasks requiring attention to external stimuli and accelerate in response to more internal processing. Other work has also suggested that heart rate may be less sensitive to certain kinds of emotional processing, such as that of sadness, than skin conductance measures Kreibig et al. A study using simultaneously EEG, heart rate, and SCL measures in tasks requiring vigilance or sustained attention has shown that heart rate may be more sensitive to changes in overall vigilance in performing a task, whereas skin conductance was found to be associated with effort or time-on-task Olbrich et al.

Thus, heart rate and heart rate variability, rather than SCL, appear more strongly influenced by the type of processing being engaged in by the player in an average gaming session, something that can vary considerably across individual players. Future studies including these measures would profit from a more rigorous account of the types of processing e. Without more stringent control and investigation of gambling phenomenology, it is difficult to conclude how exactly near miss events are affecting the player, at a cognitive or neural level.

This also suggests that conclusions raised from HR data, without further specification, should be interpreted with caution. Diffuse activity in the brain reported across five studies of the effects of near misses, but a number of common areas were found to be active when processing near miss events, including the insular cortex three studies , ventral striatum two studies , and inferior parietal tissue two studies , though activity was also reported in other areas in the brain, ranging from prefrontal tissue to occipital tissue.

While each reported area is likely meaningful, in some way, to the context of gambling and the response to near misses, the less consistent activity may be the product of idiosyncrasies in task design or analysis regime. In terms of the most consistently significant activity in the insular cortex, inferior parietal, and striatum, these areas have often been implicated in the processing of uncertainty and in the assessment of reward or punishment status. For example, in a set of non-gambling tasks, the activity in the ventral striatum has been correlated with the magnitude of reward or punishment Hsu et al.

In contrast, activity inferior parietal, but particularly the inferior parietal lobule, appears related to the processing of uncertainty Vickery and Jiang It is reasonable to conclude that near misses would recruit either of these modes of processing, so the observed activity is consistent with these other fields of research. But the strongest and most convincing evidence for the direct role of this type of tissue or processing can be found in studies using patients with lesions, such as in Clark et al.

In patients with lesions to the insula, the presence of a lesion significantly reduced the response to near miss events and their reinforcement on behaviour. Despite the relatively few studies identified by our systematic review addressing near miss events and the brain, it is clear that future work should further investigate the specific role of the insula and the complex interplay between tissue in the insular cortex, striatal, and inferior parietal lobule in processing near miss events.

In terms of real-time processing in the brain, consistent EEG signals i. In one study, P and P3b were shown to be associated with false spatial feedback, while FRN activity was associated with unexpected negative feedback alone Balconi and Crivelli This is consistent other studies that show that FRN activity related to fairness precedes the P signal, which has been associated with a state of uncertainty or dissonance Yu et al.

How the timing and magnitude of these neural events relates to the selection and initiation of the next gambling act be it continued play, pausing for a distinct period of time, or ceasing of a play session is something that will require further investigation. One potential avenue for this future work would be to explore the clarity of the near miss event as aversive, as it is expected that a stronger differentiation between FRN and P signals would be possible when the outcome of the game was more directly manipulated.

With regard to LDWs, a strong and clear picture of their effect on the gambler was found, despite being a topic of less concerted study. There was also some evidence, in the form of SCL response and self-report, to indicate that the number of credits awarded by the LDW is what induces the reinforcement of play, despite ongoing losses.

Three studies also specifically identified that game sounds were important in this reinforcement process. However, only one study was explicitly assessed how LDWs are perceived by the player or are effecting the player, making it difficult to determine if the arousal present in the SCL and HRV responses are the product of excitement or are instead the product of a change in the level of effort or vigilance expended while gambling, as was introduced previously.

Through further work differentiating the various modes of cognitive processing from the excitement of an LDW event, much stronger models could be established to describe and assess the effect of LDWs on healthy and problem gamblers alike, and could highlight new methods for producing a safe and healthy gambling environment.

Studies on the neural substrates of the response to LDWs could also place the behavioural findings in a more general context, allowing a more direct comparison between the cognitive processing underlying both types of simultaneously reinforcing loss events—the near miss and the LDW—to be accounted for. In both the study of near misses and LDWs, whether the effects differ in problem or at-risk populations remains to be seen. Only a few studies explored research questions related to non-healthy players.

Of the studies that were identified, the research approach and question of interest varied widely, making it difficult to draw any strong conclusions on whether near misses or LDWs affect problem gamblers in any consistent way.

However, some evidence was found to indicate that problem gamblers may have a reduced or suppressed emotional response to near misses. This was indicated by diffuse patterns of elevated activity in prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and striatum across a number of studies Goldin et al. Many of the brain areas, such as the midbrain and striatum, have also been implicated in altered dopamine transmission and reception throughout the brain, something that appears relevant in gamblers as a whole Bergh et al.

