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PDF version [ KB ]. Introduction Norway's response to gaming machines. What evidence emerged from the ban? Interpreting the evidence Some differences between Australia and Norway worth noting. In recent months a contentious debate around proposals to introduce mandatory pre-commitment on electronic gaming machines EGMs has developed in Australia.
The debate has tended to focus around two key issues: This paper discusses the first of these issues, the evidence of effectiveness, looking in particular at evidence from Norway. The context of the debate is that, to secure the support of key independent and then member-elect Andrew Wilkie at the last Federal election, the Prime Minister agreed to implement mandatory pre-commitment MPC on EGMs by The introduction of MPC on EGMs was also a key recommendation of the Productivity Commission in its report into gambling, albeit allowing a longer implementation time frame.
Debate around this proposal has intensified, particularly since Clubs Australia commenced its publicity campaign to oppose the reforms.
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An interesting characteristic of the debate, however, is that those on opposite sides have both cited evidence from Norway to support their respective positions. Supporters of MPC on EGMs mainly those from the social and community sectors, but also some academics have pointed to the evidence from Norway in support of this approach. This background note will discuss the evidence from Norway and how it has been used to support Pokies Aus Handbook To Higher sides of this argument.
In Julyin response to ongoing concerns over the harms from problem gambling the Norwegian government banned all electronic gaming machines—then known as slot machines—from Norway. Slot machines Melbourne Casino Pokies Blogspot Login increasingly become the subject of tighter controls because of concerns they contributed to problem gambling prevalence in Norway.
Gaming machine revenue had risen dramatically, from NOK 9 billion in to NOK 27 billion inaccording to the state operator Norsk Tipping in its annual report for that year. Prior to the ban, EGMs in Norway were readily available in shopping centres and train stations, and although an age limit had been introduced in it was reportedly difficult to enforce.
The prevalence of problem gambling was estimated at around 1. In Januarynew gaming machines—known as video lottery terminals VLTs —were introduced into Norway under the sole control of Norsk Tipping, the government operator. These VLTs were configured with features to make them less harmful, including: All VLTs were to be connected to a central server.
A recent study by gambling researcher Ingeborg Lund found that following the ban on slot machines in total gambling participation, gambling frequency and gambling problems in Norway all fell—in some cases significantly.
Lund found significant reductions in gambling problems, lying and the practice of chasing losses. Overall gambling participation across different groups of gamblers was also observed.
The greatest reduction in gambling participation was seen among high intensity and at risk gamblers who played EGMs, as could be expected. However, Lund found no evidence that this drop was accompanied by significant rises in other forms of gambling such as online gambling or illegal gamblingsuggesting that problem gamblers did not substitute play on the banned EGMs with these other forms of gambling.
However, evidence from other sources would appear to contradict some of Lund's findings.
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Opponents of MPC argue that there was actually an increase in internet gambling in Norway following the removal of slot machines, as well as an increase in reports of gambling harm associated with this mode of gambling.
Gambling data reported by Norsk Tipping in its annual report showed that participation in internet gambling had increased.
Players at moderate risk of developing a problem also increased, from 2. Conversely, by a higher proportion of the population in Norway were reporting no gambling problems; the proportion Pokies Big Red Racing Team problems rising from There was also a decline in the proportion of low-risk gamblers, from So, how are we to interpret what appear to be conflicting pieces of evidence?
Firstly, it should be noted that some of the shifts detected in the Pokies Aus Handbook To Higher Tipping survey data are relatively small, so how much can be gleaned is uncertain.
In the case of problem and moderate risk gamblers, an increase in prevalence of just 0. This raises questions over the comparability of the two surveys. Thirdly, data on utilisation of helpline services may not be the best indicator of problem gambling prevalence. Evidence suggests that a significant proportion of problem gamblers never access help services so relying on such data as a proxy for gambling problems has only limited usefulness.
In addition, the increase in participation in internet gambling in Norway could reflect an ongoing trend towards internet-based gambling, rather than a substitution effect. Lund argues that if the shift to internet gambling that was witnessed genuinely reflected a substitution effect, then total gambling participation would not have fallen during the EGM ban.
Internationally, gambling on the internet has become increasingly popular. Although accurate figures are not readily available, estimates suggest that revenues from this form of gambling have been growing significantly in recent years.
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So while an increase in internet gambling was indeed observed during the ban on slot machines, the fact the trend to internet gambling was already underway makes it harder to sustain the argument that gamblers substituted slot machine gambling with internet gambling. There are some key differences between Australia and Norway worth noting that raise questions over how comparable the two are when it comes to the issue of EGM reform.
Firstly, the slot machines that were banned in Norway differed from those currently available in Australia. Norway's slot machines were widely available in supermarkets, kiosks, petrol stations and train stations; locations associated with transient activities.
