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See also Richard M. Seminars in Medical Genetics C, no. The problem of monitoring weight gain in children with atypical growth is addressed in Julie Hoover-Fong et al. The Family and Professional Guide Living with Restricted Growth ; conclusions about parental treatment and eventual emotional adjustment can be found on page Ain is coauthor with Eric D.

Is dwarf tossing a victimless crime? The real-life consequence of the idea that dwarf-tossing is acceptable behavior was most recently demonstrated when a thirty-seven-year-old man with achondroplasia sustained permanent spinal cord damage after being unwillingly tossed by a boor at a British pub, likely inspired by the Mike Tindall escapade; news of the incident inspired a number of dwarf celebrities to speak out in solidarity and concern.

The term hobbits was also adopted by the scientists themselves; Morwood used it in the title of his full-length book on the discovery, A New Human: Research and information visit to the Republic of Gabon, 15—30 September A royal pituitary dwarf?

Haworth and Albert E. Bodies, Images and Experiences , edited by David M. Turner and Kevin Stagg , pages 1— For no one who has a defect shall approach: He may eat the food of his God, both of the most holy and of the holy, only he shall not go in to the veil or come near the altar because he has a defect, so that he will not profane My sanctuaries. For I am the Lord who sanctifies them. Le Quesne and K. Allanson and Judith G. Preparing for a New Baby He has been outspoken about the use of the word midget in the broadcast media.

Flynn and Richard M. For background on the genetics and incidence of dwarfism, see Clair A. Shakespeare has taken some flak for his evolving views about dwarfism and disability; see T. Their names are pseudonyms. Shirley and Michael C. The technique is described in detail in S. The development of orthopaedic medicine in Britain, c.

Turner and Kevin Stagg Are drugs the answer? Judge and Daniel M. For information on the concert band piece by Steven Barton, see http: Children with Special Needs , and can also be found all over the Internet.

Wald, and Hilary C. Van Dyke et al. Torfs and Roberta E. Visions for the 21st Century , edited by William I. Zigman and Ira T.

The decreased risk of arteriosclerosis in Down syndrome is discussed in Arin K. Bray and David E. Neely Kazerouni et al. Driscoll and Susan J. Growing Up with Down Syndrome , page Shonkoff and Samuel J. Trent ; and James W. Contemporary historical analysis of the subject includes Daniel J. Trent ; and Daniel J. Kevles, In the Name of Eugenics: Genetics and the Uses of Human Heredity A Historical Reader , page Bell , US Almost simultaneously, but independently, the gene was found by Patricia Jacobs in England; see Patricia Jacobs et al.

A Biography of Erik H. The Origins of an Educational Innovation From Charity to Confrontation Matching federal funds for the care of the disabled is authorized in Section a: Attachment , Separation: Anxiety and Anger , and Loss: Sadness and Depression A Historical Review — , at http: For the full text of the law, see http: A Developmental Perspective ; Demie Lyons et al. Guide to Frequently Asked Questions The Collapse of Our Traditional Ethics Kidder and Brian Skotko, Common Threads: Celebrating Life with Down Syndrome Myers and Siegfried M.

A New Challenge for Society Furey and Jill J. Granfield, and Orv C. For more information on growth hormone, see Salvador Castells and Krystyna E. Mitchell Zuckoff also discusses the subject in Choosing Naia: Mansfield came up with a 92 percent rate, which has been the standard number for many years.

Clinical and Molecular Teratology 88, no. For more on the factors at play in decision-making following prenatal testing, see Miriam Kupperman et al. Genetics, Behaviour and Inclusion Lawson and Sheena A. The quotation appears on page Steven Barnett and Glenna C. Ricci and Robert M. Researchers focusing on the subject include Brian G. Skotko , Jan Blacher , and Zolinda Stoneman. Cuskelly, Monica, and Pat Gunn. Maternal reports of behavior of siblings of children with Down syndrome.

Eisenberg, Laurie, et al. Gath, Ann, and Dianne Gumley. Brothers and Sisters of Retarded Children: Syracuse University Press, McHale, Susan, and Wendy Gamble. Rossiter, Lucille, and Donald Sharpe. A quantitative integration of the literature. Brothers and sisters of persons with Down syndrome. Levine, and Richard Goldstein. Stoneman, Zolinda, and Phyllis Waldman Berman, editors. Stoneman, Zolinda, et al.

Older siblings of mentally retarded children. A review and analysis of the empirical literature. Summers, Jeanne Ann, Shirley K.

Enabling Positive Adaptation to Disability , ed. Wilson, Judith, et al. An Exploratory Study Baker and Jan Blacher: Is there evidence of detachment? The increase in life expectancy of people with Down syndrome and other forms of intellectual disability is discussed in Matthew P. Growing Up with Down Syndrome Burke maintains a personal website at http: The Fiber Art of Judith Scott: Hodapp and Elisabeth M.

Coming of Age with Down Syndrome On March 30, , the CDC upped its autism prevalence estimates from 1: A search of the keyword autism for yields 1, items; for , 7, items. Children with Special Needs Catherine Lord et al.

From Phenotypes to Etiologies For a discussion of the correlation between fever and behavioral improvement, see L. Mehler and Dominick P. Researchers have found a higher-than-average incidence of psychiatric conditions among family members of individuals with autism; e.

I have called these forms of thinking autistic, corresponding to the idea of schizophrenic autismus. They have encased themselves with their desires and wishes. This detachment from reality with the relative and absolute predominance of the inner life, we term autism. Propagators of the term include Lauretta Bender, a child psychiatrist practicing at Bellevue Hospital, who published numerous reports of her clinical observations. For a contemporary expression of concern about the inappropriate application of the term, see Hilde L.

Initial Studies and New Insights Initial Studies and New Insights , page In the whole group, there are very few really warmhearted fathers and mothers. For the most part, the parents, grandparents, and collaterals are persons preoccupied with abstractions of a scientific, literary or artistic nature, and limited in general interest in people.

Even some of the happiest marriages are cold and formal affairs. Three of the marriages were dismal failures. The question arises whether or to what extent this fact has contributed to the condition of the children. Maternal lack of genuine warmth is often conspicuous in the first visit to the clinic. As they come up the stairs, the child trails forlornly behind the mother, who does not bother to look back.

The mother accepts the invitation to sit down in the waiting room, while the child sits, stands, or wanders about at a distance.

Neither makes a move toward the other. Later, in the office, when the mother is asked under some pretext to take the child on her lap, she usually does so in a dutiful, stilted manner, holding the child upright and using her arms solely for the mechanical purpose of maintaining him in his position. I saw only one mother of an autistic child who proceeded to embrace him warmly and bring her face close to his. Some time ago, I went to see an autistic child, the son of a brilliant lawyer.

I spent an evening with the family. Donald, the patient, sat down next to his mother on the sofa. She kept moving away from him as though she could not bear the physical proximity.

When Donald moved along with her, she finally told him coldly to go and sit on a chair. One father, a busy and competent surgeon, had three children. The first, a girl, was docile, submissive, and gave no cause for concern to the parents. The second, a boy, was very insecure and stuttered badly. The third, George, was an extremely withdrawn, typically autistic child. Far from being irked, he deliberated for a while and replied, just as impassively, that he was not sure that he would.

This seemingly unemotional objectivity, applied to oneself and to others, is a frequent expression of the mechanization of human relationships. Most of the fathers are, in a sense, bigamists.

They are wedded to their jobs at least as much as they are married to their wives. The job, in fact, has priority. Many of the fathers remind one of the popular conception of the absent-minded professor who is so engrossed in lofty abstractions that little room is left for the trifling details of everyday living. Many of the fathers and most of the mothers are perfectionists. Obsessive adherence to set rules serves as a substitute for the enjoyment of life. These people, who themselves had been reared sternly in emotional refrigerators, have found at an early age that they could gain approval only through unconditional surrender to standards of perfection.

It is interesting that, despite their high intellectual level, not one of the parents has displayed any really creative abilities.

They make good teachers in the sense that they can transmit that which they have learned. They are essentially conservative repeaters of that which they have been taught. This is not quite true of many of the grandfathers, some of whom have established flourishing businesses, expounded original theories, or produced fairly successful pieces of fiction and art.

Most of the patients were exposed from the beginning to parental coldness, obsessiveness, and a mechanical type of attention to material needs only. They were the objects of observation and experiment conducted with an eye on fractional performance rather than with genuine warmth and enjoyment.

They were kept neatly in refrigerators which did not defrost. Their withdrawal seems to be an act of turning away from such a situation to seek comfort in solitude. All too often this child is the offspring of highly organized, professional parents, cold and rational—the type that Dr. Infantile Autism and the Birth of the Self The ASAN organizational website is at http: She had previously used the image in her autobiography, Thinking in Pictures: A bright red smear across the door, the molding, the wall.

Turn the corner and the bedroom is a crime scene. In fact, it is only your daughter at her worst. Worse than three days without sleep? Worse than ear-splitting screams that physically hurt, actually cause you to drop what you hold in alarm, compel you to shriek back at your delighted child who smiles at you sincere as a spring day? Splashes of blood glistening like paint, black clots, yellow-brown feces, and a 3-foot-in-diameter pond of vomit that your daughter stands in the middle of, a dog-eared copy of Family Circle in one hand, reaching for the TV with the other.

She is naked except for stockinged feet, blood soaked up to her ankles. Hands dripping, face marked like a cannibal, she wears an expression of utter bewilderment: There being nowhere to walk without stepping in some bodily emission, you throw bath towels down like a bridge to get to her. A bloody hand print on the square of your back as she balances herself when you roll down her sopping stockings.

You hope she touches nothing else but what does it matter as the bathroom remains appalling in spite of the previous cleanups: Holiday guests take you aside to warn you of rodents in unusual locations. Ancient turds in drawers, inside books. She is excavating for what remains of the impacted stool, hard as a French roll. This entire episode, this habit, the result of some maddening control issue.

The behaviorists, the gastroenterologists, the living-skills experts all suggest their strategies and therapies and videos and diets and oils and schedules. Certainly she knows what you want—appropriate toileting. And there are occasions when she does just that. Goes in, sits, finishes. This, maybe 5 percent of the time. Some huge, softball-size stool discovered in the toilet bowl. You shout for each other and gaze in wonder as at a rainbow or falling star. She has written about autism in Mad Men and Medusas: Reclaiming Hysteri a They came to steal his mind.

Before anyone gave it a name, even before I knew what it was, I knew it was in our house. Not that I wanted to, believe me. They were very very dark things and there was no way to get rid of them.

Sometimes I could hear them late at night when the house was very quiet. A creaking sound, an inexplicable hiss, a miniscule pop, a whistle out of nowhere.

And when I closed my eyes, I felt their shadows passing over me as they floated through the house and drifted invisibly with the smoke of the fireplace chimney out into space back to God knows where.

It was too frightening. Dov was only a baby and something was trying to steal him away. Sooner or later I knew I would catch them swirling above his crib. I knew that was what they did whenever I accidentally fell asleep. A violent thudding jolted my senses awake. My heart was banging like two fists in my chest. How long had I been sleeping? My eyes darted over to the crib I was supposed to be watching.

He was still there. I could see him through the white wooden bars, asleep, his small body gently rising and falling with each little breath. Night after night I sat beside his crib. I knew he was slipping away from us, away from our world, and there was nothing I could do to stop it from happening.

There was nothing anybody could do, they told me. So I did the only thing I could. I guarded him, although I knew it would do no good. Because I could not guard his mind. And then one day it had happened. For scholarly discussion of changeling myths as a response to disability, see D.

The individual case was made to fit the superstition, and thus we possess no standardized data respecting the appearance of a changeling. Specific examples of changelings, solitary fairies—both domesticated and reclusive—and the offspring of fairy-human matings will be presented which seem to offer identifiable portraits of children who were born, or who became, different as the result of identifiable congenital disorders which today are known to medical science.

