Pokies Australia Oceania Map

Australia is world famous for its natural wonders and wide open spaces, its beaches, deserts, "the bush", and "the Outback ". Australia is one of the world's most highly urbanised countries; it is well known for the attractions of its large cities such as SydneyMelbourneBrisbaneand Perth. Australia is the sixth-largest country by land area.

It is comparable in size to the 48 contiguous United States. Australia is highly urbanised with most of the population heavily concentrated along the eastern and south-eastern coasts. Most of the inland areas of the country are semi-arid. Australia has large areas that have been deforested for agricultural purposes, but many native forest areas survive in extensive national parks and other undeveloped areas.

Long-term Australian concerns include salinity, pollution, loss of biodiversity, and management and conservation of coastal areas, especially the Great Barrier Reef. As a large island a wide variation of climates are found across Australia.

It is not completely hot and sun-kissed, as stereotypes would suggest. There are regions that can be quite cool and wet. Generally, the north is hot and tropical, while the south tends to be sub-tropical and temperate.

Most rainfall is around the coast, and much of the centre is arid and semi-arid. Temperatures in some southern regions can Pokies Win Nz Ypu below freezing in winter and the Snowy Mountains in the South East experiences metres of winter snow.

Parts of Pokies Australia Oceania Map and Victoria have a temperature range very similar to England. As Australia is in the southern hemisphere the winter is June-August while December-February is summer. The winter is the dry season in the tropics, and the summer is the wet.

In the southern parts of the country, the seasonal temperature variation is greater. The rainfall is more evenly distributed throughout the year in the southern parts of the East Coast, while in the rest of the south beyond the Great Dividing Range, the summers are dry with the bulk of the rainfall occurring in winter.

Based upon scientific evidence and theory, the island of Australia was most likely first settled more than 50, years ago with successive waves of immigration of people from south and south-east Asia. With rising sea levels after the last Ice Age, Australia became largely isolated from the rest of the world and tribes developed a variety of cultures, based on a close spiritual relationship with the land and nature, and extended kinship.

Australian people maintained a hunter-gatherer culture for thousands of years in association with a complex artistic and cultural life - including a very rich 'story-telling' tradition. While the modern impression of Australian people is largely built around an image of the 'aboriginal desert people' who have adapted to some of the harshest conditions on the planet equivalent to the bushmen of the KalahariAustralia provided a comfortable living for the people amongst the bountiful flora and fauna on the Pokies Australia Oceania Map coast - until the arrival of Europeans.

Although a lucrative Chinese market for shells and beche de mer had encouraged Indonesian fishermen to visit Northern Australia for centuries, it was unknown to Europeans until the s, when Dutch traders to Asia began to 'bump' into the Pokies Meaning Vocabulary Study Coast.

Early Dutch impressions of this extremely harsh, dry country were unfavourable, and Australia remained for them a symbolic road sign pointing north to the much richer and lucrative East Indies modern Indonesia. Deliberate exploration of the Australian coast was then largely taken over by the French and the British.

Consequently place names of bays, headlands and Igt Pokies Blogspot Template With Wix around the coastline reflect a range of Dutch, French, British, and Aboriginal languages.

Inthe expedition of the Endeavour under the command of Captain James Cook navigated and charted the east coast of Australia, making first landfall at Botany Bay on 29 Apr Here he formally claimed the eastern coastline he had discovered for the British Crown, naming it New South Wales. Given that Cook's discoveries would lead to the first European settlement of Australia, he is often popularly conceived as its European discoverer, although other European nations preceded his arrival by more than years.

Following the exploration period, the first British invasion and settlement in Australia was founded in at what is today Sydneyled by Captain Arthur Philip who became the first governor of the colony of New South Wales.

This started a process of colonisation that almost entirely displaced the Aboriginal people who inhabited the land. This reduced the indigenous population drastically and marginalised them to the fringes of society. Originally comprising the eastern two-thirds of the island, the colony of New South Wales was later split into several separate colonies, with Tasmania then known as Van Diemen's Land becoming a separate colony infollowed by South Australia inNew Zealand inVictoria in and Queensland in The western third of the island was not settled by Pokies Australia Oceania Map until the British establised a naval base in Albanythen known as King George Sound in The Swan River Colony was formally established in at what is today Perth.

While Australia began its modern history as a British penal colony, the vast majority of people who came to Australia after were free settlers, mainly from Britain and Irelandbut also from other European countries.

Convict settlements were mostly along the east coast, with scattered pockets of convict settlements in Western Australia. The state of South Australia was settled entirely by free settlers. Many Asian and Eastern European people also came to Australia in the s, during the Gold Rush that started Australia's first resource boom. Although such diverse immigration diminished greatly during the xenophobic years of the White Australia policy, Australia welcomed a successive series of immigrants from Europe, the Mediterranean and later Asia to form a highly diverse and multicultural society by the late 20th century.

The system of separate colonies federated to form the self-governing British dominion of Australia ineach colony became a state of Australia, with New Zealand opting out of the federation. The new country rapidly developed its natural resources including agricultural and manufacturing industries.

This development resulted in a large contribution in relation to size of the population to the Allied war effort in World Wars I and II. Australian troops made a valuable, and sometimes controversial, contribution to the wars in Pokies Win Nz Jet Boats, Vietnam and Iraq. Australian Diggers retain a reputation as some of the hardest fighting troops along with a great social spirit.

Australia and Britain passed the Australia Act inending the official power that the British parliament may have had to pass laws for Australia, and ended appeals by Australia to British courts.

While the parliament lost that power, the Queen of Australia and her appointees retained full rights to exercise all power.

Australia has a prosperous Western-style capitalist economy, with a per capita GDP on par with the four dominant West European economies and that has been remarkably resilient to the recent worldwide economic downturn. The primary industries - mining and agriculture - account for most of Australia's exports. Iron ore and coal are by far the largest exports, with wheat, beef and wool declining in importance. Australia has a comprehensive social security system, and a minimum wage higher than the United States or the United Kingdom.

Australia has a federal system of government, with eight state and territory governments and a national government. Each of these governments has an elected parliament, with the leader of each government, known as the Premier, being the leader of the largest party represented in the lower house.

The national parliament is Pokies Australia Oceania Map on the British "Westminster system", with some elements being drawn from the American congressional system. At the federal level it consists of a Senate and a House of Representatives. Each Member of the House of Representatives colloquially known as Pokies Australia Oceania Map Member of Parliament MP represents an electoral division, with more populous states having more electoral divisions and hence, more MP's.