In Australia, EGMs are located in casinos, registered clubs and pubs, settings more associated with leisure and entertainment activities, where alcohol is also available. Arguably these type of venues provide a more appealing, safer environment than does a train station or supermarket, which may add to the appeal of playing EGMs in Australia.
Secondly, although the banned slot machines were regarded as harmful, they were arguably less harmful than EGMs here. Further, unlike the MPC arrangements which are proposed in Australia, where players would set their own gambling limit, the VLTs in Norway feature a mandated, preset maximum loss limit set by the government; mandatory breaks in play after a certain period are also enforced. Although the final details have yet to be released, the MPC model that is proposed here would require players to set their limits in line with maintaining consumer sovereignty  and would not include enforced breaks in play.
There are also differences in the online gambling environment. In Norway online gambling is legal and regulated, where gamblers play casino type games on approved online gambling websites. Here, such online gambling services are prohibited to Australian residents. One other difference worth noting is that the Norwegian government abolished private gaming machine operators from the market prior to the ban.
All gaming machines are now operated by Norsk Tipping, a state-run monopoly. Arguably, these differences limit the conclusions that can be drawn from Norway in respect to the Australian environment. As the new VLTs continue to be rolled out across Norway, new evidence on their impact on reducing problem gambling will no doubt emerge.
Based on how the debate around MPC has already progressed in Australia, it is likely that any further evidence from Norway will continue to be contested by those on both sides. Although the gambling environment in Norway was, and remains, materially different to the Australian situation, nevertheless Norway offers other valuable lessons for policy makers. Firstly, the reduction in harm from gambling following the EGM ban in Norway strongly suggests that EGMs were significant contributors to these harms, and helps justify arguments for greater EGM controls.
Given that the type of EGM that was banned displayed less intense game play features than those available in Australia, will add weight to this view. That Norway successfully replaced its popular slot machines with VLTs configured to reduce harm but which have still proven popular among players, may also reinforce the view that greater controls on EGMs can be achieved without significantly diminishing player enjoyment.
The fact that the Norwegian government successfully imposed greater controls on its slot machines, in the face of sustained industry opposition, demonstrates the capacity of governments to successfully overcome vested interests.
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This may also strengthen the resolve of those seeking similar reforms in Australia. A further lesson to note from Norway Pokies Aus Handbook To Higher that the trend to online gambling will continue, regardless of whether or not MPC is implemented here.
As the online environment Australian gamblers play in is largely beyond the reach of Australian authorities, the trend towards internet gambling presents a particular challenge for policy makers, most notably, how to minimise harm and support responsible gambling initiatives. But more reliable data will be needed in order to respond appropriately to this challenge. Finally, the sustained industry campaign opposing the reforms in Norway, which included a number of ultimately unsuccessful legal challenges, suggests that progressing gaming machine reform in Australia is likely to require a sustained effort.
Although the government argues it has the power to legislate to impose MPC if the states and territories do not cooperate,  the prospect of legal challenges ahead must be factored into consideration. Meanwhile, harms from problem gambling will continue to accrue, and calls to limit these will likely continue if EGM reform remains unaddressed. The Agreement between the Hon. Norsk Tipping, Annual and social reportp. Ingeborg Lund, 'Gambling and problem gambling in Norway: What part does the gambling machine play?
A natural experiment', Journal of Gambling Studies, vol. Amanda Biggs, 'Is counselling for pokie addiction an effective harm minimisation measure? The Productivity Commission argued in favour of maintaining the principle of consumer sovereignty in approaches Pokies Aus Handbook To Higher gambling regulation. The IGA prohibits the provision of interactive gambling services to customers in Australia and the advertising of these. A distinction should be drawn between interactive gambling which is prohibited, and other forms of online gambling which are legal.
Interactive gambling involves online gaming on casino games Blackjack, Baccarat, Rouletteall forms of poker and virtual gaming machines.
Placing bets or wagering via the internet is permitted. The Productivity Commission PC cited a range of survey data on participation rates for online gambling. Most surveys it cited found a participation rate of between 0. In essence, you are free to copy and communicate this work in its current form for all non-commercial purposes, as long as you attribute the work to the author and abide by the other licence terms.
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Introduction In recent months a contentious debate around proposals to introduce mandatory pre-commitment on electronic gaming machines EGMs has developed in Australia.
Norway's response to gaming machines In Julyin response to ongoing concerns over the harms from problem gambling the Norwegian government banned all electronic gaming machines—then known as slot machines—from Norway. Norsk Tipping  Conversely, by a higher proportion of the population in Norway were reporting no gambling problems; the proportion without problems rising from Interpreting Pokies Bonus For Referrals Appreciate Thesaurus evidence So, how are we to interpret what appear to be conflicting pieces of evidence?
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