It is certainly of a disabled person:. Martin Luther, saw and touched a changeling. It was twelve years old, and from its eyes and the fact that it had all of its senses, one could have thought that it was a real child. It did nothing but eat; in fact, it ate enough for any four peasants or threshers.

It ate, shit, and pissed, and whenever someone touched it, it cried. When bad things happened in the house, it laughed and was happy; but when things went well, it cried.

It had these two virtues. I said to the Princes of Anhalt: I would dare commit homicidium on him! Such a changeling child is only a piece of flesh, a massa carnis, because it has no soul. We were stolen by demons or fairies and replaced with a changeling child, or an enchanted block of wood, or some other non-human thing. Or we were the result of a mating between the devil and a human woman. Whatever we were, we were quite literally demonized, cast in the role of demons, and the general advice was to get rid of us by any means necessary.

The shape of the myth has remained the same, with new words replacing old ones depending on the area and era. Autistic people are still described as soulless. He hit all his developmental landmarks but after his first birthday. This topic deserves further elaboration: Autism Speaks broadcasts several television public service announcements informing us of the odds of a child achieving any one of a number of improbable events—starring in a Broadway show being one example—as compared to the much more likely odds of the viewer having a child with autism Ad Council.

The intended effect is clear. It is a call for parents to be afraid: What is the result of following the fallacy of the missing self and the accompanying tragedy narrative of autism to its logical conclusion? If autistics are changelings—children not of this world and subject to the unspeakable presumption of tragedy that our modern media perception of autism is based upon—is it a surprise that some parents should try and excise the changeling, remove the cancer and thus end the tragedy they view themselves as playing a part in?

To those parents, who have been conditioned to believe that their children are less than whole and thus less than human, are they performing a true act of murder? A causal relationship exists between the rhetoric that reinforces a diminished value for autistic life and personhood and the implementation of that idea in the form of the murder of people on the autism spectrum. Tischreden —21 , vol. Autistic children are never cured or, at least, so rarely as for it to be a medical curiosity.

If the side-effect of MMR was death, the concern would be much, much larger, but a deferred death—and in the most severe cases that is what autism is, a dead soul in a live body—just does not generate the concern that it should.

Miller ; and Gerry A. Stefanatos and Ida Sue Baron. For discussion on oral-motor function in autism, see Morton Ann Gernsbacher et al. An Essay on Autism and Theory of Mind Explaining the Enigma Numerous respected autism researchers subsequently challenged Tinbergen regarding his speculations; see, e. Stories from the Other Side of Autism The Science of Face Perception is a useful basic reference on the subject. For an account by a college professor and personal acquaintance whose son communicates via FC, see Ralph James Savarese, Reasonable People: A Memoir of Autism and Adoption: Literature reviews that largely dismiss FC as ineffective include Mark P.

Current Theories and Evidence ; Martha R. Minshew and Timothy A. Stodgell, and Patricia M. Zimmerman and Susan L. Pessah and Pamela J. Current Theories and Evidence , edited by Andrew Zimmerman Accepting an autism prevalence that is constantly being recalculated but that is hovering at about one in a hundred, and a risk for siblings is about one in five, we come up with this comparative statistic; see Brett S.

Abrahams and Daniel H. What is the causal mechanism? Many genes, common pathways? For a study finding amelioration of behavioral abnormalities in genetically engineered mice administered mGluR antagonists, see Zhengyu Cao et al. Dawson is chief scientific officer for Autism Speaks. Clinical and Research Issues , edited by Pasquale J. The perfect map of Rome was created by Stephen Wiltshire and is displayed on his website , http: Iversen is author of Strange Son: The Autism Genetic Resource Exchange website: The original German is Eine gute Mutter diagnostiziert oft viel besser wie ein schlechter Arzt and may be found at http: I note in the interest of full disclosure that I employed Kathleen Seidel to help me with research, citations, and the bibliography for this book starting in For the idea that regression in autism may be the expression of an unfolding genetic process, see Gerry A.

It represents work by Judith Miller that reclassified old files using modern diagnostic criteria. Miller showed that prevalence was previously underestimated i. She will be the first author on a paper that summarizes this work, which is not yet published. Gerber, and Paul A.

Mercury in Vaccines and the Autism Epidemic: A Medical Controversy In contrast, recent research demonstrates the absence of any association of autism with genes that regulate heavy metals in the body: This would lead to a heritability estimate of about 70 percent, consistent with previous results.

A recent very large study comparing siblings and half siblings supports a ratio of 60 percent or higher; see John N. Blaxill, and Boyd E. For extensions of that work to young children, see Katarzyna Chawarska et al.

Longitudinal studies over longer periods of time have documented changes in IQ scores and in core deficits e. Thus, while substantial evidence exists that treatments can reach short-term goals in many areas, gaps remain in addressing larger questions of the relationships between particular techniques and specific changes.

Treatment Approaches for Parents and Professionals A notable quote from the first paper: This may be at least a partial reason why mothers of autistic children are so often well-educated, verbal, and at least superficially adequate people. Greenspan and Serena Weider, Engaging Autism: A Cochrane Review Journal 6, no. From the original Russian: The Miracle Continues For the allegation that the child was never autistic at all, see Bryna Siegel, The World of the Autistic Child , pages — Nelson and Margaret L.

Baxter and Edward P. March 22, , at http: Geier May 16, , at http: Family of autistic child alleges abuse at private school Tedeman v. Boston Higashi School et al. Reports of their work include M. July ; Laurent Mottron et al.

January ; Robert M. In , a scholarly paper was published about the ransom notes scandal: Remapping the World of Autism , comes from my interview with him in Remapping the World of Autism Avoiding Perilous Situations with Autism Carbone and Emily J. Seven Paradoxical Tales Patrick Markcrow and Sarah Naylor: Son of Zvia Lev: Schizophrenia ; E. A Very Short Introduction See also figure 1 in Jeffrey A.

Caused by a fault in programmed synaptic elimination during adolescence? What did we learn? For a review and synthesis of twin studies discussing the various sorts of environmental influences that might contribute to the differential development of schizophrenia in twins, see Patrick F.

Kendler, and Michael C. The contribution of paternal age to schizophrenia is discussed in E. How important is it? For a recent review article on transgenic mouse research, see P. Alexander Arguello and Joseph A. Simpson, and Eric R. Straight Talk for Family and Friends The surface distance controls a deeper interdependence on each other. One parent denies the immaturity and functions with a facade of overadequacy. The other accentuates the immaturity and functions with a facade of inadequacy.

The family members, particularly the father and mother, function in reciprocal relation to each other. The most frequent family pattern is an intense twosome between mother and patient which excludes the father and from which he permits himself to be excluded.

A child whose mother becomes anxious and withdraws if the child responds to her as a loving mother. A mother to whom feelings of anxiety and hostility toward the child are not acceptable, and whose way of denying them is to express overt loving behavior to persuade the child to respond to her as a loving mother and to withdraw from him if he does not. The absence of anyone in the family, such as a strong and insightful father, who can intervene in the relationship between the mother and child and support the child in the face of the contradictions involved.

It is also worth reviewing Alfred S. For an extended critique of parent-blame theories, see John G. Howells and Waguih R. Guirguis, The Family and Schizophrenia The passage in full: But the most characteristic feature of the mind-cure movement is an inspiration much more direct. The leaders in this faith have had an intuitive belief in the all-saving power of healthy-minded attitudes as such, in the conquering efficacy of courage, hope, and trust, and a correlative contempt for doubt, fear, worry, and all nervously precautionary states of mind.

Their belief has in a general way been corroborated by the practical experience of their disciples; and this experience forms to-day a mass imposing in amount. Greaves and Robert Sharrock For more information on the history of lobotomy, see Joel T. For more information, see Thomas A. LaMothe, Controlled Offensive Behavior: A Personal Triumph Over Psychiatry A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason Journal of Interpersonal Relations 32, no.

Laing occur on pages , , and of The Politics of Experience It may also be break-through. It is potential liberation and renewal as well as enslavement and existential death.

The Idea and Its Consequences Fuller Torrey, Surviving Schizophrenia Armat, Madness in the Streets: The Truth About Deinstitutionalization Andreasen describes the function of hospitals as communities on page 32 of The Family Face of Schizophrenia Armat, Madness in the Streets Synaptic connectivity in autism is discussed in Carlos A. Pardo and Charles G. Brown and Ezra S. Schizophrenia following famine is discussed in Hans W.

Brown, and Ezra S. Epidemiologic Issues and Implications , edited by Marissa J. Miller and Nicholas J. One of his recent articles that addresses this topic is R.

My Journey Through Madness Warman and Aaron T. McGlashan and his colleagues argue for the establishment of the syndrome as a diagnostic category in Scott W. Their proposals attracted considerable opposition; see, e. For a scholarly review of the controversy, see Barnaby Nelson and Alison R. Fuller Torrey, Out of the Shadows: See also Maurizio Pompili et al. Fuller Torrey, Out of the Shadows Keefe and Philip D.

For more information on living arrangements and parent satisfaction, see Benedicte Lowyck et al. Stress, Coping, and Adaptation , edited by Agnes B. Hatfield and Harriet P. Living with Schizophrenia A judgment in Lothell Tate v. Forced Treatment and the Rights of the Mentally Ill What should happen when patients reject their diagnosis? Chamberlin is the author of On Our Own: Hazards to the Brain Public Images of Mental Illness Alisky and Kenneth A.

Marder is a coauthor of Robert S. Matthew Lysiak and Lukas I. Loughner has a due process right. Prisons and Offenders with Mental Illness Weinreich maintains a personal website at http: My Brother, Madness, and Survival When dealing with a condition that arises from, affects, and shows itself forth in behavior, feeling, choice, and action—that brings joy, sorrow, grief, and tragedies that, daily and long-term, are distinctly human—how not pay attention and listen to the stories of these lives from those who have led them, however confusingly and crazily they are told, when it is by this very telling that some essential part of the human beings in possession of these lives is expressing itself and doing so, often, as a means of survival?

Is it the very mystery of what we call madness that seems to cause us, again and again, to condemn those afflicted with this condition to some non human category of life?

All names in this passage are pseudonyms, except the name of David Nathan. Poems , pages 6—7. Educational and Social Issues , edited by John J. Ross come from pages 55—56 and of his book The Exceptional Child in the Family Shaver , page This picture becomes a little more intelligible when we consider that, with one exception, the same traits are met with in mourning.

The disturbance of self-regard is absent in mourning; but otherwise the features are the same. Profound mourning, the reaction to the loss of someone who is loved, contains the same painful frame of mind, the same loss of interest in the outside world—in so far as it does not recall him—the same loss of capacity to adopt any new object of love which would mean replacing him and the same turning away from any activity that is not connected with thoughts of him.

It is easy to see that this inhibition and circumscription of the ego is the expression of an exclusive devotion to mourning which leaves nothing over for other purposes or other interests. It is really only because we know so well how to explain it that this attitude does not seem to us pathological. Kazak and Robert S. Risk, Resilience, and Recovery For individuals who could roll over, but were otherwise immobile, survival was relatively improved.

Finding siblings more responsible and tolerant: Finding siblings more unhappy, but not suffering unduly from psychiatric problems: Naomi Breslau et al. Finding the worse the disability, the better the sibling adjustment: An Exploratory Study , especially pages — Finding siblings were helped by a specific diagnosis: The brain abnormality in SE is permanent or unchanging in the sense that it does not get worse.

It is not progressive or degenerative. Unfortunately, it usually does not get better or improve much, either. This does not mean that the child will not get better. But most children with static encephalopathy will always have some degree of learning or developmental problems because they always have some degree of abnormal brain function.