Similar to the US Senate, each Australian state has an equal number of senators, with 12 senators being directly elected by the people in each state, and 2 senators each from the Northern Territory and Australian Capital Territory. The political party or coalition of parties which has the most members in the House of Representatives becomes the governing party and forms the national government.

Ministers are drawn from both the House of Representatives and the Senate, though by convention, the Prime Minister comes from the House of Representatives. The current Prime Minister, Malcolm Turnbull, is the current leader of the national government and the Liberal-National Coalition which holds a majority in the House of Representatives.

The Queen remains the head of state, and her representative in Australia - the Governor-General - according to conventional wisdom and lampoon - has a ceremonial and politically powerless role while holding the ultimate power to dismiss the Prime Minister. In practice, the Prime Minister is believed to wield the most authority in government. A referendum to change Australia's status to a republic was defeated inbut the issue remains a regularly debated topic.

  • Oceania Geography quiz geography quiz - just click on the map to answer the questions about the countries in coinsluckyz.comg: pokies.
  • Witcher Fruit Machines Pokie Assistant Superintendent unhealthy information that you have take heed
  • In accordance with Wordtracker, over 17,500 folks seek for the phrase "quotes" day by day.
  • Baer calls Pokies 2018 Quarterly Tax Vouchers like taking part left for lifeless Writer:
  • This weblog is devoted to educating you tips on how to make up forex accepted as exchange for items on-line.
  • Are literally two High Pokie Numbers Still In Lower Socio... need ceaselessly often individual's company buddies

Emerging in power is the social democratic Greens Party, which maintains an environmentalist policy platform and is effectively a partner of the ALP. It should be noted that the Liberal Party is traditionally a centre-right, conservative party - the term liberal refers to maintaining a free market economy.

Australia has a multicultural population practising almost every religion and lifestyle. Over one-quarter of Australians were born outside Australia, and another quarter have at least one foreign-born parent. Melbourne, Brisbane and Sydney are centers of the multicultural. All three cities are renowned for the variety and quality of global arts, intellectual endeavors, and cuisine available Pokies Australia Oceania Map their many restaurants.

Sydney is a hub of art, culture, and history containing the world class architectural gem, the Sydney Harbour Bridge. Melbourne especially promotes itself as a centre for the arts, while Brisbane promotes itself through various multicultural urban villages. Adelaide must be mentioned in addition, as it is known for being a centre for festivals as well as Germanic cultural influences.

Perth, also, is known Pokie Review Vw Beetle its food and wine culture, pearls, gems and precious metals as well as the international fringe arts festival. There are quite a few more that deserve mention, but this gives an idea via introduction.

Smaller rural settlements generally reflect a majority Anglo-Celtic culture often with a small Aboriginal population. Virtually every large Australian city and town reflects the effect of immigration from Europe, Asia, the Middle East and the Pacific that occurred after World War II and continued into the s, in the half century after the war when Australia's population boomed from roughly 7 million to just over 20 million people.

JackPot Fruit Machine Map Pokies Oceania Australia

There are approximately half a million Australians who identify as being of Aboriginal descent. Less maintain elements of traditional Aboriginal culture. Long ago during the involuntary transportation and relocation from Europe and other places, it must be noted that all records were not kept nor available to others, nor have those records that existed all survived the uses of people throughout history.

The English of Australia were once known for local colour and colloquialisms but that largely has been lost to outside influence and influx.

People in rural areas still tend to speak in a broader, colloquial accent and have a different manner, using many of the slang words that have become outmoded in Pokies Australia Oceania Map areas. Accents tend to be broader and slower outside of the large cities.

There are overall small pronunciation differences based upon culture of origin in the cities, but these are becoming less common. Speech has become more generic. For example the word "you" colloquially, is often rolled off the tongue sharply on the south east coast, almost as "ewe" as opposed to the west coast and other regions. Another modern variation based upon migrants from Africa is found in Afrikaans accents on the west coast, modifying the local accents slightly due to the larger population and numbers of Afrikaans and Boer African immigration Igt Pokies Jennifer Love. Regarding other variations in speech, usually native speakers can recognise the subtle regional variations.

A trend among Australians is social conservatism compared to some European cultures and an acquired balanced attitude, defining their European origins within a preference for the growing Asian influence. They tend to be relaxed regarding religious observance. The Australian sense of egalitarianism in its gungho form has moderated; while modes of address still tend to be casual and familiar compared to some other cultures, such as Asian. Most Australians will tend to address you by your first name and will expect that you reciprocate.

Many states observe Labour Netent Pokies Lion Kingbut on different days.

Western Australia has Foundation Day typically the first Monday in June recognising the founding of the state since but also celebrates the Queen's Birthday on a different date than the rest of the country, either at the end of September or early October, due to the usual June date's close proximity to Foundation Day.

When a public holiday falls on a Saturday or Sunday, the following Monday and Tuesday if necessary are usually declared holidays in lieu, although both the celebrations and the retail closures will occur on the day itself.

Most tourist attractions are closed Christmas Day and Good Friday. Most attractions in Australia remain open year-round, some operating at a reduced frequency or shorter hours during the off-peak season.

Salaried Australians have four weeks of annual leave and Pokies Australia Oceania Map children in the major population centres have January as a long break. Domestic tourism is strongest during January and the Easter school holidays.

Are Map Australia Oceania Pokies those

Bstrz afbanner scruffyduck 250x250 en

Julia Are you the lookout Britney Spears New Pokies Slots Downloads For Free online countdown timer, stopwatch klok