In two of the sampled studies, one on near misses and one on LDWs, some evidence was reported for players to be hyposensitive to wins and losses, neurologically Lole et al. Problem gamblers were also found to prefer multiline slot machines more than non-problem gamblers.

Taken as a whole, these works suggest that the complex emotional or reinforcing responses that problem gamblers have to near misses and LDWs may be blunted, potentially encouraging continued play when it is otherwise inadvisable.

One reason for this may be that near misses and LDWs produce brief levels of excitement, causing spikes in the otherwise reduced response, sufficient to produce engagement and continued play, but insufficient to cause a change in behaviour, though this possibility requires further study to confirm. The present review was limited by the inclusion of studies using a diverse number of techniques and approaches to studying the effects of near misses and LDWs.

Given the number of studies identified investigating the topic of LDWs, this choice represented a practical necessity. However, within the topic of near misses, it remains possible that a more stringent review could establish with greater certainty the particular effect of near misses on the player through a statistically rigorous meta-analysis.

As no review of this scope exists in the field of gambling studies at this time, we instead chose to describe and relate the effects of near misses and LDWs on the player to provide a current account of the effect of each mechanism and the current state of knowledge, however, rather than precisely target one specific research question.

The current review was also limited by its inclusion of only peer-reviewed work. It remains possible that books, dissertations, or grey literature could provide more detail on the understanding of the effects of near misses and LDWs, given the multi-disciplinary nature of the field. However, these forms of media were excluded to ensure a consistent level of quality throughout the review.

In spite of these limitations, the current review provides an important foundation for future work in this area. The present systematic review on near misses and LDWs establishes how each of these two systematic characteristics of slot machines that appear to mislead the player into gambling through a variety of different mechanisms or outcome.

This systematic review provides a comprehensive description of the effects of near misses and LDWs, highlighting both consistent and inconsistent findings. Clear directions for future research were also provided, addressing topics of theoretical or conceptual importance to the understanding of EGM play and gambling behaviour as a whole and providing a framework for future work to build upon.

This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors. Authors Authors and affiliations K. Barton Email author Y. Introduction Slot machines and other forms of electronic gaming machines EGMs are widely accessible all over the world; they can be found in casinos, racetracks, bars, and even airports.

The Popularity of Electronic Gaming Machines Worldwide, slot machines and EGMs represent a large and highly profitable segment of the gambling industry. In the first type of near miss, often encountered on 3-reel EGMs, two jackpot symbols appear on the payline, and a third stops just above or below the payline. To the gambler, this may feel like he or she was close to winning Horton et al.

Near misses are often the product of virtual reels a mechanism sometimes termed as weighted reels , which bias the outcome of the game toward showing symbols adjacent to high paying jackpot symbols on certain reels. Open image in new window. Study Selection Studies selected for inclusion in the review were required to be published, peer-reviewed, written in English, include experiments on human participants, and using an EGM or simulation of an EGM.

Data Extraction and Review Data and evidence were extracted from all included studies through the use of a data extraction tool. Results of Screening A schematic of the screening process is presented in Fig. The literature search identified an initial pool of studies. The initial pool of studies was reduced by removing duplicates items, resulting in studies being retained for screening. The studies were first subjected to a title and abstract screening, assessing the degree to which each study met inclusion criteria from the title and abstract matter alone, followed by a screening of the full text for all studies that passed title and abstract screening.

Of the studies screened, did not match the inclusion criteria following text and abstract screening and a further 29 studies were excluded after the full text review. After completion of the screening process, 51 studies Both were included in the final review. Four of these studies were observational in nature, with the remaining 37 reported as some form of controlled experiment. The LDW studies were conducted between and The gambling task was determined in accordance with the description provided in the original study a Collaborative works by researchers from different jurisdictions b Field and exploratory studies.

Compliance with Ethical Standards Conflict of interest The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. Ethical Approval This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.

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Despite significant errors of omission and the absence of source attribution [ 87 ], Wikipedia is a prominent source of online health information. No study has systematically evaluated the extent to which the general public makes use of the primary medical literature rather than secondary and user-generated sources such as Wikipedia and WebMD. Research has shown that the quality of consumer health information can be improved through better integration of the primary literature into online health resources and through public involvement in the development of such resources.

However, even these efforts involve the use of tools and interfaces that repackage, summarize, and simplify the results of medical research—not on the unmediated reading of the scientific literature by the general public [ 91 — 93 ]. Overall, the published evidence does not indicate how or whether free access to the scientific literature influences consumers' reading or behavior. Access to the scientific literature is not a serious concern of most scholars in developed nations, and most researchers feel that their access to the literature is steadily improving.

While free access leads to greater readership, its overall impact on citations is still under investigation. The large access-citation effects found in many early studies appear to be artifacts of improper analysis and not the result of a causal relationship.

Current research reveals no evidence of unmet demand for the primary medical or health sciences literature among the general public. This does not necessarily reflect the absence of unmet demand; it may simply indicate that the question has not been addressed adequately.