Gunther and Douglas S. Social Construction of Deafness: A majority of people in the Deaf-World have inherited their ethnicity. Deaf inheritance and a failure to understand the ethnic status of culturally Deaf people have historically and at present placed the Deaf-World in jeopardy of ethnocide and even genocide. I am so sad to hear about all the babies with Down Syndrome being aborted. I am so grateful that I was not aborted because I have a full and wonderful life!

I believe in the sacred dignity of all people and most people I know with disabilities have full and productive lives. I learned about what Hitler did during the Holocaust.

He killed many people he did not think had the right to live. He learned how to kill by killing people with disabilities first. My heart broke when I learned about this at the Holocaust museum. It seems to me we are doing the same thing to children with disabilities today in our country.

I think this is like genocide—the systematic killing of a whole people or nation. I wonder why we think Hitler was so horrible when we are doing the same thing he did? My heart breaks again when I think that I might be the last generation of people with Down Syndrome. The world will never again benefit from our gifts. There could also be members of our species who are not persons. By putting on masks the actors signified that they were acting a role.

Quite possibly Fletcher would agree that these two are central, and the others more or less follow from them. If we compare a severely defective human infant with a nonhuman animal, a dog or a pig, for example, we will often find the nonhuman to have superior capacities, both actual and potential, for rationality, self-consciousness, communication, and anything else that can plausibly be considered morally significant. Only the fact that the defective infant is a member of the species Homo sapiens leads it to be treated differently from the dog or pig.

Species membership alone, however, is not morally relevant. Humans who bestow superior value on the lives of all human beings, solely because they are members of our own species, are judging along lines strikingly similar to those used by white racists who bestow superior value on the lives of other whites, merely because they are members of their own race. Schwartz , 46 N. On Children, Love, and the Inner Life The Experience of Maternal Ambivalence , Child Prodigies and the Development of Human Potential In the case of the mazurka , the child was engaging not only in precocious musicality, but also in precocious punning; the word mazurka refers to both a traditional Polish folk dance and a dense Polish cake with fruit and nuts.

The Origins and Development of High Ability Evgeny Kissin maintains a website at http: Stebbing , page 4: For sublimity, they say, is the gift of Nature, not the result of teaching, and the only art which leads to it is native genius. The effects of natural abilities, they think, are impaired and altogether weakened under the debilitating influence of systematic rules.

But I maintain, that to be convinced of the contrary, one has but to consider that what Nature loves in impassioned and exalted moods is a general independence, not a random course without plan or direction; and that while Nature supplies in all cases primary and archetypal elements of production, it is system which avails to point out the needful limitations, the seasonable opportunity, in short, to bring together all the proprieties of use and practice; and that genius without science, left alone with no ballast or ought to steady it, upon its own mere impulse and undisciplined impetuosity, has an inherent liability to shipwreck.

For genius, be assured, requires the curb as often as the spur. And indeed for the leading fact itself, that there is that in oratory which Nature can alone supply, we are indebted to none other than as I said, of these particulars, the censor of the studious will no longer, I believe, deem the investigation of our present subject superfluous or unprofitable.

That is why, if an author owes a product to his genius, he himself does not know how he came by the ideas for it; nor is it in his power to devise such products at his pleasure, or by following a plan, and to communicate to others in precepts that would enable them to bring about like products.

Indeed, that is presumably why the word genius is derived from [Latin] genius , the guardian and guiding spirit that each person is given as his own at birth, and to whose inspiration those original ideas are due.

The Leon Fleisher Story The passage in its entirety: He was also a great master of modulation, and his transitions from one key to another were excessively natural and judicious; he practised in this manner for a considerable time with a handkerchief over the keys of the harpsichord. The facts which I have been mentioning I was myself an eyewitness of; to which I must add, that I have been informed by two or three able musicians, when Bach the celebrated composer had begun a fugue and left off abruptly, that little Mozart hath immediately taken it up, and worked it after a most masterly manner.

Witness as I was myself of most of these extraordinary facts, I must own that I could not help suspecting his father imposed with regard to the real age of the boy, though he had not only a most childish appearance, but likewise had all the actions of that stage of life. For example, whilst he was playing to me, a favourite cat came in, upon which he immediately left his harpsichord, nor could we bring him back for a considerable time.

He would also sometimes run about the room with a stick between his legs by way of horse. I found likewise that most of the London musicians were of the same opinion with regard to his age, not believing it possible that a child of so tender years could surpass most of the masters in that science.

Perilous Journeys, Remarkable Lives My Father , pages — Certainly, there will always be Ingres and Corots, just as there have been Raphaels and Titians, but they are exceptions, for whom it would be presumptuous to write a treatise on painting. All painting, from that of Pompeii, done by Greek artists. Formerly all pupils learned this way of painting under their master. Their genius, if they had any, did the rest. The stern apprenticeship imposed on young painters never prevented them from having originality.

Raphael was the pupil of Perugino, but he became the divine Raphael, nevertheless. The New School for Music website: Levitin and Susan E. Ross in , as do all quotations from him. Takeuchi and Stewart H. Smith and Mark A. For the study finding that many subjects are able to recognize minor pitch changes in familiar tunes, see Glenn Schellenberg and Sandra E.

The Neuroscience of Genius Forster , Problemata xxx 1, a10— Geschwind and Albert M. What Do We Know? Nancy Robinson takes issue with the assertion that intellectually gifted children are less hardy than other children on page xiv of her introduction to The Social and Emotional Development of Gifted Children: They built this lottery on the bones of their little children.

And sure enough, over the last few decades our town had sent a number of child prodigies onto the stages of the world. When a boy turned four or five, his mother took the tiny, frail creature to Mr. Zagursky ran a factory that churned out child prodigies, a factory of Jewish dwarfs in lace collars and patent leather shoes.

There was powerful harmony in the souls of these little creatures with their swollen blue heads. They became acclaimed virtuosi.

And so—my father decided to keep up with them. I had passed the age of child prodigies—I was almost fourteen—but because of my height and frailness I could be mistaken for an eight-year-old. Therein lay all our hopes. She died in the Holocaust, and he was once while drunk heard to say that Hitler was a great man because Hitler had killed his mother. The Artist and the Woman ; the quotation from Robert Schumann occurs on page You will have to leave one, him or me.

Website of the Endellion String Quartet: All names in this passage are pseudonyms, and some identifying details have been changed. Lang Lang maintains a website at http: My Story , with David Ritz. Gang qin tian cai Lang Lang he ta de fu qin. Anders Ericsson, Michael J. Prietula, and Edward T. The Tinted Tan Mousse glides like velvet over the skin and provides a gorgeous bronze tan that lasts for up to 7 days so you will be covered during the holidays!

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refers

Maternal reports of behavior of siblings of children with Down syndrome. Eisenberg, Laurie, et al. Gath, Ann, and Dianne Gumley. Brothers and Sisters of Retarded Children: Syracuse University Press, McHale, Susan, and Wendy Gamble.

Rossiter, Lucille, and Donald Sharpe. A quantitative integration of the literature. Brothers and sisters of persons with Down syndrome. Levine, and Richard Goldstein. Stoneman, Zolinda, and Phyllis Waldman Berman, editors.

Stoneman, Zolinda, et al. Older siblings of mentally retarded children. A review and analysis of the empirical literature. Summers, Jeanne Ann, Shirley K. Enabling Positive Adaptation to Disability , ed. Wilson, Judith, et al.

An Exploratory Study Baker and Jan Blacher: Is there evidence of detachment? The increase in life expectancy of people with Down syndrome and other forms of intellectual disability is discussed in Matthew P. Growing Up with Down Syndrome Burke maintains a personal website at http: The Fiber Art of Judith Scott: Hodapp and Elisabeth M.

Coming of Age with Down Syndrome On March 30, , the CDC upped its autism prevalence estimates from 1: A search of the keyword autism for yields 1, items; for , 7, items. Children with Special Needs Catherine Lord et al. From Phenotypes to Etiologies For a discussion of the correlation between fever and behavioral improvement, see L.

Mehler and Dominick P. Researchers have found a higher-than-average incidence of psychiatric conditions among family members of individuals with autism; e. I have called these forms of thinking autistic, corresponding to the idea of schizophrenic autismus.

They have encased themselves with their desires and wishes. This detachment from reality with the relative and absolute predominance of the inner life, we term autism. Propagators of the term include Lauretta Bender, a child psychiatrist practicing at Bellevue Hospital, who published numerous reports of her clinical observations. For a contemporary expression of concern about the inappropriate application of the term, see Hilde L.

Initial Studies and New Insights Initial Studies and New Insights , page In the whole group, there are very few really warmhearted fathers and mothers. For the most part, the parents, grandparents, and collaterals are persons preoccupied with abstractions of a scientific, literary or artistic nature, and limited in general interest in people.

Even some of the happiest marriages are cold and formal affairs. Three of the marriages were dismal failures. The question arises whether or to what extent this fact has contributed to the condition of the children. Maternal lack of genuine warmth is often conspicuous in the first visit to the clinic. As they come up the stairs, the child trails forlornly behind the mother, who does not bother to look back. The mother accepts the invitation to sit down in the waiting room, while the child sits, stands, or wanders about at a distance.

Neither makes a move toward the other. Later, in the office, when the mother is asked under some pretext to take the child on her lap, she usually does so in a dutiful, stilted manner, holding the child upright and using her arms solely for the mechanical purpose of maintaining him in his position. I saw only one mother of an autistic child who proceeded to embrace him warmly and bring her face close to his.

Some time ago, I went to see an autistic child, the son of a brilliant lawyer. I spent an evening with the family. Donald, the patient, sat down next to his mother on the sofa.

She kept moving away from him as though she could not bear the physical proximity. When Donald moved along with her, she finally told him coldly to go and sit on a chair.

One father, a busy and competent surgeon, had three children. The first, a girl, was docile, submissive, and gave no cause for concern to the parents. The second, a boy, was very insecure and stuttered badly. The third, George, was an extremely withdrawn, typically autistic child.

Far from being irked, he deliberated for a while and replied, just as impassively, that he was not sure that he would. This seemingly unemotional objectivity, applied to oneself and to others, is a frequent expression of the mechanization of human relationships.

Most of the fathers are, in a sense, bigamists. They are wedded to their jobs at least as much as they are married to their wives.

The job, in fact, has priority. Many of the fathers remind one of the popular conception of the absent-minded professor who is so engrossed in lofty abstractions that little room is left for the trifling details of everyday living. Many of the fathers and most of the mothers are perfectionists.

Obsessive adherence to set rules serves as a substitute for the enjoyment of life. These people, who themselves had been reared sternly in emotional refrigerators, have found at an early age that they could gain approval only through unconditional surrender to standards of perfection.

It is interesting that, despite their high intellectual level, not one of the parents has displayed any really creative abilities.

They make good teachers in the sense that they can transmit that which they have learned. They are essentially conservative repeaters of that which they have been taught. This is not quite true of many of the grandfathers, some of whom have established flourishing businesses, expounded original theories, or produced fairly successful pieces of fiction and art.

Most of the patients were exposed from the beginning to parental coldness, obsessiveness, and a mechanical type of attention to material needs only. They were the objects of observation and experiment conducted with an eye on fractional performance rather than with genuine warmth and enjoyment. They were kept neatly in refrigerators which did not defrost. Their withdrawal seems to be an act of turning away from such a situation to seek comfort in solitude.

All too often this child is the offspring of highly organized, professional parents, cold and rational—the type that Dr. Infantile Autism and the Birth of the Self The ASAN organizational website is at http: She had previously used the image in her autobiography, Thinking in Pictures: A bright red smear across the door, the molding, the wall.