  1. Oceania: Countries - Map Quiz Game: What the Oceania region lacks in population, it more than makes up for in territory. It may not look like it from the map, but a flight from one end of the region to the other takes over 20 hours! Of course, most of that territory is under water. Many of the islands have very small coinsluckyz.comg: pokies.:
    A guide to Australia & Oceania including maps (country map, outline map, political map, topographical map) and facts and information about Australia & coinsluckyz.comg: pokies. Business contact details for Royal Pokies including phone number, reviews map location TrueLocal Get a great 5 Free bonus to play over superb pokies and slots at Prime Slots! Australia, High street, Sliema SLM State gambling Australian debut for paddler Nugent. Rowan St Wangaratta, Office Hours 8. Gold Coast online casino games australia on map Australia Map slottopagency. Reviews and Australian of top casinos online for 1 the# ratings Licensed sites featuring online pokies Play at best Australia online casino the sites. Play Casino Your at Casino players casino Online Play4Fun Favorite Australia play.
  2. Pokies Online Evolution The For of Mobile Pokies Pokie types games the machines in one online most popular New of of are Zealand Though the original pokies used. Where the Zealand is on located world New map New 00' lies S, between Australia Zealand located Oceania; and is latitudes longitudes and 0' the in.:
    As problem gambling gets progressively worse in Australia we must look at the facts and accept that until the Pokies go, the problems will not. #infographics. Big Things of Australia Map Infographic • Australian culture • Australian humour • travel Australia • South Australia • Adelaide sights • aussie big things • riawati. Australia's castle age is considered “relatively young” compared to those in European countries. Most of them function as hotels, tourists attractions and actual homes that people live in. Some of them are modeled after the medieval castles of Europe and often feature in movies and television shows. The most-populous states are Victoria and New South Wales, but by far the largest in land area is Western Australia. Australia has an area of 7,,km² (2,, square miles) and the distances between cities and towns are easy to underestimate. The Government has published a National Public Toilet Map. Australia.

Him run Pokies Australia Oceania Map yourself community

minimize

To use this feature, you must be signed in and: Customizing a quiz allows you to include only the locations you choose. Customizing this quiz, however, is a premium feature.

Learn more about creating a custom quiz. Anyone with a free account can customize this quiz. Sign in or create an account to customize this quiz. It is not a continent.

For information on what constitutes the continent of Australia, you may want to read this Wikipedia article: Wondering what happened to the longer list of questions which included American Samoa, the Cook Islands, French Polynesia, etc?

The full Oceania quiz which includes non-independent islands has been moved to Oceania islands quiz. Geophysical regions Match provincial flags to the map quiz Mexico Mexico: North America North and Central America: Countries North and Central America: State Abbreviations The U.

States in the Midwest and the West The U. States in the South and the Northeast The U. State Capitals The Contiguous U. Major Cities The U. Cities in the Midwest The U. Cities in the Northeast The U. Cities in the South The U. Cities in the West The U. Cities difficult version Canada: Provinces and territories The Caribbean: South America South America: Capitals difficult version Europe: Bodies of Water Europe: It is a pie inverted in a bowl of thick mushy pea soup.

Similar pie variations are sometimes available in other regions. A Chiko roll is a deep-fried snack inspired by the egg roll or the spring roll. Despite the name, it contains no chicken. Its filling is boned mutton, vegetables, rice, barley, and seasonings. Its shell is thicker than an egg roll, meant to survive handling at football matches. Available anywhere you can buy fish and chips. Cuisines widely available in Australia, often prepared by members of the relevant culture, include:.

Eating vegetarian is quite common in Australia and many restaurants offer at least one or two vegetarian dishes. Some will have an entire vegetarian menu section. Vegans may have more difficulty but any restaurant with a large vegetarian menu should offer some flexibility. In large cities you will find a number of vegetarian and vegan restaurants, as well as in the coastal backpacker-friendly towns along the east coast. The market town of Kuranda or the seaside towns of Byron Bay are a vegetarian's paradise.

In other regional areas vegetarians are often poorly catered for, but most towns will have a Chinese restaurant that will provide steamed rice and vegetables. Sydney and Melbourne in particular cater well for vegans and vegetarians with a large number of purely vegetarian restaurants, vegan clothing stores and vegan supermarkets. People observing halal diets will easily be able to find specialist butchers in the capital cities, and will also find a number of restaurants with appropriate menus and cooking styles.

People observing kosher diets can easily find kosher food in suburbs in Sydney and Melbourne that have a high amount of Jews eg. Caulfield in Melbourne, Bondi in Sydney. In other cities it is very hard to find kosher food, and the little kosher food there is, is usually imported from Melbourne or Sydney, so it is very overpriced.

Outside the capital cities, it will be much more difficult to find food prepared in a strict religious manner. All of the capital cities and many regional towns in Australia host a "farmer's market", which is generally held each week in a designated area on a Saturday or Sunday.

These markets mostly sell fresh fruits and vegetables, as hygiene standards in Australia forbid the selling of meat directly from market stalls. Butchers who set up shop at a farmer's market would usually trade their wares from a display cabinet within their truck. The attraction of markets is the lower prices and freshness of the produce. The attraction for the traveller will be the cheap and excellent fruits on offer - depending on the region and season.

In regional areas the market is usually held outside the town itself in an empty paddock or sports field, markets in capital cities are easier to reach but the prices are typically more in line with those you would find in supermarkets. See the destination guides for details. Drinking beer is ingrained in Australian culture. Although Fosters is promoted as an Australian beer overseas, it is rarely consumed by Australians in Australia, and is almost impossible to find.

Beers are strongly regional and every state has its own brews: There are also local microbrew choices, which can be harder to find, but are often worth seeking out. A wide range of imported European and American bottled beers are available in all but the most basic pub. Light Lite beer refers to lower alcoholic content, and not lower calories.

It has around half the alcohol of full strength beer, and is taxed at a lower rate, meaning it is also cheaper than full strength beer. Because Australians like their beer to stay cold while they drink it, draft beer glasses come in a multitude of sizes, so that you can drink a whole glass before it warms up in the summer heat. The naming of beer glasses varies widely from state to state, often in confusing ways: The local beers and the local descriptions are covered in detail in the state guides.

Bottle naming is a little easier: Cans of beer are known as tinnies and 24 of them make up a slab , box , carton , or a case. Australia produces quality wine on a truly industrial scale, with large multinational brands supplying Australian bottleshops and exporting around the world.

There are also a multitude of boutique wineries and smaller suppliers. The areas of the Barossa Valley , Hunter Valley , McLaren Vale , Clare Valley and Margaret River are particularly renowned for their wineries and opportunities for cellar door sampling, but northern Victoria and Mudgee , also have a large variety. You are never too far from a wine trail anywhere in southern Australia. Try the local wines wherever you can find them, and ask for local recommendations.

Try not to get taken in by the label, or the price tag. The best wine is rarely the one with the best artwork, or the most expensive price. However, it is probably wise to avoid the house wine if it comes straight from a cask 4-litre container. If you still prefer overseas wines, the Marlborough region of New Zealand is usually well represented on wine lists and in bottle shops in Australia.