Likewise, almost no studies have evaluated whether free access to the scientific literature has had an impact on the use of scientific information in non-research contexts such as teaching, medical practice, industry, and government.

Most studies on the use of the primary scientific literature reflect the opinions and behaviors of those who are well integrated into the system of scholarly communication.

This might be regarded as a form of bias because the true population of interest includes not just those who currently rely on the research literature, but those who might make good use of it if they were more fully aware of its utility. Arguably, the greatest value of open access journals and archives is their potential to make scholarly information available to those who consume, but do not contribute to, the scientific literature.

At present, however, there is little evidence that this potential has been realized. Admittedly, the existence of a resource such as a library collection or a body of open access literature has value independent of the number of downloads, citations, or other indicators of use: However, these kinds of utility are difficult to measure; are not as readily apparent to authors, readers, and publishers; and are of less immediate value than the indicators of use that drive the present-day scholarly communication system.

The studies presented here suggest that publication fees are perhaps the greatest impediment to broader participation in open access initiatives. Moreover, the proportion is much higher for particular disciplines and publisher types. At the same time, there is clear evidence that faculty generally do not like publication fees [ 31 ], and many fear that the pay-to-publish model may compromise the integrity of peer review [ 30 ].

It is important to realize that individuals' opinions of general publishing practices may be contrary to their attitudes about particular journals.

The business model adopted by these 2 journals may or may not be transferable to other journals or publishers, but it does demonstrate that at least some free-access journals have the potential to transcend the limitations noted here. Most research on access to the scientific literature assumes a traditional and hierarchical flow of information from the publisher to the reader, with the library often serving as an intermediary between the two.

Very little has been done to investigate alternative routes of access to the scientific literature. If consumers of the scientific literature operate in the same way as consumers of cultural media music and video, for example , studies that focus on publisher-initiated communication might overlook important components of the scholarly communication system.

While interlibrary lending is one such component, the direct transfer of documents among colleagues may represent an even larger flow of information. For authors, the practice of fulfilling reprint requests by physical post has largely been replaced by transmtting articles by email or by directing readers to publicly accessible online archives or the public Internet [ 96 ].

A mandate of the US National Institutes of Health requires researchers in receipt of federal funding to deposit their final, peer-reviewed manuscripts in PubMed Central [ 97 ]. Several research universities have also set forth their own self-archiving requirements [ 98 ]. Open access archives such as PubMed Central may attenuate existing access inequalities, but only if authors' manuscripts are adequate substitutes for the published record.

This requires, among other things, that manuscripts are posted online in a timely fashion, made readily discoverable by readers through indexing or other mechanisms , and preserved for future use. As noted earlier, there is a clear need for empirical research dealing with the impact of free access on the use of the scientific literature by the general public and by communities that consume, but do not contribute to, the scholarly literature.

It is also important to gain a better understanding of the constructs and measures that are commonly used in studies of scholarly publishing.

For instance, to what extent do downloads and citations correspond to the careful reading of articles? Research on free access might also be improved through more careful attention to the various forms of bias that persist in both surveys and observational studies.

For instance, studies of the impact of free access on citation rates have been hindered by a number of methodological problems including selection bias and incomplete model specification e.

Studies of free access are likely to benefit from a greater understanding of these problems and a stronger consensus on the most effective ways of dealing with them. Finally, further research should investigate the extent to which scholars rely on informal sharing of the scientific literature.

This kind of sharing is often poorly documented, since individuals are not required to track and report document transactions to the publisher, nor are institutional repositories, subject repositories, public websites, or peer-to-peer file sharing programs.

By relying entirely on publisher-provided usage data, researchers may under estimate the extent to which scholarly works are disseminated through such secondary and tertiary pathways. It is possible that these alternate methods of access help to attenuate the current inequalities in formal access to the scholarly literature. EC Supplemental Tables 1 and 2 are available with the online version of this journal. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. J Med Libr Assoc.

Received Dec; Accepted Feb. Readers may use articles without permission of copyright owners, as long as the author and MLA are acknowledged and the use is educational and not for profit.

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Researchers in the sciences do not see access to the scientific literature as an especially important problem.

Authors consider factors such as journal reputation and the absence of publication fees when deciding where to submit their work. In contrast, free access is not a significant factor in their submission decisions. While open access has the potential to expand the authorship and readership of the scientific literature, that potential has not yet been realized. Librarians who encourage scientists to publish in open access journals should be aware of the authors' priorities and perspectives.

Authors in the sciences tend to focus on citation impact, reputation, and accessibility to a specialized readership—not breadth of readership, copyright, or access status. Journal publishers that charge publication fees may want to consider alternative sources of revenue. Authors' resistance to publication fees is a major barrier to greater participation in open access initiatives. METHODS The analysis is based on a review of current empirical studies January through December that attempt to measure—directly or indirectly—access to and use of the scientific literature by academics, clinicians, and the lay public.