Turn the corner and the bedroom is a crime scene. In fact, it is only your daughter at her worst. Worse than three days without sleep? Worse than ear-splitting screams that physically hurt, actually cause you to drop what you hold in alarm, compel you to shriek back at your delighted child who smiles at you sincere as a spring day?

Splashes of blood glistening like paint, black clots, yellow-brown feces, and a 3-foot-in-diameter pond of vomit that your daughter stands in the middle of, a dog-eared copy of Family Circle in one hand, reaching for the TV with the other. She is naked except for stockinged feet, blood soaked up to her ankles. Hands dripping, face marked like a cannibal, she wears an expression of utter bewilderment: There being nowhere to walk without stepping in some bodily emission, you throw bath towels down like a bridge to get to her.

A bloody hand print on the square of your back as she balances herself when you roll down her sopping stockings. You hope she touches nothing else but what does it matter as the bathroom remains appalling in spite of the previous cleanups: Holiday guests take you aside to warn you of rodents in unusual locations.

Ancient turds in drawers, inside books. She is excavating for what remains of the impacted stool, hard as a French roll. This entire episode, this habit, the result of some maddening control issue. The behaviorists, the gastroenterologists, the living-skills experts all suggest their strategies and therapies and videos and diets and oils and schedules.

Certainly she knows what you want—appropriate toileting. And there are occasions when she does just that. Goes in, sits, finishes. This, maybe 5 percent of the time. Some huge, softball-size stool discovered in the toilet bowl. You shout for each other and gaze in wonder as at a rainbow or falling star. She has written about autism in Mad Men and Medusas: Reclaiming Hysteri a They came to steal his mind. Before anyone gave it a name, even before I knew what it was, I knew it was in our house.

Not that I wanted to, believe me. They were very very dark things and there was no way to get rid of them. Sometimes I could hear them late at night when the house was very quiet. A creaking sound, an inexplicable hiss, a miniscule pop, a whistle out of nowhere. And when I closed my eyes, I felt their shadows passing over me as they floated through the house and drifted invisibly with the smoke of the fireplace chimney out into space back to God knows where. It was too frightening. Dov was only a baby and something was trying to steal him away.

Sooner or later I knew I would catch them swirling above his crib. I knew that was what they did whenever I accidentally fell asleep. A violent thudding jolted my senses awake. My heart was banging like two fists in my chest. How long had I been sleeping? My eyes darted over to the crib I was supposed to be watching.

He was still there. I could see him through the white wooden bars, asleep, his small body gently rising and falling with each little breath. Night after night I sat beside his crib. I knew he was slipping away from us, away from our world, and there was nothing I could do to stop it from happening. There was nothing anybody could do, they told me. So I did the only thing I could. I guarded him, although I knew it would do no good.

Because I could not guard his mind. And then one day it had happened. For scholarly discussion of changeling myths as a response to disability, see D. The individual case was made to fit the superstition, and thus we possess no standardized data respecting the appearance of a changeling.

Specific examples of changelings, solitary fairies—both domesticated and reclusive—and the offspring of fairy-human matings will be presented which seem to offer identifiable portraits of children who were born, or who became, different as the result of identifiable congenital disorders which today are known to medical science. It is certainly of a disabled person:. Martin Luther, saw and touched a changeling. It was twelve years old, and from its eyes and the fact that it had all of its senses, one could have thought that it was a real child.

It did nothing but eat; in fact, it ate enough for any four peasants or threshers. It ate, shit, and pissed, and whenever someone touched it, it cried. When bad things happened in the house, it laughed and was happy; but when things went well, it cried. It had these two virtues. I said to the Princes of Anhalt: I would dare commit homicidium on him!

Such a changeling child is only a piece of flesh, a massa carnis, because it has no soul. We were stolen by demons or fairies and replaced with a changeling child, or an enchanted block of wood, or some other non-human thing.

Or we were the result of a mating between the devil and a human woman. Whatever we were, we were quite literally demonized, cast in the role of demons, and the general advice was to get rid of us by any means necessary. The shape of the myth has remained the same, with new words replacing old ones depending on the area and era. Autistic people are still described as soulless.

He hit all his developmental landmarks but after his first birthday. This topic deserves further elaboration: Autism Speaks broadcasts several television public service announcements informing us of the odds of a child achieving any one of a number of improbable events—starring in a Broadway show being one example—as compared to the much more likely odds of the viewer having a child with autism Ad Council.

The intended effect is clear. It is a call for parents to be afraid: What is the result of following the fallacy of the missing self and the accompanying tragedy narrative of autism to its logical conclusion? If autistics are changelings—children not of this world and subject to the unspeakable presumption of tragedy that our modern media perception of autism is based upon—is it a surprise that some parents should try and excise the changeling, remove the cancer and thus end the tragedy they view themselves as playing a part in?

To those parents, who have been conditioned to believe that their children are less than whole and thus less than human, are they performing a true act of murder? A causal relationship exists between the rhetoric that reinforces a diminished value for autistic life and personhood and the implementation of that idea in the form of the murder of people on the autism spectrum. Tischreden —21 , vol.

Autistic children are never cured or, at least, so rarely as for it to be a medical curiosity. If the side-effect of MMR was death, the concern would be much, much larger, but a deferred death—and in the most severe cases that is what autism is, a dead soul in a live body—just does not generate the concern that it should.

Miller ; and Gerry A. Stefanatos and Ida Sue Baron. For discussion on oral-motor function in autism, see Morton Ann Gernsbacher et al. An Essay on Autism and Theory of Mind Explaining the Enigma Numerous respected autism researchers subsequently challenged Tinbergen regarding his speculations; see, e.

Stories from the Other Side of Autism The Science of Face Perception is a useful basic reference on the subject.

For an account by a college professor and personal acquaintance whose son communicates via FC, see Ralph James Savarese, Reasonable People: A Memoir of Autism and Adoption: Literature reviews that largely dismiss FC as ineffective include Mark P. Current Theories and Evidence ; Martha R. Minshew and Timothy A. Stodgell, and Patricia M. Zimmerman and Susan L.

Pessah and Pamela J. Current Theories and Evidence , edited by Andrew Zimmerman Accepting an autism prevalence that is constantly being recalculated but that is hovering at about one in a hundred, and a risk for siblings is about one in five, we come up with this comparative statistic; see Brett S. Abrahams and Daniel H. What is the causal mechanism? Many genes, common pathways?

For a study finding amelioration of behavioral abnormalities in genetically engineered mice administered mGluR antagonists, see Zhengyu Cao et al. Dawson is chief scientific officer for Autism Speaks. Clinical and Research Issues , edited by Pasquale J. The perfect map of Rome was created by Stephen Wiltshire and is displayed on his website , http: Iversen is author of Strange Son: The Autism Genetic Resource Exchange website: The original German is Eine gute Mutter diagnostiziert oft viel besser wie ein schlechter Arzt and may be found at http: I note in the interest of full disclosure that I employed Kathleen Seidel to help me with research, citations, and the bibliography for this book starting in For the idea that regression in autism may be the expression of an unfolding genetic process, see Gerry A.

It represents work by Judith Miller that reclassified old files using modern diagnostic criteria. Miller showed that prevalence was previously underestimated i. She will be the first author on a paper that summarizes this work, which is not yet published.

Gerber, and Paul A. Mercury in Vaccines and the Autism Epidemic: A Medical Controversy In contrast, recent research demonstrates the absence of any association of autism with genes that regulate heavy metals in the body: This would lead to a heritability estimate of about 70 percent, consistent with previous results.

A recent very large study comparing siblings and half siblings supports a ratio of 60 percent or higher; see John N. Blaxill, and Boyd E. For extensions of that work to young children, see Katarzyna Chawarska et al. Longitudinal studies over longer periods of time have documented changes in IQ scores and in core deficits e. Thus, while substantial evidence exists that treatments can reach short-term goals in many areas, gaps remain in addressing larger questions of the relationships between particular techniques and specific changes.

Treatment Approaches for Parents and Professionals A notable quote from the first paper: This may be at least a partial reason why mothers of autistic children are so often well-educated, verbal, and at least superficially adequate people.

Greenspan and Serena Weider, Engaging Autism: A Cochrane Review Journal 6, no. From the original Russian: The Miracle Continues For the allegation that the child was never autistic at all, see Bryna Siegel, The World of the Autistic Child , pages — Nelson and Margaret L.

Baxter and Edward P. March 22, , at http: Geier May 16, , at http: Family of autistic child alleges abuse at private school Tedeman v. Boston Higashi School et al. Reports of their work include M. July ; Laurent Mottron et al.

January ; Robert M. In , a scholarly paper was published about the ransom notes scandal: Remapping the World of Autism , comes from my interview with him in Remapping the World of Autism Avoiding Perilous Situations with Autism Carbone and Emily J. Seven Paradoxical Tales Patrick Markcrow and Sarah Naylor: Son of Zvia Lev: Schizophrenia ; E.

A Very Short Introduction See also figure 1 in Jeffrey A. Caused by a fault in programmed synaptic elimination during adolescence? What did we learn? For a review and synthesis of twin studies discussing the various sorts of environmental influences that might contribute to the differential development of schizophrenia in twins, see Patrick F.

Kendler, and Michael C. The contribution of paternal age to schizophrenia is discussed in E. How important is it? For a recent review article on transgenic mouse research, see P. Alexander Arguello and Joseph A. Simpson, and Eric R. Straight Talk for Family and Friends The surface distance controls a deeper interdependence on each other. One parent denies the immaturity and functions with a facade of overadequacy.

The other accentuates the immaturity and functions with a facade of inadequacy. The family members, particularly the father and mother, function in reciprocal relation to each other. The most frequent family pattern is an intense twosome between mother and patient which excludes the father and from which he permits himself to be excluded.

A child whose mother becomes anxious and withdraws if the child responds to her as a loving mother. A mother to whom feelings of anxiety and hostility toward the child are not acceptable, and whose way of denying them is to express overt loving behavior to persuade the child to respond to her as a loving mother and to withdraw from him if he does not.

The absence of anyone in the family, such as a strong and insightful father, who can intervene in the relationship between the mother and child and support the child in the face of the contradictions involved.

It is also worth reviewing Alfred S. For an extended critique of parent-blame theories, see John G. Howells and Waguih R. Guirguis, The Family and Schizophrenia The passage in full: But the most characteristic feature of the mind-cure movement is an inspiration much more direct. The leaders in this faith have had an intuitive belief in the all-saving power of healthy-minded attitudes as such, in the conquering efficacy of courage, hope, and trust, and a correlative contempt for doubt, fear, worry, and all nervously precautionary states of mind.

Their belief has in a general way been corroborated by the practical experience of their disciples; and this experience forms to-day a mass imposing in amount. Greaves and Robert Sharrock For more information on the history of lobotomy, see Joel T.

For more information, see Thomas A. LaMothe, Controlled Offensive Behavior: A Personal Triumph Over Psychiatry A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason Journal of Interpersonal Relations 32, no. Laing occur on pages , , and of The Politics of Experience It may also be break-through. It is potential liberation and renewal as well as enslavement and existential death. The Idea and Its Consequences Fuller Torrey, Surviving Schizophrenia Armat, Madness in the Streets: The Truth About Deinstitutionalization Andreasen describes the function of hospitals as communities on page 32 of The Family Face of Schizophrenia Armat, Madness in the Streets Synaptic connectivity in autism is discussed in Carlos A.

Pardo and Charles G. Brown and Ezra S. Schizophrenia following famine is discussed in Hans W. Brown, and Ezra S. Epidemiologic Issues and Implications , edited by Marissa J. Miller and Nicholas J. One of his recent articles that addresses this topic is R. My Journey Through Madness Warman and Aaron T. McGlashan and his colleagues argue for the establishment of the syndrome as a diagnostic category in Scott W. Their proposals attracted considerable opposition; see, e.