See also Grape grazing in Australia. Bundaberg Rum Bundy is an Australian dark rum particularly popular in Queensland and many Queenslanders will not touch any other brand of rum, while many other Australians will not touch Bundy. It is probably the most famous Australian made spirit, mass produced in Bundaberg and available everywhere. You will have to search much harder to find other Australian distilled spirits, mostly from niche players, but there are distilleries in every state of Australia if you look hard enough.

Drop into the Lark Distillery on the scenic Hobart waterfront precinct. Mixed drinks are also available, particularly vodka, scotch, bourbon and other whiskey mixers. Jim Beam bourbon is probably the most commonly drunk, so those from Kentucky should feel right at home. Spirits are also available as pre-mixed bottles and cans but are subject to higher taxation in this form, so it is cheaper to mix them yourself.

Spirits are served in all pubs and bars, but not in all restaurants. The legal drinking age throughout Australia is 18 years. It is illegal to purchase alcohol for yourself if you are under 18 years of age. It is illegal to purchase alcohol on behalf of someone who is under 18 years of age. The only legally acceptable proof-of-age is an Australian drivers licence, state-issued proof-of-age card or a passport, and it would be wise to carry one if you want to purchase alcohol or tobacco and look under It is illegal to go into a gambling area of a pub or club when under Often there is a lounge, restaurant or bistro area in a pub or club that permits under-age people provided they are accompanied by a responsible adult over 18 and don't approach the bar or wander around.

Some city pubs even have video games and playgrounds for children. Some country pubs have large open areas out in the back where kids can run and play. In general, you can take alcohol say a bottle of wine or beer to consume at a park or beach. However, in the state of Queensland public consumption of Alcohol is illegal. Alcohol consumption is banned in some public places as 'street drinking'.

These are often indicated by signs and is particularly the case in parks and footpaths where public drunkenness has been a problem. However, if you are a family with your picnic basket and blanket out at lunchtime with a bottle of wine, you are unlikely to encounter any problems. Alcohol can be purchased for consumption on premises only in licensed venues: You can purchase alcohol for private consumption in bottle shops , which are separate stores selling bottled alcohol.

In some but not all states you can buy alcohol in supermarkets. In those states where you can't, bottle shops and major supermarkets are often found in very close proximity.

Outside of these hours though, it is almost impossible to buy alcohol to take home; so if you're planning on a party at home, it's a good idea to stock up and check on the local trading hours so you don't run out at In the state of New South Wales, takeaway alcohol cannot be sold after 10pm. Alcohol is not available at petrol stations or hour convenience stores anywhere in Australia.

Public drunkenness varies in acceptability. You will certainly find a great deal of it in close proximity to pubs and clubs at night time but much less so during the day. Public drunkenness is an offence but you would only likely ever be picked up by the police if you were causing a nuisance. You may spend the night sobering up in a holding cell or be charged. Driving while affected by alcohol is both stigmatized and policed by random breath testing police patrols in Australia, as well as being inherently dangerous.

Drink driving is a very serious offence in Australia, punishable by a range of mechanisms including loss of license. The acceptable maximum blood alcohol concentration is 0. Police officers are also empowered to randomly test drivers for the recent use of prohibited drugs. The operation of a motor vehicle while under the influence of prohibited drugs or alcohol will always result in arrest and a required court appearance many weeks from the date of arrest and it can comprehensively disrupt travel plans.

Random breath testing is common early Saturday and Sunday mornings, and many people are caught the morning after. Buying a round of drinks is a custom in Australia, as in many corners of the world. It is generally expected in a pub that when you arrive and make your first trip to the bar that you will offer to buy a drink for others you are drinking with. This is what's known as a 'shout'. In entering a shout you are expected to take turns buying drinks for everyone in your shout when it is your turn.

It is considered poor etiquette to drink something much more expensive that what others in the shout are drinking. If you cannot keep pace during a shout you are still expected to buy a round of drinks when it is your turn and as such it is advisable to drink with people who pace themselves at a similar rate.

If someone from outside the shout offers to buy you a drink politely decline and let them know you are already in a shout. Likewise if someone buys you a drink don't be surprised if they expect one from you later on in the evening as it's now your shout. If you don't want to join a shout, or would like to drop out of one this can be awkward in some groups, however if you provide a viable reason such as having to drive or being on medication people will normally respect this explanation.

It is considered very poor etiquette to leave before your shout. If you are intending to study in Australia, you may need to be on a visa class that allows this, rather than a tourist visa. Students and academics invited to visit Australian universities will generally also need an appropriate visa, even if their visit is of a short enough period to be covered by a tourist electronic visa.

For extremely short term or part time courses, check with your Australian consulate or embassy. Australian students attend high school for six years, and enter university at seventeen or eighteen years of age.

In Australia, neither "school" nor "college" are used to refer to tertiary institutions; they are referred to only as "universities" - in fact, some primary and secondary educational institutions are referred to as 'colleges'. Australian undergraduate programs are usually three to four years in length.

A fifth year is compulsory in some professional undergraduate programs such as engineering, law, medicine and dentistry.

Students in three-year degree programs can take an optional fourth year known as honours if they want to proceed into a postgraduate research program, whereas students enrolled in four year programs can typically incorporate their honours thesis into their fourth year. All tuition at university level is in English , save for courses that specifically focus on other languages.

Students who have not previously earned a qualification in an English speaking program or passed high school English will have to take one of a number of English competency tests before being allowed to enrol. Postgraduate studies in Australia fall into two classes: Coursework degrees are generally at the Masters level. Research degrees are at the Masters and Doctoral level.

There are 42 Universities in Australia that all compete vigorously for overseas students. All have administrative departments and sections on their websites which describe the courses available to overseas students, and they will help you to apply and obtain accommodation and transport. Applications for university courses and the appropriate visa will need to be lodged before coming to Australia. Courses range from single year diplomas to full length undergraduate and post-graduate degrees.

There is a choice of the sandstone universities, with their history and prestige, modern city universities with their vocational programs, and regional country town universities, with open space and cheaper accommodation. Undergraduate admission to university is centralised at the state level.

You make a single application for admission to the state admissions body stating your course preferences. The universities select students from this common applicant pool based upon their ranking and preferences. Unless you are applying for a creative arts degree, your ranking will be based solely on previous academic performance at both high school and previous university studies.

Postgraduate admission is managed by individual universities and you will need to apply separately to each institution you are considering. The full fees payable by overseas students are competitive compared to many Western universities. Australian citizens have the option of substantially reduced fees and also have the option of deferring payment until they are earning income.