Studies based on unobtrusive methods Downloads Usage data compiled from the online transaction logs of Elsevier and Oxford University Press reveal two major trends of the past several years: Citations The impact of online and open access on scholars' citation behavior is not entirely clear.

Distinguishing primary literature from secondary and user-generated sources The Pew telephone surveys list many sources of medical information including websites, blogs, commentary, and podcasts, but they do not ask respondents to distinguish between scholarly and non-scholarly resources [ 74 , 82 ].

Sources of bias in the research literature Most studies on the use of the primary scientific literature reflect the opinions and behaviors of those who are well integrated into the system of scholarly communication. Impediments to broader access The studies presented here suggest that publication fees are perhaps the greatest impediment to broader participation in open access initiatives. Alternative routes of access to the scientific literature Most research on access to the scientific literature assumes a traditional and hierarchical flow of information from the publisher to the reader, with the library often serving as an intermediary between the two.

Further research As noted earlier, there is a clear need for empirical research dealing with the impact of free access on the use of the scientific literature by the general public and by communities that consume, but do not contribute to, the scholarly literature. Click here for additional data file. Table 2 Journal of the Medical Library Association: Footnotes EC Supplemental Tables 1 and 2 are available with the online version of this journal. Association of Research Libraries.

Create change [Internet] Washington, DC: The crisis in scholarly communication. Scholarly communication and the academy: In Oldenburg's long shadow: Creating the digital future: Association of Research Libraries; Encyclopedia of social science research methods.

Encyclopedia of survey research methods. Ejournal interface can influence usage statistics: A mathematical theory of citing. An investigation of the validity of bibliographic citations. J Am Soc Inf Sci. Tenopir C, King D. Special Libraries Association; Chapter 7, Readership of scientific scholarly journals. Reading behaviour and electronic journals. Chapter 8, Information-seeking and readership patterns.

Using and reading scholarly literature. Annu Rev Inform Sci. Patterns of journal use by scientists through three evolutionary phases. W, Tenopir C, Montgomery C. Patterns of journal use by faculty at three diverse universities. Electronic journals and changes in scholarly article seeking and reading patterns. W, Edwards S, Wu L. Scholarly journal information-seeking and reading patterns of faculty at five US universities. Scholarly communication in the digital environment: Rowlands I, Olivieri R.

Journals and scientific productivity: Publishing Research Consortium; [cited 28 Mar ]. Peer review in scholarly journals: Rowlands I, Nicholas D. New journal publishing models: Perceptions of open access publishing: Harley D, Acord S. Assessing the future landscape of scholarly communication: Schroter S, Tite L. Open access publishing and author-pays business models: J Roy Soc Med.

UK House of Commons. Scientific publications [uncorrected transcript of oral evidence] Science and Technology Committee; Open access in context: Open access publishing, article downloads and citations: Open access, readership, citations: Does open access lead to increased readership and citations?

Electronic publication and the narrowing of science and scholarship. Did online access to journals change the economics literature? The decline in the concentration of citations, — Free online availability substantially increases a paper's impact.

Do open-access articles have a greater research impact. Demographic and citation trends in Astrophysical Journal papers and preprints. Bull Am Astron Soc. Harnad S, Brody T. Comparing the impact of open access OA vs. The rise and citation impact of astro-ph in major journals. The citation impact of digital preprint archives for solar physics papers.

The citation advantage of open-access articles. Self-selected or mandated, open access increases citation impact for higher quality research. Ten-year cross-disciplinary comparison of the growth of open access and how it increases research citation impact.

Citing and reading behaviours in high-energy physics. Citation advantage of open access articles. The impact of open access journals: The effect of use and access on citations. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics; [cited 28 Mar ]. Effect of e-printing on citation rates in astronomy and physics.

Open access and global participation in science. Access to scientific literature in India. E, Pringle J, Amin M. Do open access articles have greater citation impact? Author-choice open access publishing in the biological and medical literature: Does open access in ophthalmology affect how articles are subsequently cited in research.

Patterns of citations of open access and non-open access conservation biology journal papers and book chapters. Do open-access articles really have a greater research impact. Does the arXiv lead to higher citations and reduced publisher downloads for mathematics articles. Florida State University; [cited 28 Mar ].

Attracted to open access journals: Diffusion of treatment research: The open access advantage. J Med Internet Res. Fox S, Jones S. The social life of health information [Internet] Washington, DC: Online health search [Internet] Washington, DC: E-patients with a disability or chronic disease [Internet] Washington, DC: The engaged e-patient population [Internet] Washington, DC: Eysenbach G, Kohler C.

How do consumers search for and appraise health information on the World Wide Web? How consumers search for health information. Mobile health [Internet] Washington, DC: The Institute; [cited 10 Nov ]. P, Singer E, Levin C. Flow diagram showing inclusion and exclusion of the studies identified through the database search. Only those studies that clearly outlined the experimental design or task design were categorized as such.