For a scholarly review of the controversy, see Barnaby Nelson and Alison R. Fuller Torrey, Out of the Shadows: See also Maurizio Pompili et al. Fuller Torrey, Out of the Shadows Keefe and Philip D. For more information on living arrangements and parent satisfaction, see Benedicte Lowyck et al. Stress, Coping, and Adaptation , edited by Agnes B.

Hatfield and Harriet P. Living with Schizophrenia A judgment in Lothell Tate v. Forced Treatment and the Rights of the Mentally Ill What should happen when patients reject their diagnosis?

Chamberlin is the author of On Our Own: Hazards to the Brain Public Images of Mental Illness Alisky and Kenneth A. Marder is a coauthor of Robert S. Matthew Lysiak and Lukas I. Loughner has a due process right.

Prisons and Offenders with Mental Illness Weinreich maintains a personal website at http: My Brother, Madness, and Survival When dealing with a condition that arises from, affects, and shows itself forth in behavior, feeling, choice, and action—that brings joy, sorrow, grief, and tragedies that, daily and long-term, are distinctly human—how not pay attention and listen to the stories of these lives from those who have led them, however confusingly and crazily they are told, when it is by this very telling that some essential part of the human beings in possession of these lives is expressing itself and doing so, often, as a means of survival?

Is it the very mystery of what we call madness that seems to cause us, again and again, to condemn those afflicted with this condition to some non human category of life? All names in this passage are pseudonyms, except the name of David Nathan. Poems , pages 6—7. Educational and Social Issues , edited by John J.

Ross come from pages 55—56 and of his book The Exceptional Child in the Family Shaver , page This picture becomes a little more intelligible when we consider that, with one exception, the same traits are met with in mourning. The disturbance of self-regard is absent in mourning; but otherwise the features are the same. Profound mourning, the reaction to the loss of someone who is loved, contains the same painful frame of mind, the same loss of interest in the outside world—in so far as it does not recall him—the same loss of capacity to adopt any new object of love which would mean replacing him and the same turning away from any activity that is not connected with thoughts of him.

It is easy to see that this inhibition and circumscription of the ego is the expression of an exclusive devotion to mourning which leaves nothing over for other purposes or other interests. It is really only because we know so well how to explain it that this attitude does not seem to us pathological.

Kazak and Robert S. Risk, Resilience, and Recovery For individuals who could roll over, but were otherwise immobile, survival was relatively improved. Finding siblings more responsible and tolerant: Finding siblings more unhappy, but not suffering unduly from psychiatric problems: Naomi Breslau et al. Finding the worse the disability, the better the sibling adjustment: An Exploratory Study , especially pages — Finding siblings were helped by a specific diagnosis: The brain abnormality in SE is permanent or unchanging in the sense that it does not get worse.

It is not progressive or degenerative. Unfortunately, it usually does not get better or improve much, either. This does not mean that the child will not get better. But most children with static encephalopathy will always have some degree of learning or developmental problems because they always have some degree of abnormal brain function. Gunther and Douglas S. Social Construction of Deafness: A majority of people in the Deaf-World have inherited their ethnicity.

Deaf inheritance and a failure to understand the ethnic status of culturally Deaf people have historically and at present placed the Deaf-World in jeopardy of ethnocide and even genocide. I am so sad to hear about all the babies with Down Syndrome being aborted. I am so grateful that I was not aborted because I have a full and wonderful life! I believe in the sacred dignity of all people and most people I know with disabilities have full and productive lives.

I learned about what Hitler did during the Holocaust. He killed many people he did not think had the right to live. He learned how to kill by killing people with disabilities first. My heart broke when I learned about this at the Holocaust museum.

It seems to me we are doing the same thing to children with disabilities today in our country. I think this is like genocide—the systematic killing of a whole people or nation. I wonder why we think Hitler was so horrible when we are doing the same thing he did? My heart breaks again when I think that I might be the last generation of people with Down Syndrome. The world will never again benefit from our gifts.

There could also be members of our species who are not persons. By putting on masks the actors signified that they were acting a role. Quite possibly Fletcher would agree that these two are central, and the others more or less follow from them.

If we compare a severely defective human infant with a nonhuman animal, a dog or a pig, for example, we will often find the nonhuman to have superior capacities, both actual and potential, for rationality, self-consciousness, communication, and anything else that can plausibly be considered morally significant. Only the fact that the defective infant is a member of the species Homo sapiens leads it to be treated differently from the dog or pig.

Species membership alone, however, is not morally relevant. Humans who bestow superior value on the lives of all human beings, solely because they are members of our own species, are judging along lines strikingly similar to those used by white racists who bestow superior value on the lives of other whites, merely because they are members of their own race.

Schwartz , 46 N. On Children, Love, and the Inner Life The Experience of Maternal Ambivalence , Child Prodigies and the Development of Human Potential In the case of the mazurka , the child was engaging not only in precocious musicality, but also in precocious punning; the word mazurka refers to both a traditional Polish folk dance and a dense Polish cake with fruit and nuts.

The Origins and Development of High Ability Evgeny Kissin maintains a website at http: Stebbing , page 4: For sublimity, they say, is the gift of Nature, not the result of teaching, and the only art which leads to it is native genius. The effects of natural abilities, they think, are impaired and altogether weakened under the debilitating influence of systematic rules. But I maintain, that to be convinced of the contrary, one has but to consider that what Nature loves in impassioned and exalted moods is a general independence, not a random course without plan or direction; and that while Nature supplies in all cases primary and archetypal elements of production, it is system which avails to point out the needful limitations, the seasonable opportunity, in short, to bring together all the proprieties of use and practice; and that genius without science, left alone with no ballast or ought to steady it, upon its own mere impulse and undisciplined impetuosity, has an inherent liability to shipwreck.

For genius, be assured, requires the curb as often as the spur. And indeed for the leading fact itself, that there is that in oratory which Nature can alone supply, we are indebted to none other than as I said, of these particulars, the censor of the studious will no longer, I believe, deem the investigation of our present subject superfluous or unprofitable. That is why, if an author owes a product to his genius, he himself does not know how he came by the ideas for it; nor is it in his power to devise such products at his pleasure, or by following a plan, and to communicate to others in precepts that would enable them to bring about like products.

Indeed, that is presumably why the word genius is derived from [Latin] genius , the guardian and guiding spirit that each person is given as his own at birth, and to whose inspiration those original ideas are due. The Leon Fleisher Story The passage in its entirety: He was also a great master of modulation, and his transitions from one key to another were excessively natural and judicious; he practised in this manner for a considerable time with a handkerchief over the keys of the harpsichord.

The facts which I have been mentioning I was myself an eyewitness of; to which I must add, that I have been informed by two or three able musicians, when Bach the celebrated composer had begun a fugue and left off abruptly, that little Mozart hath immediately taken it up, and worked it after a most masterly manner.

Witness as I was myself of most of these extraordinary facts, I must own that I could not help suspecting his father imposed with regard to the real age of the boy, though he had not only a most childish appearance, but likewise had all the actions of that stage of life. For example, whilst he was playing to me, a favourite cat came in, upon which he immediately left his harpsichord, nor could we bring him back for a considerable time. He would also sometimes run about the room with a stick between his legs by way of horse.

I found likewise that most of the London musicians were of the same opinion with regard to his age, not believing it possible that a child of so tender years could surpass most of the masters in that science. Perilous Journeys, Remarkable Lives My Father , pages — Certainly, there will always be Ingres and Corots, just as there have been Raphaels and Titians, but they are exceptions, for whom it would be presumptuous to write a treatise on painting.

All painting, from that of Pompeii, done by Greek artists. Formerly all pupils learned this way of painting under their master. Their genius, if they had any, did the rest. The stern apprenticeship imposed on young painters never prevented them from having originality. Raphael was the pupil of Perugino, but he became the divine Raphael, nevertheless. The New School for Music website: Levitin and Susan E. Ross in , as do all quotations from him.

Takeuchi and Stewart H. Smith and Mark A. For the study finding that many subjects are able to recognize minor pitch changes in familiar tunes, see Glenn Schellenberg and Sandra E.

The Neuroscience of Genius Forster , Problemata xxx 1, a10— Geschwind and Albert M. What Do We Know? Nancy Robinson takes issue with the assertion that intellectually gifted children are less hardy than other children on page xiv of her introduction to The Social and Emotional Development of Gifted Children: They built this lottery on the bones of their little children.

And sure enough, over the last few decades our town had sent a number of child prodigies onto the stages of the world. When a boy turned four or five, his mother took the tiny, frail creature to Mr. Zagursky ran a factory that churned out child prodigies, a factory of Jewish dwarfs in lace collars and patent leather shoes. There was powerful harmony in the souls of these little creatures with their swollen blue heads. They became acclaimed virtuosi. And so—my father decided to keep up with them.

I had passed the age of child prodigies—I was almost fourteen—but because of my height and frailness I could be mistaken for an eight-year-old. Therein lay all our hopes. She died in the Holocaust, and he was once while drunk heard to say that Hitler was a great man because Hitler had killed his mother.

The Artist and the Woman ; the quotation from Robert Schumann occurs on page You will have to leave one, him or me. Website of the Endellion String Quartet: All names in this passage are pseudonyms, and some identifying details have been changed.

Lang Lang maintains a website at http: My Story , with David Ritz. Gang qin tian cai Lang Lang he ta de fu qin. Anders Ericsson, Michael J. Prietula, and Edward T. Anders Ericsson, Roy W.

Davidson, and John A. Duckworth and Martin E. Myths and Realities The observation about typical Chinese hand shape comes from my interview with Veda Kaplinsky. Flow and the Psychology of Discovery and Invention I was not so much a mixture of child and man. My Childhood and Youth He wishes to believe that his elders, on whom he is dependent for the arrangement and control of the world in which he lives, are all wise and good.

When he discovers that they are not, he faces the necessity of loneliness and of forming his own judgment of a world that he can no longer fully trust. The prodigy shares this experience with every child, but added to it is the suffering which grows from belonging half to the adult world and half to the world of the children around him. From Ex-Prodigy , pages —7: I was not so much a mixture of child and man as wholly a child for purposes of companionship and nearly completely a man for purposes of study.

Both my playmates and the college students were aware of this. The Later Life of a Prodigy The Life Story of a Technology If I have seen further it is by standing on ye shoulders of Giants. Yet the strongest, most authentic motive for deep reading of the now much-abused traditional canon is the search for a difficult pleasure.

Read deeply, not to believe, not to accept, not to contradict, but to learn to share in that one nature that writes and reads. Meanwhile the parents of gifted children are terrorized with behests to bring their children up to be normal happy human beings, and told horror stories about infant prodigies who go mad at twenty. Thomas Aquinas, and without whom a society, no matter how rich and industrious will stagnate in the end? If it is true that we are at present lamentably poor in fostering genius, then it is obvious that we had better recognize what the obstacles are and proceed to clear them away.

But such recognition is only a first step, because most of what a wise teacher or counselor tells the parents of a gifted child is true, culturally speaking.

The culture tries to make the child with a gift into a one-sided person, to penalize him at every turn, to cause him trouble in making friends, and to create conditions conducive to the development of a neurosis. Gabriel Kahane maintains a professional website, where one can listen to and download Craigslistleider , at http: There I sat, and there he soon devoured me, with his great black eyes; and when the fate of any favourite did not turn out exactly according to his notion, I saw how the passionate veins swelled upon his forehead and how he choked his tears.

Smith , pages — Smith , pages xiii—xvii, the Code of Hammurabi c. Married women who were raped were considered to be guilty of adultery and could be executed along with their attackers. Pierce , pages 25— Smith , pages 14—15; and Else L. Hambleton, Daughters of Eve: Pierce , pages — Habetis magnam ueramque consolationem, si fidam conscientiam retinetis non uos consensisse peccatis eorum, qui in uos peccare permissi sunt.