Other students will generally be required to pay full tuition on enrolment each semester. Scholarships are rarely awarded for undergraduate or postgraduate coursework degrees. A comparatively large number of scholarships are available for postgraduate research usually covering both tuition, where required, and living costs. These are awarded by individual universities. Accommodation is readily available in most Australian cities and tourist destinations.

It comes in a number of different styles. Camping is a popular pastime. Most caravan parks will rent camping sites by the night, where you can pitch a tent, and these are available in most towns and cities. The caravan park will provide showers and toilets, and sometimes washing and cooking facilities. Sometimes for an additional fee. You can even find caravan parks right on the beach, with lagoon swimming pools and playgrounds all free for guests.

National parks often provide free camping sites, which expect you to be more self-sufficient. Often toilets are provided and sometimes cold showers.

Camping permits are sometimes required at popular parks, with some popular spots filling up during the holidays in summer. In Australia it is common to be within an hours drive of a national park or recreation area that will permit some form of camping, even in the capital cities.

Wilsons Promontory National Park, Kosciuszko National Park, etc , however entry and camping is free in the majority of national parks further from population and tourist centres. Some other camping areas are run by government or even local landowners. You can try your luck sleeping on a beach or pitching a tent overnight in a highway rest area, or out in the bush for a free bed. Most rest areas and beaches prohibit camping and many even prohibit overnight parking to discourage this. Generally the closer you are to civilisation or a tourist area, the greater the chance of being hassled by the authorities.

Camping in state forests is often preferable to national parks if you're after a camping experience over sightseeing, as collecting of your own fire wood is allowed sometimes felling of trees is permissible dependent on the area and camping is not restricted to camp sites.

Some other activities that are generally allowed in state forests that are not allowed in national parks are: State forests are generally free to stay in, although you will need to check locally if public access is allowed. Facilities usually include a fully equipped kitchen with adequate refrigeration and food storage areas. Most hostels also have living room areas equipped with couches, dining tables, and televisions.

There are several backpacker hostel chains in Australia. If you are staying many nights in the same brand of hostel, consider their discount cards, which usually offer a loyalty bonus on accommodation, and other attraction and tour discounts negotiated by the chain. Some of these traditional hotels still offer some form of accommodation.

It can vary from very basic shabby rooms, to newly renovated boutique accommodation. The price is usually a good reflection of what you are in for. It is still quite unusual to have a private bathroom, even in the nicer hotels. Unlike motels, traditional hotels usually charge a discounted rate for single rooms. In some smaller towns this might be the only type of accommodation available, though it is also available in the centre of Sydney making getting back to your room after a beer a simple endeavour.

Many of the older pubs in country towns are housed in grande and ornate buildings on the main street of the town and can present a unique accommodation option. Inner city areas of Australian cities are dotted with many old pubs which will often be smaller and less interesting, and less likely to provide accommodation.

A motel won't generally have a public bar. Typically, motel-style accommodation will have a private room with a bed or number of beds, and a private shower and toilet.

Many motels have family rooms, that will usually have a double bed and two single beds in the one room. Usually the cost is the same for one or two adults, with any extra people charged an additional fee. During quiet times its not unusual for motels to offer standby discounts. Most motels will serve a cooked or continental breakfast to your room in the morning, for an additional charge.

Some may have a restaurant or serve an evening meal. Some may have a toaster in the room. All state capitals have at least one major hotel at 5 star standard, with several available in the major capitals. All hotels have a restaurant or bistro, depending on the type of hotel you are staying in. The restaurant or bistro often serves food that is comparable to many other up-market restaurants outside the hotel.

Also on the ground floor would normally be a fully equipped bar. Cabins are an economical way for families to stay while travelling. Much as the name suggests, this usually involves a cabin or homestead accommodation on a working property. Suited for a stay of two or more days, this accommodation usually allows you to get a little involved in the running of the farm if you wish. It is common for dinner to be provided in the homestead, and a breakfast pack to be provided to your cabin.

Holiday homes are homes rented by their owners, often using local real estate agents or specialised web sites. Sometimes they're located in prime positions, but more often in the suburbs of cities and towns. Minimum rental periods of at least 2 days usually apply, rising to a week during periods when they are busy.

At a minimum, they will have bedrooms, a lounge, bathroom and kitchen. Bed and Breakfasts tend to be a premium form of accommodation in Australia, often focussed on weekend accommodation for couples. They certainly don't offer the discount form of accommmodation they do in part of the United Kingdom , and the local motel will usually be cheaper. Sometimes extra rooms in a person's home, but often a purpose built building. You should expect a cosy, well kept room, a common area, and a cooked breakfast.

Substantial discounts often apply for mid-week stays at bed and breakfasts. There are many true resorts around Australia. Many have lagoon pools, tennis, golf, kids clubs, and other arranged activities. The island of the Whitsundays have a choice of resorts, some occupying entire islands. Port Douglas also has many resorts of a world standard.

Serviced apartments are widely available, for stays as short as one night. Amenities typically include kitchen, washer and dryer, and separate bedrooms.

Caravan parks exist in most towns and cities in Australia that will provide powered and unpowered sites for Caravans. You will commonly see the Grey Nomad brigade on their trips around Australia in motorhomes and caravans. The camper trailer has also become very popular in Australia.

It is perfect for the Australian camping lifestyle, whether it be weekends away or an extended trip into the great outdoors where no facilities exist. You will need to be self-sufficient and carry suitable spares and a good tool kit. In most parts of Australia it is illegal to sleep in your vehicle but it is possible to get around this by simply rigging up curtains all around the windows so no one can see in from the outside.

Add a mattress, pillow, portable gas cooker, cookware and a 20 lt water container and you are off. But if you are strategic in where you stay you probably won't get caught. Just be sensible and don't disturb the locals.

Also, be aware of parking restrictions in certain parts of the cities and town, including overnight parking restrictions. All cities and towns in Australia have free public toilets.

Many parks, and most beaches have free electric BBQ's as well. Popular beaches have fresh water showers to wash the salt water off after you swim, so for those on a tight budget or for those that just love waking up at the beach simply wash in the ocean please do not pollute the ocean or waterways by using detergents or soaps and rinse off at the showers.

Almost all taps in Australia are drinking water, the ones that aren't will be marked. Some of the best experiences you may have in Australia will be by taking that road on the map that looks like it heads to a beach, creek, waterfall or mountain and following it. You may just find paradise and not another soul in sight. And lucky you, you've got a bed, food and water right there with you. Travelling in a small group lowers the fuel bill per head, as this will likely be your biggest expense.