Studies that did not clearly indicated if they were randomized were categorized as experiments. The gambling task was determined in accordance with the description provided in the original study. The results reported by each study were extracted and classified as being either behavioural, psychological, or psychobiological.

Any findings specific to the effect of near misses on problem or at-risk gamblers or problem gamblers through either clinical diagnosis or scoring on a gambling severity scale were examined separately.

The influence of the way the gambling task was designed to respond during play, specifically that of the type of the game feedback, was also examined to potentially account for any reported differences in how near misses affect the player.

Two of these studies Gibson and Sanbonmatsu ; Dixon et al. Gibson and Sanbonmatsu also showed that self-reported optimists were also found to report marginally more near misses than self-reported pessimists, but no significant difference was observed for true wins.

Dixon and Schreiber found that players verbally responded to near miss events more similarly to wins than losses. In two separate samples of players, Dymond et al. The attribution of near misses as wins was shown to be responsive to conditional discrimination training in 10 out of 16 participants Dixon et al.

Of these studies, nine reported that the presence of near misses affected the motivation to play Clark et al. Of the nine studies that assessed the type of emotional response to near miss events, six of studies reported that near misses were associated with either less of a feeling of reward than compared to a win Lole et al.

Two studies reported no difference between near miss events and losses, but did report that wins were rated as significantly more pleasant than losses Clark et al. In terms of observable emotional response, as measured by facial electromyography, nearly winning a big jackpot in the Wheel of Fortune task Wu et al. An increase in corrugator activity muscles allowing expression using the eyebrows, such as sadness, anger, and fear was reported to occur as a response to win events by Sharman and Clark and to loss events by Wu et al.

Three studies investigated whether near miss events influence higher level cognitive processes or constructs. Two studies investigated the relationship between near miss events and perceived luckiness using the Wheel of Fortune task Wohl and Enzle ; Wu et al.

Spins that nearly missed a big win were associated with lower ratings of luckiness in one study Wu et al. However, narrowly missing a big loss was associated with an increased rating of luckiness in both studies. Three studies investigated whether the presence of near miss events influenced which EGMs players selected to play on or which symbols they decided to hold.

Two studies found that players were unable to differentiate between several EGMs offering different rates of near misses Maclin et al. Three studies evaluated the influence of near miss events on the post-reinforcement pause PRP time following the outcome of the game. One study by Belisle and Dixon reported that players showed a tendency to pause for longer following a near miss relative to a loss, with the effect made stronger by the number of matching symbols visible on the screen at the time of the event.

In contrast, Dixon et al. No difference in the pause time was found following a near miss event from that of a win or loss in one study Worhunsky et al.

Eight studies assessed the influence of the presence of near misses on how people gambled across a session. No effect on the number of times a player gambled was observed in three studies Whitton and Weatherly ; Sundali et al. Similarly, no consistent effect was found on betting behaviour, with one study reporting no difference in bet on the next spin following a near miss Wu et al.

Of the ten studies that assessed the responsiveness of SCL to near miss events, the majority of studies demonstrated the tendency for SCL to elevate in response to a near miss Griffiths ; Dixon et al. One study showed a significant correlation between self-reported levels of excitement following a near miss and SCL Lole et al. One study showed that only wins produced elevated SCL Wilkes et al. In contrast, out of the six studies that assessed heart rate variability HRV , two studies found evidence for a deceleration of heart rate following near misses Dixon et al.

Several studies assessed the real-time response of the brain to near misses using electroencephalography EEG. Significantly elevated FRN was also reported by Ulrich and Hewig in addition to significantly higher P amplitude following near misses. Elevated P was reported for wins and near misses by Alicart et al. EEG band-power in the alpha, low beta, theta, and beta-gamma ranges were also found to be elevated for near misses and wins but not losses Alicart et al.

However, inconsistent with these findings, Lole et al. In terms of the brain areas subtending the response to near miss events, five studies assessed brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imagery fMRI. Diffuse activity, including significantly higher blood oxygenation level dependent BOLD signal in the prefrontal cortex, insular cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus, and bilateral inferior thalamic activity was observed by Dymond et al.

Habib and Dixon reported unique activity in the inferior parietal lobule to near misses relative to losses. One study attempted to directly relate the role of the insular cortex in motivating continued play when experiencing near misses by comparing patients with insular cortex lesions to healthy controls Clark et al.

They reported that lesions to the insular cortex but not the amygdala were necessary to abolish the motivation response to near misses. The potential effect of near misses on problem or at-risk gamblers, both psychologically and physiologically, was examined by nine studies. In one study of the physiological response following a near miss, problem gamblers were not shown to differ from healthy controls in their SCL responses or post reinforcement pause times Dixon et al.