Quod si forte, cur permissi sint, quaeritis, alta quidem est prouidentia creatoris mundi atque rectoris, et inscrowtabilia sunt iudicia eius et inuestigabiles uiae eius, uerum tamen interrogate fideliter animas uestras, ne forte de isto integritatis et continentiae uel pudicitiae bono uos inflatius extulistis et humanis laudibus delectatae in hoc etiam aliquibus inuidistis.

Non accuso quod nescio, nec audio quod uobis interrogata uestra corda respondent. Tamen si ita esse responderint, nolite admirari hoc uos amisisse, unde hominibus placere gestistis, illud uobis remansisse, quod ostendi hominibus non potest.

Si peccantibus non consensistis, diuinae gratiae, ne amitteretur, diuinum accessit auxilium; humanae gloriae, ne amaretur, humanum successit opprobrium.

In utroque consolamini, pusillanimes, illinc probatae hinc castigatae, illinc iustificatae hinc emeatae. Quaedam enim ueluti pondera malarum cupiditatum et per occultum praesens diuinum iudicium relaxantur et manifesto ultimo reseruantur. Fortassis autem istae, quae bene sibi sunt consciae non se ex isto castitatis bono cor inflatum extulisse, et tamen uim hostilem in carne perpessae sunt, habebant aliquid latentis infirmitatis, quae posset in superbiae fastum, si hanc humilitatem in uastatione illa euasissent, extolli.

Sicut ergo quidam morte rapti sunt, ne malitia mutaret intellectum eorum, ita quiddam ab istis ui raptum est, ne prosperitas mutaret modestiam earum. Vtrisque igitur, quae de carne sua, quod turpem nullius esset perpessa contactum, uel iam superbiebant uel superbire, si nec hostium uiolentia contrectata esset, forsitan poterant, non ablata est castitas, sed humilitas persuasa; illarum tumori succursum est inmanenti, istarum occursum est inminenti.

Cum enim cogitant, qua conscientia Deo seruierint, et fide inconcussa non de illo sentiunt, quod ita sibi seruientes eumque inuocantes deserere ullo modo potuerit, quantumque illi castitas placeat dubitare non possunt, uident esse consequens nequaquam illum fuisse permissurum, ut haec acciderent sanctis suis, si eo modo perire posset sanctitas, quam contulit eis et diligit in eis. Single Pregnancy and Race before Roe v.

Marital rape and the marital exception are discussed in Diana E. Sexual Abuse of Wives ; Jacquelyn C. Interviews and Other Writings, — , page Russell and Rebecca M. Findings from the National Violence against Women Survey Reardon, Julie Makimaa, and Amy Sobie This fear of attachment manifests in the relationship with the child, and feelings of rejection by the mother towards the infant can lead to a wide range of psychological consequences in the child.

Wartime Victimisation of Refugees in the Balkans Budapest: Central European University Press, ; who in turn cites to H. Kunstmann, , page Reagan, When Abortion Was a Crime: Women, Medicine, and Law in the United States, — , pages — Rongy , Birth Control Review 17? June , page , as cited in Leslie J.

Women, Medicine, and Law in the United States, — , page In such women with but one or no children we may, even in active cases, refrain from intervention, while in those whose external conditions make the pregnancy and the subsequent care of the child a serious burden, we would incline more readily, even in latent cases, to an interruption.

Later in life, Bourne became an antiabortion advocate, serving as a founding member of the Society for the Protection of Unborn Children. See A Way of Life: Society for the Protection of Unborn Children, Bourne was acquitted after the judge, Mr Justice Macnaughten, told the jury that the proviso permitting an abortion to save the life of the mother included in the Infant Life Preservation Act should be read back into the Offences Against the Person Act The jury acquitted him and the case was never appealed.

Aleck Bourne eventually became appalled at the results of his case and became a founder member of the Society for the Protection of Unborn Children. Single Pregnancy and Race before Roe vs. Wade , citing to Marion K. She had gone out with him to amuse herself. He was tender and sweet and did not make sexual demands on her except in a laughing casual way.

Then one night he became very passionate and she could not defend herself. Single Pregnancy and Rape before Roe v. Wade and Beggars and Choosers: How Conservatives Won the Abortion War results of the poll appear on page How Conservatives Won the Abortion War Teenage pregnancy has skyrocketed. Abortion has become birth control of last resort. The young boys, the young males, have known that and so have the young females, and so they have been much more lax and much more liberal in their sexual practices.

We do not allow them to be illegal drug users. Another distinguished abortion in rape cases from abortion for birth control: But I do think that there are certain circumstances where a woman should have the right, the opportunity to make a decision: Life of the mother. Apply with the Tanning Mitt. The Tinted Tan Mousse glides like velvet over the skin and provides a gorgeous bronze tan that lasts for up to 7 days so you will be covered during the holidays! Each product is inspired by an Ancient Eastern tradition or ritual that transforms your everyday routines into more meaningful moments.

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Their names are pseudonyms. Shirley and Michael C. The technique is described in detail in S. The development of orthopaedic medicine in Britain, c. Turner and Kevin Stagg Are drugs the answer? Judge and Daniel M. For information on the concert band piece by Steven Barton, see http: Children with Special Needs , and can also be found all over the Internet.

Wald, and Hilary C. Van Dyke et al. Torfs and Roberta E. Visions for the 21st Century , edited by William I. Zigman and Ira T. The decreased risk of arteriosclerosis in Down syndrome is discussed in Arin K. Bray and David E. Neely Kazerouni et al. Driscoll and Susan J. Growing Up with Down Syndrome , page Shonkoff and Samuel J.

Trent ; and James W. Contemporary historical analysis of the subject includes Daniel J. Trent ; and Daniel J. Kevles, In the Name of Eugenics: Genetics and the Uses of Human Heredity A Historical Reader , page Bell , US Almost simultaneously, but independently, the gene was found by Patricia Jacobs in England; see Patricia Jacobs et al.

A Biography of Erik H. The Origins of an Educational Innovation From Charity to Confrontation Matching federal funds for the care of the disabled is authorized in Section a: Attachment , Separation: Anxiety and Anger , and Loss: Sadness and Depression A Historical Review — , at http: For the full text of the law, see http: A Developmental Perspective ; Demie Lyons et al. Guide to Frequently Asked Questions The Collapse of Our Traditional Ethics Kidder and Brian Skotko, Common Threads: Celebrating Life with Down Syndrome Myers and Siegfried M.

A New Challenge for Society Furey and Jill J. Granfield, and Orv C. For more information on growth hormone, see Salvador Castells and Krystyna E. Mitchell Zuckoff also discusses the subject in Choosing Naia: Mansfield came up with a 92 percent rate, which has been the standard number for many years.

Clinical and Molecular Teratology 88, no. For more on the factors at play in decision-making following prenatal testing, see Miriam Kupperman et al. Genetics, Behaviour and Inclusion Lawson and Sheena A.

The quotation appears on page Steven Barnett and Glenna C. Ricci and Robert M. Researchers focusing on the subject include Brian G. Skotko , Jan Blacher , and Zolinda Stoneman. Cuskelly, Monica, and Pat Gunn. Maternal reports of behavior of siblings of children with Down syndrome.

Eisenberg, Laurie, et al. Gath, Ann, and Dianne Gumley. Brothers and Sisters of Retarded Children: Syracuse University Press, McHale, Susan, and Wendy Gamble. Rossiter, Lucille, and Donald Sharpe. A quantitative integration of the literature. Brothers and sisters of persons with Down syndrome. Levine, and Richard Goldstein. Stoneman, Zolinda, and Phyllis Waldman Berman, editors.

Stoneman, Zolinda, et al. Older siblings of mentally retarded children. A review and analysis of the empirical literature. Summers, Jeanne Ann, Shirley K. Enabling Positive Adaptation to Disability , ed. Wilson, Judith, et al. An Exploratory Study Baker and Jan Blacher: Is there evidence of detachment?

The increase in life expectancy of people with Down syndrome and other forms of intellectual disability is discussed in Matthew P. Growing Up with Down Syndrome Burke maintains a personal website at http: The Fiber Art of Judith Scott: Hodapp and Elisabeth M. Coming of Age with Down Syndrome On March 30, , the CDC upped its autism prevalence estimates from 1: A search of the keyword autism for yields 1, items; for , 7, items.

Children with Special Needs Catherine Lord et al. From Phenotypes to Etiologies For a discussion of the correlation between fever and behavioral improvement, see L. Mehler and Dominick P. Researchers have found a higher-than-average incidence of psychiatric conditions among family members of individuals with autism; e. I have called these forms of thinking autistic, corresponding to the idea of schizophrenic autismus.

They have encased themselves with their desires and wishes. This detachment from reality with the relative and absolute predominance of the inner life, we term autism. Propagators of the term include Lauretta Bender, a child psychiatrist practicing at Bellevue Hospital, who published numerous reports of her clinical observations.

For a contemporary expression of concern about the inappropriate application of the term, see Hilde L. Initial Studies and New Insights Initial Studies and New Insights , page In the whole group, there are very few really warmhearted fathers and mothers. For the most part, the parents, grandparents, and collaterals are persons preoccupied with abstractions of a scientific, literary or artistic nature, and limited in general interest in people.

Even some of the happiest marriages are cold and formal affairs. Three of the marriages were dismal failures. The question arises whether or to what extent this fact has contributed to the condition of the children. Maternal lack of genuine warmth is often conspicuous in the first visit to the clinic. As they come up the stairs, the child trails forlornly behind the mother, who does not bother to look back.

The mother accepts the invitation to sit down in the waiting room, while the child sits, stands, or wanders about at a distance. Neither makes a move toward the other. Later, in the office, when the mother is asked under some pretext to take the child on her lap, she usually does so in a dutiful, stilted manner, holding the child upright and using her arms solely for the mechanical purpose of maintaining him in his position.

I saw only one mother of an autistic child who proceeded to embrace him warmly and bring her face close to his. Some time ago, I went to see an autistic child, the son of a brilliant lawyer. I spent an evening with the family. Donald, the patient, sat down next to his mother on the sofa. She kept moving away from him as though she could not bear the physical proximity. When Donald moved along with her, she finally told him coldly to go and sit on a chair. One father, a busy and competent surgeon, had three children.

The first, a girl, was docile, submissive, and gave no cause for concern to the parents. The second, a boy, was very insecure and stuttered badly. The third, George, was an extremely withdrawn, typically autistic child. Far from being irked, he deliberated for a while and replied, just as impassively, that he was not sure that he would. This seemingly unemotional objectivity, applied to oneself and to others, is a frequent expression of the mechanization of human relationships.

Most of the fathers are, in a sense, bigamists. They are wedded to their jobs at least as much as they are married to their wives. The job, in fact, has priority. Many of the fathers remind one of the popular conception of the absent-minded professor who is so engrossed in lofty abstractions that little room is left for the trifling details of everyday living. Many of the fathers and most of the mothers are perfectionists.

Obsessive adherence to set rules serves as a substitute for the enjoyment of life. These people, who themselves had been reared sternly in emotional refrigerators, have found at an early age that they could gain approval only through unconditional surrender to standards of perfection. It is interesting that, despite their high intellectual level, not one of the parents has displayed any really creative abilities. They make good teachers in the sense that they can transmit that which they have learned.

They are essentially conservative repeaters of that which they have been taught. This is not quite true of many of the grandfathers, some of whom have established flourishing businesses, expounded original theories, or produced fairly successful pieces of fiction and art. Most of the patients were exposed from the beginning to parental coldness, obsessiveness, and a mechanical type of attention to material needs only. They were the objects of observation and experiment conducted with an eye on fractional performance rather than with genuine warmth and enjoyment.