Australian citizens, New Zealand citizens and permanent residents of Australia can work in Australia without any further permits, but others will require a work visa. All visitors who do not hold Australian permanent residency or citizenship including New Zealand citizens who aren't also Australian permanent residents or citizens are not allowed to access Australian social security arrangements for the unemployed, and will have limited, or more usually, no access to the Australian government's health care payment arrangements.

Minimum wage rates are under the jurisdiction of the federal government; there are other minimum wages depending on your job, years of experience, how much education you have, how long you've been done with your education and your previous job history, so this minimum wage can fluctuate a vast amount.

Most Australian employers pay via direct deposit to Australian bank accounts. Open a bank account as soon as you arrive. Your passport will not be enough ID to open a bank account. You will need to show the bank teller points of ID [22].

You can apply for it online though, only in Australia for free at the Australian Tax Office website [23] , though you can generally get it quicker if you just go to one of their offices. The Australian financial year runs from July 1 to June 30, and tax returns for each financial year are due on October 30, four months after the accounting period concludes. Check with Australian tax agents about Australian tax liability and filing an Australian tax return.

Australian employers will make compulsory payments out of your earnings to an Australian superannuation retirement savings fund on your behalf.

Temporary visitors who are not citizens of either Australia or New Zealand can have this money returned to them [24] when they leave Australia. Australia has a working holidaymaker program for yr old citizens of certain countries. It allows a stay in Australia for 12 months from the time of first entry. You may work during that time, but only for 6 months at any one employer. The idea is for you to take a holiday subsidised by casual or short-term jobs. If you're interested in a working holiday, some useful skills and experience might be: An alternative is seasonal work like fruit-picking, although much seasonal work will require that you work outside the major cities.

Working for 3 months in seasonal work will allow you to apply for a second 12 month visa. You can apply online for a working holiday visa , but you must not be in Australia at the time. On arriving in Australia ask for the working holiday visa to be "evidenced", so you can show your future employer. The easiest way to get a work visa is to find an Australian employer who will sponsor you.

However, this is just 'easier', not 'easy' as such. Your employer will need to demonstrate that they cannot hire anyone with your skills in Australia, and the approval will take several months. If in search of sponsorship, be prepared for a long wait. Note that getting the visa might take a couple of months from the beginning of the application process, and that you will need a medical examination by a doctor approved by the immigration officials before it can be granted among other things, you will need a chest x-ray to show that you do not have tuberculosis.

You can apply to immigrate as a skilled person or business person, but this process will take longer than receiving a work visa.

You can also apply for permanent residency as the holder of a work or study visa, but your application will not be automatically accepted. After four years of permanent residency you are eligible to apply for Australian citizenship.

There are several volunteer opportunities in Australia. Unless you are actively trying to insult someone, a traveller is unlikely to insult or cause offence to an Australian through any kind of cultural ignorance. Australian modes of address tend towards the familiar. It is acceptable and normal to use first names in all situations, even to authority figures or people many years your senior.

Australia is a nation that prides itself on witty and imaginative nicknames and thus fond of using and giving nicknames - even to recent acquaintances.

It is likely being called such a name is an indication that you are considered a friend and is it would be rare they are being condescending. While attitudes towards alcohol in Australia have moderated in recent years, there is still much goodwill in venturing and accepting the sharing of a drink mainly beer amongst newly made acquaintances. In rural locations especially, refusing the offer of a quiet drink is still something that is capable of causing offence.

Within the bounds of health, safety and culture, one should try and accommodate this custom, even if you only partake of a glass of lemonade. It is generally acceptable to wear revealing clothing in Australia. Bikinis and swimming attire is okay on the beach, and usually at the kiosk across the road from the beach. It is normal to wear at least a shirt and footwear before venturing any further.

Most beaches are effectively top optional topless while sunbathing. Just about all women wear a top while walking around or in the water.

There are some clothing optional nude beaches, usually a little further removed from residential areas. Thong bikinis more commonly called g-string bikinis in Australia as thongs refer to flip-flop footwear are fine on all beaches and some outdoor pools for both women and men although they are not as common as conventional beachwear.

Some outdoor pools have a "top required" policy for women. Cover up a little more when visiting places of worship such as churches.

In warm conditions casual "t-shirt and shorts" style clothing predominates except in formal situations. Business attire, however, is considered to be long sleeved shirt, tie, and long trousers for men, even in the hottest weather.

In the northern part of the country, a short sleeved, open neck shirt with slacks, known as 'Darwin Rig', is acceptable. Using Australian stereotypical expressions may be viewed as an attempt to mock, rather than to communicate.

If you pull it off well, you might raise a smile. Australians are often self-deprecating, and are rarely arrogant. However, it is rude to ever agree with a self-deprecating remark.

Boasting about achievements is rarely received well. Most Australians are happy to help out a lost traveller with directions, however many urban dwellers will assume that someone asking "Excuse me", is going to be asking for money, and may brush past. Looking lost, holding a map, looking like a backpacker or getting to the point quickly will probably help. Profanities may not hold the same offensive value as they do in other English-speaking countries.

It is best not to mention the name of a deceased person to an indigenous Australian. Though Aboriginal custom varies, it is best to avoid the possibility of offence.

Permission to photograph an Aboriginal person should always be asked, but in particular in the more remote areas such as Arnhem Land. There is an old belief among them that having their photograph taken will steal their soul. Many areas of Aboriginal land are free to enter. Some areas carry a request from the Aboriginal people not to enter, and you may choose yourself whether or not to honour or respect that request.

An example of an Aboriginal request is climbing Uluru Ayers Rock. No law prohibits people from climbing the rock except in heat, rain or strong winds , however, local indigenous communities The Anangu request that you do not climb. Uluru holds great spiritual significance to the Anangu. The Anangu feel themselves responsible if someone is killed or injured on their land as has happened many times during the climb and request tourists not to place themselves in harm through climbing.

Many people who travel to Uluru do climb, however, so you certainly won't be on your own if you choose to do this. Some Aboriginal land requires permission or a permit, and some areas are protected and illegal to enter. You should check before making plans to travel off the beaten track. Permits are usually just a formality for areas which regularly see visitors, or if you have some other business in the area you are travelling through.

Often they are just an agreement to respect to the land you are travelling on as Aboriginal land. Some Aboriginal Land Councils make them available online. If you need to refer to race, the politically correct term is Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal people is usually okay and referring to sacred sites and land as Aboriginal sites, or Aboriginal land is okay too.