Six studies assessed the neural activity subtending the response to a near miss event in pathological or problem gamblers. Using EEG, Lole et al. Five studies used a neural imagery technique, such as fMRI or magneto-encephalography MEG to explore differences between healthy and pathological gamblers. Unique brain activity in response to a near miss was reported in the right occipital gyrus, right uncus extending into the amygdala, midbrain, and cerebellum, in one study Habib and Dixon Chase and Clark reported that midbrain activity in response to near miss outcomes was predicted by the degree of gambling severity in a regression analysis.

The authors also reported that problem gamblers showed an increased response in the striatum to both wins and near misses relative to healthy controls. Van Holst et al. In terms of real-time activity, one study showed through the use of MEG that increased theta power in the insular and orbitofrontal cortices was correlated with the gambling severity Dymond et al.

Only one study evaluated whether the behavioural response to near misses could be reduced in pathological gamblers through a clinical intervention, an acceptance and commitment intervention Nastally and Dixon Using a series of informational slides providing information on near misses and separate mindfulness exercises, the authors reportedthat self-reported proximity to win at each near miss event could be reduced through an intervention of this type.

To determine whether any differences in the observed psychological, behavioural, or neurobiological responses to near misses across the sampled studies could be accounted for by the fidelity of the gambling task, rather than the phenomenon of a near miss itself, the way each study provided feedback about the outcome of the game was extracted from each of the sampled studies.

In terms of auditory feedback, 9 of the 41 studies provided some form of auditory feedback throughout play of the game. Using this classification system, a thematic analysis identical to that of the overall analysis was used to identify whether game feedback produced any consistent psychological, behavioural, of neurobiological response.

As for near misses, the effects of LDW in each study were extracted and classified as being either behavioural, psychological, or psychophysiological. Studies independently investigating each of these effects in problem or at-risk gamblers were extracted and examined separately.

Finally, to assess the influence of the specifics of the gambling task on producing any effect of LDWs, the effect of specific feedback features each the game were examined. Five studies addressing LDWs identified the tendency for players to report inflated estimates of their win frequencies Jensen et al. Of these, two of these studies found that the tendency to overestimate winning was influenced by the number of LDWs experienced throughout the play session Jensen et al.

Players experiencing LDWs without the presence of near misses were found to report significantly higher levels of enjoyment and motivation than those who did not experience LDWs. Three studies provided evidence of the tendency of multiline EGMs, allowing for LDWs, to influence which machines gamblers prefer to play on. Another study revealed that gamblers prefer multiline EGMs to single line EGMs, when afforded a choice between the two Templeton et al.

Players were also reported to be able to consciously plan how they play on multiline EGMs, maximizing the number of LDWs over losses by betting on more lines at once MacLaren In addition to potentially influencing game selection, the presence of LDWs resulted in longer post-reinforcement pausing in two studies Dixon et al.

No consistent effect of the presence of LDWs on heart rate and heart rate variability HRV was observed across the three studies that examined them. A significantly higher heart rate variability was also observed in LDWs relative to real wins in another study Dixon et al.

Two studies investigated the role of gambling status in the effect of LDWs. In a separate study, problem gamblers were shown to be hyposensitive to stimuli, showing reduced SCL in response to reward when gambling Lole et al. The sound effects experienced when gambling on multiline EGMs shown to be associated with the tendency to overestimate wins in two studies Dixon et al. Both reinforcing visuals Dixon et al.

This systematic review examined the psychological, behavioural, and psychobiological responses of individual players in response to near misses and LDWs across 51 studies published from to For near misses, a number of consistent findings were observed. A number of studies suggest that near misses increase the frequency with which a player will estimate that they are winning and motivate continued play nine studies ; encourage longer play three studies ; lead to overestimation of the frequency of winning four studies.

Near misses also appear to result in an increase in SCL in a large number of studies 10 out of 11 studies. Near misses were also found to be viewed as negative or aversive events in 6 out of 9 studies. The present review also found no evidence for these effects to be the product of game feedback, suggesting that the response to near misses is a product of the phenomenology of seeing matching symbols alone and not some byproduct of how the EGM produces an exciting or engaging gameplay experience to generalize near misses as wins, such as through the use of visuals, animations, and sounds.

Notably, however, findings were not completely uniform across all the sampled studies, with considerable spread in the reported effects of near misses in a variety of different measured outcomes. The precise reasons for this inconsistency is presently unclear. However, existing work on gambling behaviour has found that the choice of behaviour is likely influenced by a number of individual such as traits, motives, and gambling status and situational options to play, amount of money available, etc.

Another inconsistent result was observed in how players respond emotionally to a near miss event, both in terms of self-reported measures and in the neuroimaging data. One likely possibility for the inconsistency in these studies is that the response to a loss event, or an event which is similar to a loss, like a near miss, is driven by more complex cognitive constructs such as the degree of counterfactual thinking, see: Henderson and Norris , leading to more varied responses when this and other variables are not accounted for.

Other work has also shown that individual differences with response to gambling losses is strongly associated with the expectation of success and the degree to which the game is enjoyable or reinforcing Campbell-Meiklejohn et al.