They were kept neatly in refrigerators which did not defrost. Their withdrawal seems to be an act of turning away from such a situation to seek comfort in solitude. All too often this child is the offspring of highly organized, professional parents, cold and rational—the type that Dr. Infantile Autism and the Birth of the Self The ASAN organizational website is at http: She had previously used the image in her autobiography, Thinking in Pictures: A bright red smear across the door, the molding, the wall.

Turn the corner and the bedroom is a crime scene. In fact, it is only your daughter at her worst. Worse than three days without sleep? Worse than ear-splitting screams that physically hurt, actually cause you to drop what you hold in alarm, compel you to shriek back at your delighted child who smiles at you sincere as a spring day?

Splashes of blood glistening like paint, black clots, yellow-brown feces, and a 3-foot-in-diameter pond of vomit that your daughter stands in the middle of, a dog-eared copy of Family Circle in one hand, reaching for the TV with the other. She is naked except for stockinged feet, blood soaked up to her ankles.

Hands dripping, face marked like a cannibal, she wears an expression of utter bewilderment: There being nowhere to walk without stepping in some bodily emission, you throw bath towels down like a bridge to get to her.

A bloody hand print on the square of your back as she balances herself when you roll down her sopping stockings. You hope she touches nothing else but what does it matter as the bathroom remains appalling in spite of the previous cleanups: Holiday guests take you aside to warn you of rodents in unusual locations.

Ancient turds in drawers, inside books. She is excavating for what remains of the impacted stool, hard as a French roll. This entire episode, this habit, the result of some maddening control issue. The behaviorists, the gastroenterologists, the living-skills experts all suggest their strategies and therapies and videos and diets and oils and schedules.

Certainly she knows what you want—appropriate toileting. And there are occasions when she does just that. Goes in, sits, finishes. This, maybe 5 percent of the time.

Some huge, softball-size stool discovered in the toilet bowl. You shout for each other and gaze in wonder as at a rainbow or falling star. She has written about autism in Mad Men and Medusas: Reclaiming Hysteri a They came to steal his mind.

Before anyone gave it a name, even before I knew what it was, I knew it was in our house. Not that I wanted to, believe me. They were very very dark things and there was no way to get rid of them. Sometimes I could hear them late at night when the house was very quiet. A creaking sound, an inexplicable hiss, a miniscule pop, a whistle out of nowhere.

And when I closed my eyes, I felt their shadows passing over me as they floated through the house and drifted invisibly with the smoke of the fireplace chimney out into space back to God knows where. It was too frightening.

Dov was only a baby and something was trying to steal him away. Sooner or later I knew I would catch them swirling above his crib.

I knew that was what they did whenever I accidentally fell asleep. A violent thudding jolted my senses awake. My heart was banging like two fists in my chest. How long had I been sleeping? My eyes darted over to the crib I was supposed to be watching.

He was still there. I could see him through the white wooden bars, asleep, his small body gently rising and falling with each little breath. Night after night I sat beside his crib. I knew he was slipping away from us, away from our world, and there was nothing I could do to stop it from happening.

There was nothing anybody could do, they told me. So I did the only thing I could. I guarded him, although I knew it would do no good. Because I could not guard his mind. And then one day it had happened. For scholarly discussion of changeling myths as a response to disability, see D.

The individual case was made to fit the superstition, and thus we possess no standardized data respecting the appearance of a changeling. Specific examples of changelings, solitary fairies—both domesticated and reclusive—and the offspring of fairy-human matings will be presented which seem to offer identifiable portraits of children who were born, or who became, different as the result of identifiable congenital disorders which today are known to medical science. It is certainly of a disabled person:.

Martin Luther, saw and touched a changeling. It was twelve years old, and from its eyes and the fact that it had all of its senses, one could have thought that it was a real child. It did nothing but eat; in fact, it ate enough for any four peasants or threshers. It ate, shit, and pissed, and whenever someone touched it, it cried.

When bad things happened in the house, it laughed and was happy; but when things went well, it cried. It had these two virtues. I said to the Princes of Anhalt: I would dare commit homicidium on him!

Such a changeling child is only a piece of flesh, a massa carnis, because it has no soul. We were stolen by demons or fairies and replaced with a changeling child, or an enchanted block of wood, or some other non-human thing.

Or we were the result of a mating between the devil and a human woman. Whatever we were, we were quite literally demonized, cast in the role of demons, and the general advice was to get rid of us by any means necessary. The shape of the myth has remained the same, with new words replacing old ones depending on the area and era.

Autistic people are still described as soulless. He hit all his developmental landmarks but after his first birthday. This topic deserves further elaboration: Autism Speaks broadcasts several television public service announcements informing us of the odds of a child achieving any one of a number of improbable events—starring in a Broadway show being one example—as compared to the much more likely odds of the viewer having a child with autism Ad Council.

The intended effect is clear. It is a call for parents to be afraid: What is the result of following the fallacy of the missing self and the accompanying tragedy narrative of autism to its logical conclusion? If autistics are changelings—children not of this world and subject to the unspeakable presumption of tragedy that our modern media perception of autism is based upon—is it a surprise that some parents should try and excise the changeling, remove the cancer and thus end the tragedy they view themselves as playing a part in?

To those parents, who have been conditioned to believe that their children are less than whole and thus less than human, are they performing a true act of murder? A causal relationship exists between the rhetoric that reinforces a diminished value for autistic life and personhood and the implementation of that idea in the form of the murder of people on the autism spectrum.

Tischreden —21 , vol. Autistic children are never cured or, at least, so rarely as for it to be a medical curiosity.

If the side-effect of MMR was death, the concern would be much, much larger, but a deferred death—and in the most severe cases that is what autism is, a dead soul in a live body—just does not generate the concern that it should. Miller ; and Gerry A.

Stefanatos and Ida Sue Baron. For discussion on oral-motor function in autism, see Morton Ann Gernsbacher et al. An Essay on Autism and Theory of Mind Explaining the Enigma Numerous respected autism researchers subsequently challenged Tinbergen regarding his speculations; see, e.

Stories from the Other Side of Autism The Science of Face Perception is a useful basic reference on the subject. For an account by a college professor and personal acquaintance whose son communicates via FC, see Ralph James Savarese, Reasonable People: A Memoir of Autism and Adoption: Literature reviews that largely dismiss FC as ineffective include Mark P.

Current Theories and Evidence ; Martha R. Minshew and Timothy A. Stodgell, and Patricia M. Zimmerman and Susan L. Pessah and Pamela J. Current Theories and Evidence , edited by Andrew Zimmerman Accepting an autism prevalence that is constantly being recalculated but that is hovering at about one in a hundred, and a risk for siblings is about one in five, we come up with this comparative statistic; see Brett S. Abrahams and Daniel H.

What is the causal mechanism? Many genes, common pathways? For a study finding amelioration of behavioral abnormalities in genetically engineered mice administered mGluR antagonists, see Zhengyu Cao et al. Dawson is chief scientific officer for Autism Speaks.

Clinical and Research Issues , edited by Pasquale J. The perfect map of Rome was created by Stephen Wiltshire and is displayed on his website , http: Iversen is author of Strange Son: The Autism Genetic Resource Exchange website: The original German is Eine gute Mutter diagnostiziert oft viel besser wie ein schlechter Arzt and may be found at http: I note in the interest of full disclosure that I employed Kathleen Seidel to help me with research, citations, and the bibliography for this book starting in For the idea that regression in autism may be the expression of an unfolding genetic process, see Gerry A.

It represents work by Judith Miller that reclassified old files using modern diagnostic criteria. Miller showed that prevalence was previously underestimated i. She will be the first author on a paper that summarizes this work, which is not yet published. Gerber, and Paul A. Mercury in Vaccines and the Autism Epidemic: A Medical Controversy In contrast, recent research demonstrates the absence of any association of autism with genes that regulate heavy metals in the body: This would lead to a heritability estimate of about 70 percent, consistent with previous results.

A recent very large study comparing siblings and half siblings supports a ratio of 60 percent or higher; see John N. Blaxill, and Boyd E. For extensions of that work to young children, see Katarzyna Chawarska et al.

Longitudinal studies over longer periods of time have documented changes in IQ scores and in core deficits e. Thus, while substantial evidence exists that treatments can reach short-term goals in many areas, gaps remain in addressing larger questions of the relationships between particular techniques and specific changes.

Treatment Approaches for Parents and Professionals A notable quote from the first paper: This may be at least a partial reason why mothers of autistic children are so often well-educated, verbal, and at least superficially adequate people.

Greenspan and Serena Weider, Engaging Autism: A Cochrane Review Journal 6, no. From the original Russian: The Miracle Continues For the allegation that the child was never autistic at all, see Bryna Siegel, The World of the Autistic Child , pages — Nelson and Margaret L.

Baxter and Edward P. March 22, , at http: Geier May 16, , at http: Family of autistic child alleges abuse at private school Tedeman v. Boston Higashi School et al. Reports of their work include M. July ; Laurent Mottron et al. January ; Robert M. In , a scholarly paper was published about the ransom notes scandal: Remapping the World of Autism , comes from my interview with him in Remapping the World of Autism Avoiding Perilous Situations with Autism Carbone and Emily J.

Seven Paradoxical Tales Patrick Markcrow and Sarah Naylor: Son of Zvia Lev: Schizophrenia ; E. A Very Short Introduction See also figure 1 in Jeffrey A. Caused by a fault in programmed synaptic elimination during adolescence?

What did we learn? For a review and synthesis of twin studies discussing the various sorts of environmental influences that might contribute to the differential development of schizophrenia in twins, see Patrick F. Kendler, and Michael C. The contribution of paternal age to schizophrenia is discussed in E. How important is it? For a recent review article on transgenic mouse research, see P. Alexander Arguello and Joseph A. Simpson, and Eric R. Straight Talk for Family and Friends The surface distance controls a deeper interdependence on each other.

One parent denies the immaturity and functions with a facade of overadequacy. The other accentuates the immaturity and functions with a facade of inadequacy. The family members, particularly the father and mother, function in reciprocal relation to each other. The most frequent family pattern is an intense twosome between mother and patient which excludes the father and from which he permits himself to be excluded. A child whose mother becomes anxious and withdraws if the child responds to her as a loving mother.

A mother to whom feelings of anxiety and hostility toward the child are not acceptable, and whose way of denying them is to express overt loving behavior to persuade the child to respond to her as a loving mother and to withdraw from him if he does not.

The absence of anyone in the family, such as a strong and insightful father, who can intervene in the relationship between the mother and child and support the child in the face of the contradictions involved.

It is also worth reviewing Alfred S. For an extended critique of parent-blame theories, see John G. Howells and Waguih R.

Guirguis, The Family and Schizophrenia The passage in full: But the most characteristic feature of the mind-cure movement is an inspiration much more direct.

The leaders in this faith have had an intuitive belief in the all-saving power of healthy-minded attitudes as such, in the conquering efficacy of courage, hope, and trust, and a correlative contempt for doubt, fear, worry, and all nervously precautionary states of mind.

Their belief has in a general way been corroborated by the practical experience of their disciples; and this experience forms to-day a mass imposing in amount. Greaves and Robert Sharrock For more information on the history of lobotomy, see Joel T.

For more information, see Thomas A. LaMothe, Controlled Offensive Behavior: A Personal Triumph Over Psychiatry A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason Journal of Interpersonal Relations 32, no. Laing occur on pages , , and of The Politics of Experience It may also be break-through.

It is potential liberation and renewal as well as enslavement and existential death. The Idea and Its Consequences Fuller Torrey, Surviving Schizophrenia Armat, Madness in the Streets: The Truth About Deinstitutionalization Andreasen describes the function of hospitals as communities on page 32 of The Family Face of Schizophrenia Armat, Madness in the Streets Synaptic connectivity in autism is discussed in Carlos A.