Avoid using Aborigine or Aboriginal as a noun to describe a person, as some people see negative connotations in these words. The contraction "Abo" is deeply offensive and should never be used.

The word Native should also be avoided when referring to a person, as should colour-based terminology such as Black or White the polite term for Australians of British or Irish descent is Anglo-Celtic. The number called 'triple zero' or 'triple oh' can be dialled from any telephone in Australia free of charge. This number will connect you with emergency operators for the police, fire brigade, and ambulance service. The first question that the operator will ask is which service you need.

If you require assistance during a flood, storm, cyclone, tsunami, earthquake or other natural disaster you can contact the State Emergency Service in each state except for Northern Territory on You will be connected with your local unit and help can be organised from there. Note that if the emergency is life-threatening, call triple zero. If you want to contact these services but the situation is not an emergency, don't call Poisons information advice, which can also advise on snake, spider and insect bites, is available on

are

State Abbreviations The U. States in the Midwest and the West The U. States in the South and the Northeast The U. State Capitals The Contiguous U. Major Cities The U. Cities in the Midwest The U. Cities in the Northeast The U. Cities in the South The U. Cities in the West The U. Cities difficult version Canada: Provinces and territories The Caribbean: South America South America: Capitals difficult version Europe: Bodies of Water Europe: Mountains and Volcanos World: Oceans, Seas and Lakes World: As a result, travel between major cities will not only be faster by air, but often cheaper as well.

Train travel between cities is, however, more scenic, and tourists are likely to see more of Australia travelling by train than they would otherwise see, as well as cutting down on their carbon footprint.

It is also often a cost effective way of getting to regional towns and cities, which don't have the frequent and cheap flights found between the capital cities. The long-distance rail services that do exist are mainly used to link regional townships with the state capital, such as Bendigo to Melbourne, or Cairns to Brisbane. There are also inter-city train services operated by Great Southern Railways on the routes Melbourne- Adelaide The Overland , Sydney-Adelaide- Perth Indian Pacific , Adelaide-Alice Springs-Darwin The Ghan however as noted above, these are not "high speed" services, so if you do not enjoy train travel as part of your holiday in its own right then this is probably not for you.

Tasmania has no passenger rail services. The Northern Territory has the rail line linking Darwin to Adelaide through Alice Springs only, and the Australian Capital Territory has only a single railway station close to the centre of Canberra.

There is no pass that includes all train travel throughout Australia. However, if you are a train buff that intends travelling extensively by rail, there are some passes that may save you money.

Plan your trip carefully before investing in a rail pass. Country train services are infrequent and can arrive at regional destinations at unsociable hours. Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, Adelaide, Wollongong and Newcastle have train and bus services integrated into the city public transport, with trams also running in Sydney, Melbourne, Adelaide and the Gold Coast and ferries in Sydney, Brisbane, Perth and Newcastle.

The remaining capital cities have bus services only. See those city guides articles for public transport details. Sydney has a subway system known as Sydney Metro that is currently under construction. Some regional cities and towns have local bus services, but see the destination guides for service information, as frequency can be poor and weekend and evening services non-existent. Some trains allow you to carry your car with you on special car carriages attached to the back of the train.

You cannot remove your car at any of the intermediate stations. Bus travel in Australia is cheap and convenient, although the distances involved can be daunting.

Greyhound has the largest bus route network. Many major Australian cities have ferries as part of their public transport system. Some smaller roads in the regional areas still have punts to carry cars across rivers and canals. The islands of the Barrier Reef have some scheduled services, and there are a few cruises that cross the top of Australia as well. It is legal to hitchhike in some states in Australia, so long as certain guidelines are followed. However, it is less commonly done than in neighbouring New Zealand.

In Australia hitchhiking is often frowned upon by locals and police, especially in metropolitan areas. Hitch hiking is illegal in Victoria and Queensland. It is also illegal to stand on the verge or walk along freeways often called "motorways" in New South Wales in all states effectively making hitchhiking illegal in many practical places, in all states.

If forced to hitchhike due to an emergency you may find a motorist willing to take you to the nearest town to obtain help. Some major inter-city highways and freeways have telephones to request help. It's most common to see a tourist hitching in rural areas. The best time to hitchhike is early morning. The best location is near, but not on, the main exit from the town you are in.

Cycling the long distances between towns is not particularly common, and most long distance highways in Australia have poorly developed facilities for cyclists. Nevertheless some intrepid travellers do manage to cover the longer distances by bicycle, and have a different experience of Australia. Trips and routes need careful planning to ensure the correct supplies are carried.

To cycle between Sydney and Brisbane you would have to allow weeks with around km per day. There is much to see in Australia that you can't see easily in its natural setting anywhere else:. Australian flora and fauna is unique to the island, the result of having been isolated from the rest of the world for millions of years. Amongst Australian animals are a large group of marsupials mammals with a pouch and monotremes mammals that lay eggs.

Just some of the animal icons of Australia are the kangaroo national symbol and the koala. A visit to Australia would not be complete without taking the chance to see some of these animals in their natural environment. Australia has many landmarks, famous the world over. See some of the Big things in Australia.

Sport is an integral part of the Australian culture from the capital cities to country towns. The majority of games are played over the weekend period from Friday night to Monday night. It has been said that if there are two flies crawling up a wall, then you just need to look around to find the Aussie who will be running a book.

Gambling is illegal for under's. This can often restrict entry to parts of pubs, clubs, and casinos for children. Expect everyone you interact with in Australia to be able to speak English, whether it is their first language or not.

Locals and more recent arrivals of all ages and backgrounds are expected to and usually do speak at least basic English, as well as the majority of tourists. As Australia is a multicultural society, you will notice the presence of many other languages and accents.

Australians who were born in Australia or immigrated as children will speak English with the Australian accent. Australians who immigrated to Australia as adults generally will not have the Australian accent.

The Australian accent has very little if not any geographic variation; although Australians sometimes have their own theories about geographical accents; for example Adelaide, Melbourne and North Queensland "accents". In reality however, the Broad, General and Cultivated Australian accents which linguists accept all exist, can be found anywhere in Australia. Anywhere in the country you will find some people speak slower with broader accents and use more slang; often associated with regional areas, whilst many more Australians will have the General Australian accent; often associated with major urban areas, or the less common Cultivated accent: Australia is traditionally a land of immigrants, plus there are many people from all over the world working or studying in Australia, plus many tourists from overaeas.