Taken as a whole, betting and gambling behaviour appears to be the result of a potentially large number of different factors which vary between players, each of which must be better identified and measured in further studies so that the precise reason for the effect of near misses can more completely and accurately be understood.

This is considered particularly important, in light of the consistent finding that EGMs featuring near misses appear to encourage or extend play—the underlying reason for the motivation to play remains unclear, at least at present. Another area that requires further investigation is the ability for near miss events to produce a response in the player at the physiological level, such as is the case in heart rate and HRV outcomes.

Despite finding that 10 out of 11 studies showed a significant elevation in SCL in response to a near miss, no such consensus was observed for heart rate or HRV and near misses. One reason for this may be that skin conductance responses are physical responses brought on by fundamentally different types of processing, but both occurring, at least in part, through activity in the autonomic nervous system. For example, when recording SCL during rest versus the performance of eight different tasks, tasks which captured both internalized processing such as, solving complex arithmetic problems and the processing of external stimuli i.

In contrast, heart rate was shown to decelerate in response to tasks requiring attention to external stimuli and accelerate in response to more internal processing. Other work has also suggested that heart rate may be less sensitive to certain kinds of emotional processing, such as that of sadness, than skin conductance measures Kreibig et al.

A study using simultaneously EEG, heart rate, and SCL measures in tasks requiring vigilance or sustained attention has shown that heart rate may be more sensitive to changes in overall vigilance in performing a task, whereas skin conductance was found to be associated with effort or time-on-task Olbrich et al. Thus, heart rate and heart rate variability, rather than SCL, appear more strongly influenced by the type of processing being engaged in by the player in an average gaming session, something that can vary considerably across individual players.

Future studies including these measures would profit from a more rigorous account of the types of processing e. Without more stringent control and investigation of gambling phenomenology, it is difficult to conclude how exactly near miss events are affecting the player, at a cognitive or neural level. This also suggests that conclusions raised from HR data, without further specification, should be interpreted with caution.

Diffuse activity in the brain reported across five studies of the effects of near misses, but a number of common areas were found to be active when processing near miss events, including the insular cortex three studies , ventral striatum two studies , and inferior parietal tissue two studies , though activity was also reported in other areas in the brain, ranging from prefrontal tissue to occipital tissue. While each reported area is likely meaningful, in some way, to the context of gambling and the response to near misses, the less consistent activity may be the product of idiosyncrasies in task design or analysis regime.

In terms of the most consistently significant activity in the insular cortex, inferior parietal, and striatum, these areas have often been implicated in the processing of uncertainty and in the assessment of reward or punishment status.

For example, in a set of non-gambling tasks, the activity in the ventral striatum has been correlated with the magnitude of reward or punishment Hsu et al. In contrast, activity inferior parietal, but particularly the inferior parietal lobule, appears related to the processing of uncertainty Vickery and Jiang It is reasonable to conclude that near misses would recruit either of these modes of processing, so the observed activity is consistent with these other fields of research.

But the strongest and most convincing evidence for the direct role of this type of tissue or processing can be found in studies using patients with lesions, such as in Clark et al.

In patients with lesions to the insula, the presence of a lesion significantly reduced the response to near miss events and their reinforcement on behaviour.

Despite the relatively few studies identified by our systematic review addressing near miss events and the brain, it is clear that future work should further investigate the specific role of the insula and the complex interplay between tissue in the insular cortex, striatal, and inferior parietal lobule in processing near miss events. In terms of real-time processing in the brain, consistent EEG signals i.

In one study, P and P3b were shown to be associated with false spatial feedback, while FRN activity was associated with unexpected negative feedback alone Balconi and Crivelli This is consistent other studies that show that FRN activity related to fairness precedes the P signal, which has been associated with a state of uncertainty or dissonance Yu et al. How the timing and magnitude of these neural events relates to the selection and initiation of the next gambling act be it continued play, pausing for a distinct period of time, or ceasing of a play session is something that will require further investigation.

One potential avenue for this future work would be to explore the clarity of the near miss event as aversive, as it is expected that a stronger differentiation between FRN and P signals would be possible when the outcome of the game was more directly manipulated.

With regard to LDWs, a strong and clear picture of their effect on the gambler was found, despite being a topic of less concerted study. There was also some evidence, in the form of SCL response and self-report, to indicate that the number of credits awarded by the LDW is what induces the reinforcement of play, despite ongoing losses.

Three studies also specifically identified that game sounds were important in this reinforcement process. However, only one study was explicitly assessed how LDWs are perceived by the player or are effecting the player, making it difficult to determine if the arousal present in the SCL and HRV responses are the product of excitement or are instead the product of a change in the level of effort or vigilance expended while gambling, as was introduced previously.