Pardo and Charles G. Brown and Ezra S. Schizophrenia following famine is discussed in Hans W. Brown, and Ezra S. Epidemiologic Issues and Implications , edited by Marissa J. Miller and Nicholas J. One of his recent articles that addresses this topic is R. My Journey Through Madness Warman and Aaron T. McGlashan and his colleagues argue for the establishment of the syndrome as a diagnostic category in Scott W. Their proposals attracted considerable opposition; see, e. For a scholarly review of the controversy, see Barnaby Nelson and Alison R.

Fuller Torrey, Out of the Shadows: See also Maurizio Pompili et al. Fuller Torrey, Out of the Shadows Keefe and Philip D. For more information on living arrangements and parent satisfaction, see Benedicte Lowyck et al. Stress, Coping, and Adaptation , edited by Agnes B.

Hatfield and Harriet P. Living with Schizophrenia A judgment in Lothell Tate v. Forced Treatment and the Rights of the Mentally Ill What should happen when patients reject their diagnosis? Chamberlin is the author of On Our Own: Hazards to the Brain Public Images of Mental Illness Alisky and Kenneth A. Marder is a coauthor of Robert S. Matthew Lysiak and Lukas I. Loughner has a due process right.

Prisons and Offenders with Mental Illness Weinreich maintains a personal website at http: My Brother, Madness, and Survival When dealing with a condition that arises from, affects, and shows itself forth in behavior, feeling, choice, and action—that brings joy, sorrow, grief, and tragedies that, daily and long-term, are distinctly human—how not pay attention and listen to the stories of these lives from those who have led them, however confusingly and crazily they are told, when it is by this very telling that some essential part of the human beings in possession of these lives is expressing itself and doing so, often, as a means of survival?

Is it the very mystery of what we call madness that seems to cause us, again and again, to condemn those afflicted with this condition to some non human category of life? All names in this passage are pseudonyms, except the name of David Nathan. Poems , pages 6—7. Educational and Social Issues , edited by John J. Ross come from pages 55—56 and of his book The Exceptional Child in the Family Shaver , page This picture becomes a little more intelligible when we consider that, with one exception, the same traits are met with in mourning.

The disturbance of self-regard is absent in mourning; but otherwise the features are the same. Profound mourning, the reaction to the loss of someone who is loved, contains the same painful frame of mind, the same loss of interest in the outside world—in so far as it does not recall him—the same loss of capacity to adopt any new object of love which would mean replacing him and the same turning away from any activity that is not connected with thoughts of him.

It is easy to see that this inhibition and circumscription of the ego is the expression of an exclusive devotion to mourning which leaves nothing over for other purposes or other interests. It is really only because we know so well how to explain it that this attitude does not seem to us pathological.

Kazak and Robert S. Risk, Resilience, and Recovery For individuals who could roll over, but were otherwise immobile, survival was relatively improved. Finding siblings more responsible and tolerant: Finding siblings more unhappy, but not suffering unduly from psychiatric problems: Naomi Breslau et al. Finding the worse the disability, the better the sibling adjustment: An Exploratory Study , especially pages — Finding siblings were helped by a specific diagnosis: The brain abnormality in SE is permanent or unchanging in the sense that it does not get worse.

It is not progressive or degenerative. Unfortunately, it usually does not get better or improve much, either. This does not mean that the child will not get better. But most children with static encephalopathy will always have some degree of learning or developmental problems because they always have some degree of abnormal brain function.

Gunther and Douglas S. Social Construction of Deafness: A majority of people in the Deaf-World have inherited their ethnicity. Deaf inheritance and a failure to understand the ethnic status of culturally Deaf people have historically and at present placed the Deaf-World in jeopardy of ethnocide and even genocide.

I am so sad to hear about all the babies with Down Syndrome being aborted. I am so grateful that I was not aborted because I have a full and wonderful life! I believe in the sacred dignity of all people and most people I know with disabilities have full and productive lives.

I learned about what Hitler did during the Holocaust. He killed many people he did not think had the right to live. He learned how to kill by killing people with disabilities first.

My heart broke when I learned about this at the Holocaust museum. It seems to me we are doing the same thing to children with disabilities today in our country. I think this is like genocide—the systematic killing of a whole people or nation. I wonder why we think Hitler was so horrible when we are doing the same thing he did? My heart breaks again when I think that I might be the last generation of people with Down Syndrome. The world will never again benefit from our gifts. There could also be members of our species who are not persons.

By putting on masks the actors signified that they were acting a role. Quite possibly Fletcher would agree that these two are central, and the others more or less follow from them. If we compare a severely defective human infant with a nonhuman animal, a dog or a pig, for example, we will often find the nonhuman to have superior capacities, both actual and potential, for rationality, self-consciousness, communication, and anything else that can plausibly be considered morally significant.

Only the fact that the defective infant is a member of the species Homo sapiens leads it to be treated differently from the dog or pig. Species membership alone, however, is not morally relevant. Humans who bestow superior value on the lives of all human beings, solely because they are members of our own species, are judging along lines strikingly similar to those used by white racists who bestow superior value on the lives of other whites, merely because they are members of their own race.

Schwartz , 46 N. On Children, Love, and the Inner Life The Experience of Maternal Ambivalence , Child Prodigies and the Development of Human Potential In the case of the mazurka , the child was engaging not only in precocious musicality, but also in precocious punning; the word mazurka refers to both a traditional Polish folk dance and a dense Polish cake with fruit and nuts. The Origins and Development of High Ability Evgeny Kissin maintains a website at http: Stebbing , page 4: For sublimity, they say, is the gift of Nature, not the result of teaching, and the only art which leads to it is native genius.

The effects of natural abilities, they think, are impaired and altogether weakened under the debilitating influence of systematic rules. But I maintain, that to be convinced of the contrary, one has but to consider that what Nature loves in impassioned and exalted moods is a general independence, not a random course without plan or direction; and that while Nature supplies in all cases primary and archetypal elements of production, it is system which avails to point out the needful limitations, the seasonable opportunity, in short, to bring together all the proprieties of use and practice; and that genius without science, left alone with no ballast or ought to steady it, upon its own mere impulse and undisciplined impetuosity, has an inherent liability to shipwreck.

For genius, be assured, requires the curb as often as the spur. And indeed for the leading fact itself, that there is that in oratory which Nature can alone supply, we are indebted to none other than as I said, of these particulars, the censor of the studious will no longer, I believe, deem the investigation of our present subject superfluous or unprofitable. That is why, if an author owes a product to his genius, he himself does not know how he came by the ideas for it; nor is it in his power to devise such products at his pleasure, or by following a plan, and to communicate to others in precepts that would enable them to bring about like products.

Indeed, that is presumably why the word genius is derived from [Latin] genius , the guardian and guiding spirit that each person is given as his own at birth, and to whose inspiration those original ideas are due.

The Leon Fleisher Story The passage in its entirety: He was also a great master of modulation, and his transitions from one key to another were excessively natural and judicious; he practised in this manner for a considerable time with a handkerchief over the keys of the harpsichord. The facts which I have been mentioning I was myself an eyewitness of; to which I must add, that I have been informed by two or three able musicians, when Bach the celebrated composer had begun a fugue and left off abruptly, that little Mozart hath immediately taken it up, and worked it after a most masterly manner.

Witness as I was myself of most of these extraordinary facts, I must own that I could not help suspecting his father imposed with regard to the real age of the boy, though he had not only a most childish appearance, but likewise had all the actions of that stage of life.

For example, whilst he was playing to me, a favourite cat came in, upon which he immediately left his harpsichord, nor could we bring him back for a considerable time. He would also sometimes run about the room with a stick between his legs by way of horse. I found likewise that most of the London musicians were of the same opinion with regard to his age, not believing it possible that a child of so tender years could surpass most of the masters in that science.

Perilous Journeys, Remarkable Lives My Father , pages — Certainly, there will always be Ingres and Corots, just as there have been Raphaels and Titians, but they are exceptions, for whom it would be presumptuous to write a treatise on painting. All painting, from that of Pompeii, done by Greek artists.

Formerly all pupils learned this way of painting under their master. Their genius, if they had any, did the rest. The stern apprenticeship imposed on young painters never prevented them from having originality. Raphael was the pupil of Perugino, but he became the divine Raphael, nevertheless. The New School for Music website: Levitin and Susan E. Ross in , as do all quotations from him.

Takeuchi and Stewart H. Smith and Mark A. For the study finding that many subjects are able to recognize minor pitch changes in familiar tunes, see Glenn Schellenberg and Sandra E. The Neuroscience of Genius Forster , Problemata xxx 1, a10— Geschwind and Albert M. What Do We Know? Nancy Robinson takes issue with the assertion that intellectually gifted children are less hardy than other children on page xiv of her introduction to The Social and Emotional Development of Gifted Children: They built this lottery on the bones of their little children.

And sure enough, over the last few decades our town had sent a number of child prodigies onto the stages of the world. When a boy turned four or five, his mother took the tiny, frail creature to Mr.

Zagursky ran a factory that churned out child prodigies, a factory of Jewish dwarfs in lace collars and patent leather shoes. There was powerful harmony in the souls of these little creatures with their swollen blue heads. They became acclaimed virtuosi. And so—my father decided to keep up with them. I had passed the age of child prodigies—I was almost fourteen—but because of my height and frailness I could be mistaken for an eight-year-old.

Therein lay all our hopes. She died in the Holocaust, and he was once while drunk heard to say that Hitler was a great man because Hitler had killed his mother. The Artist and the Woman ; the quotation from Robert Schumann occurs on page You will have to leave one, him or me.

Website of the Endellion String Quartet: All names in this passage are pseudonyms, and some identifying details have been changed. Lang Lang maintains a website at http: My Story , with David Ritz.

Gang qin tian cai Lang Lang he ta de fu qin. Anders Ericsson, Michael J. Prietula, and Edward T. Anders Ericsson, Roy W. Davidson, and John A. Duckworth and Martin E. Myths and Realities The observation about typical Chinese hand shape comes from my interview with Veda Kaplinsky. Flow and the Psychology of Discovery and Invention I was not so much a mixture of child and man.

My Childhood and Youth He wishes to believe that his elders, on whom he is dependent for the arrangement and control of the world in which he lives, are all wise and good. When he discovers that they are not, he faces the necessity of loneliness and of forming his own judgment of a world that he can no longer fully trust.

The prodigy shares this experience with every child, but added to it is the suffering which grows from belonging half to the adult world and half to the world of the children around him. From Ex-Prodigy , pages —7: I was not so much a mixture of child and man as wholly a child for purposes of companionship and nearly completely a man for purposes of study. Both my playmates and the college students were aware of this. The Later Life of a Prodigy The Life Story of a Technology If I have seen further it is by standing on ye shoulders of Giants.

Yet the strongest, most authentic motive for deep reading of the now much-abused traditional canon is the search for a difficult pleasure. Read deeply, not to believe, not to accept, not to contradict, but to learn to share in that one nature that writes and reads. Meanwhile the parents of gifted children are terrorized with behests to bring their children up to be normal happy human beings, and told horror stories about infant prodigies who go mad at twenty. Thomas Aquinas, and without whom a society, no matter how rich and industrious will stagnate in the end?

If it is true that we are at present lamentably poor in fostering genius, then it is obvious that we had better recognize what the obstacles are and proceed to clear them away. But such recognition is only a first step, because most of what a wise teacher or counselor tells the parents of a gifted child is true, culturally speaking. The culture tries to make the child with a gift into a one-sided person, to penalize him at every turn, to cause him trouble in making friends, and to create conditions conducive to the development of a neurosis.

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