Through further work differentiating the various modes of cognitive processing from the excitement of an LDW event, much stronger models could be established to describe and assess the effect of LDWs on healthy and problem gamblers alike, and could highlight new methods for producing a safe and healthy gambling environment. Studies on the neural substrates of the response to LDWs could also place the behavioural findings in a more general context, allowing a more direct comparison between the cognitive processing underlying both types of simultaneously reinforcing loss events—the near miss and the LDW—to be accounted for.

In both the study of near misses and LDWs, whether the effects differ in problem or at-risk populations remains to be seen. Only a few studies explored research questions related to non-healthy players. Of the studies that were identified, the research approach and question of interest varied widely, making it difficult to draw any strong conclusions on whether near misses or LDWs affect problem gamblers in any consistent way. However, some evidence was found to indicate that problem gamblers may have a reduced or suppressed emotional response to near misses.

This was indicated by diffuse patterns of elevated activity in prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and striatum across a number of studies Goldin et al. Many of the brain areas, such as the midbrain and striatum, have also been implicated in altered dopamine transmission and reception throughout the brain, something that appears relevant in gamblers as a whole Bergh et al.

In two of the sampled studies, one on near misses and one on LDWs, some evidence was reported for players to be hyposensitive to wins and losses, neurologically Lole et al. Problem gamblers were also found to prefer multiline slot machines more than non-problem gamblers. Taken as a whole, these works suggest that the complex emotional or reinforcing responses that problem gamblers have to near misses and LDWs may be blunted, potentially encouraging continued play when it is otherwise inadvisable.

One reason for this may be that near misses and LDWs produce brief levels of excitement, causing spikes in the otherwise reduced response, sufficient to produce engagement and continued play, but insufficient to cause a change in behaviour, though this possibility requires further study to confirm. The present review was limited by the inclusion of studies using a diverse number of techniques and approaches to studying the effects of near misses and LDWs.

Given the number of studies identified investigating the topic of LDWs, this choice represented a practical necessity. However, within the topic of near misses, it remains possible that a more stringent review could establish with greater certainty the particular effect of near misses on the player through a statistically rigorous meta-analysis.

As no review of this scope exists in the field of gambling studies at this time, we instead chose to describe and relate the effects of near misses and LDWs on the player to provide a current account of the effect of each mechanism and the current state of knowledge, however, rather than precisely target one specific research question.

The current review was also limited by its inclusion of only peer-reviewed work. It remains possible that books, dissertations, or grey literature could provide more detail on the understanding of the effects of near misses and LDWs, given the multi-disciplinary nature of the field. However, these forms of media were excluded to ensure a consistent level of quality throughout the review. In spite of these limitations, the current review provides an important foundation for future work in this area.

The present systematic review on near misses and LDWs establishes how each of these two systematic characteristics of slot machines that appear to mislead the player into gambling through a variety of different mechanisms or outcome. This systematic review provides a comprehensive description of the effects of near misses and LDWs, highlighting both consistent and inconsistent findings.

Clear directions for future research were also provided, addressing topics of theoretical or conceptual importance to the understanding of EGM play and gambling behaviour as a whole and providing a framework for future work to build upon.

This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors. Authors Authors and affiliations K.

Barton Email author Y. Introduction Slot machines and other forms of electronic gaming machines EGMs are widely accessible all over the world; they can be found in casinos, racetracks, bars, and even airports. The Popularity of Electronic Gaming Machines Worldwide, slot machines and EGMs represent a large and highly profitable segment of the gambling industry.

In the first type of near miss, often encountered on 3-reel EGMs, two jackpot symbols appear on the payline, and a third stops just above or below the payline. To the gambler, this may feel like he or she was close to winning Horton et al. Near misses are often the product of virtual reels a mechanism sometimes termed as weighted reels , which bias the outcome of the game toward showing symbols adjacent to high paying jackpot symbols on certain reels.

Open image in new window. Study Selection Studies selected for inclusion in the review were required to be published, peer-reviewed, written in English, include experiments on human participants, and using an EGM or simulation of an EGM. Data Extraction and Review Data and evidence were extracted from all included studies through the use of a data extraction tool.

Results of Screening A schematic of the screening process is presented in Fig. The literature search identified an initial pool of studies. The initial pool of studies was reduced by removing duplicates items, resulting in studies being retained for screening. The studies were first subjected to a title and abstract screening, assessing the degree to which each study met inclusion criteria from the title and abstract matter alone, followed by a screening of the full text for all studies that passed title and abstract screening.

Of the studies screened, did not match the inclusion criteria following text and abstract screening and a further 29 studies were excluded after the full text review. After completion of the screening process, 51 studies Both were included in the final review. Four of these studies were observational in nature, with the remaining 37 reported as some form of controlled experiment. The LDW studies were conducted between and The gambling task was determined in accordance with the description provided in the original study a Collaborative works by researchers from different jurisdictions b Field and exploratory studies.

Compliance with Ethical Standards Conflict of interest The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. Ethical Approval This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors. Human oscillatory activity in near-miss events.

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