Because of this, Australians are very used to speaking with others whos first language is not English or who are not used to hearing the Australian accent.

They will speak slower and clearer with you and avoid any local vocabulary. It is also worth noting many Australians of non-English speaking family backgrounds will generally always prefer to speak English with people outside their family.

Even if they speak your language fluently at home or grew up with that language inside their home they will often pretend they cannot speak it with a visitor from that country. Australian slang should not present a problem for tourists except possibly in some isolated outback areas.

A few words and euphemisms that are considered offensive elsewhere are common vernacular in Australian speech. Fanny, as in the UK, means vagina and is not used widely. The word "thong" generally refers to flip-flops in Australia, and not necessarily a G-string as it does in most other places.

Still, Australians are familiar enough with the differences to know what you mean, but they may still have a laugh at your expense. Visitors who do not speak basic English will find communicating with Australians difficult, and should do some advance planning. There are some tour companies who specialise in offering package deals for Australian tours complete with guides who speak particular languages. There are over a hundred Aboriginal languages still known and spoken by Aboriginal people.

These languages are all different, and you won't see an Aboriginal phrasebook in the travel bookshops. Many Aboriginal place names derive from Aboriginal languages that have been lost, and their meanings remain uncertain. Aboriginal people living in rural Aboriginal communities continue to speak their respective languages.

The Torres Strait Islander people, who originate from a group of islands in northern Queensland near Papua New Guinea also continue to speak their own languages.

Almost all Aboriginal people speak English as well, although some elders may not be fluent. When interpreters are present for public events, they will use Auslan. Users of BSL or NZSL may be able to understand Auslan; the languages share a significant amount of vocabulary and syntax, plus the same two-handed manual alphabet. Much of the vocabulary and syntax are different, and those languages use a one-handed manual alphabet.

There are cents in every dollar. No other currency is officially accepted for transactions in Australia. Although it was not unusual to find some of the older New Zealand coins in your change from time to time, it is now practically unheard of since New Zealand completely overhauled and resized its coinage.

It no longer matches the size of Australian coins. The Australian coins are large and heavy relative to their value. For example, the Australian ten cent coin is the size of a US 25 cent coin and the Australian fifty cent coin is among the largest circulating coins anywhere in the world by size. Australian notes are produced in plastic polymer rather than paper.

If the total of a transaction is not a multiple of 5 cents the amount will be rounded to the nearest five cents if you are paying in cash.

The exact amount will be charged if paying by card. Old paper notes or bronze 1c and 2c coins will be exchanged at a bank but will be difficult at shops. The dollar is not pegged to any other currency, and is highly traded on world foreign exchange markets, particularly by currency speculators.

Money changers in Australia operate in a free market, and charge a range of flat commissions, percentage fees, undisclosed fees built into the exchange rate, and a combination of all three. Generally the best bet is to avoid airports and tourist centres when changing money, and use banks in major centres. Expect fees to vary considerably between institutions. Always get a quote before changing money. Australian ATMs are deregulated and may impose a surcharge over what is charged by your bank or card issuer.

The ATM will display the charges and you will have the option to stop the transaction before you are charged. Check with your bank as to what additional fees they apply to withdrawals in Australia. Dedicated currency exchange outlets are widely available in major cities, and banks can also exchange most non-restricted currencies. Australian banks usually offer an exchange rate around 2.

Some outlets advertise commission free exchange, usually accompanied by a worse rate of exchange. Don't assume every bank will offer the same exchange. A simple calculation will let you know what offers the best deal for amount you wish to exchange. There are vouchers for commission free exchange at American Express available in the tourist brochure at Sydney Airport.

Credit cards are widely accepted in Australia. Almost all large vendors such as supermarkets accept cards, as do many, but not all, small stores.

Any card showing the Cirrus or Maestro logos can be used at any terminal displaying those logos. American Express and Diners Club are accepted at major supermarket and department store chains and many tourist destinations.

JCB is only accepted at very limited tourist destinations. Discover is never accepted for internet-based payments, but if your card also carries the Diners Club logo, it will work at any physical store that accepts Diners Club. The big advantage here is you can bring Australian cash acquired at home through proper exchange channels and turn it into plastic with no exchange fees and minimal service charges without need for exchanging currency at the airport or carrying large amounts of cash everywhere.

Excellent for security and you can get two cards with different numbers drawing from the same loaded money, allowing any two people to share a card on the same account. Other prepaid Australian dollar stored value cards bearing MasterCard or Visa emblems are available at larger post offices or grocery stores. Read terms and conditions closely, some can refund unused balances but only to an Australian bank account. Others you just have to spend it all in Australia or abroad.

Be careful using these cards for car hire. Agencies generally accept only cards with raised print for car hires and the name of the renter on it prepaids do not have this. Even if you hire the car with a foreign card but settle the bill on return with a prepaid they often will not accept it, even with the other card as a backup.

You will have to settle using the foreign card most of the time. Sometimes they don't pay attention and you get away with it but don't plan on it. Credit card surcharges are imposed at all car rental agencies, travel agents, airlines, and at some discount retailers and service stations.

Bottled water isn't much cheaper. You can make yourself feel better about it by buying brands that are not available in foreign countries, such as the delicious Kirk's Dry Ginger Ale. Some American brands are not available.

A train trip on the state run trains will usually cost slightly less. A bus trip, a little less again. A train trip on the private trains will be the most expensive way to travel.

There is usually no admission charge to beaches or city parks. Art Galleries and some attractions are free. Because of Australia's high wages and taxes compared to other countries such the USA, you will find prices of things involving service such as restaurants especially high by comparison.

A rule of thumb is the restaurants will cost close to double what you would expect of the same thing in the USA, and that holds for beverages also. Bargaining is uncommon in Australian stores, though vendors are usually willing to meet or beat a quote or advertised price from a competing retailer. It's also worth asking for a "best price" for high-value goods or purchases involving several items.

The person you are dealing with may have limited authority to sell items at anything other than the marked price. Tipping is never compulsory and is usually not expected in Australia. Staff are seen to be paid an appropriate wage and will certainly not chase you down for a tip. It is acceptable to pay the amount stated on the bill. When Australians do tip, it will often be in the form of leaving the change from a cash payment usually as a convenience so the change does not hang around loose on someone's person - not as a gratuity , rather than a fixed percentage.

In a cafe or more informal restaurant, even with table service, and even in tourist centres, leaving a tip is unusual. Sometimes there is a coin jar by the cashier labelled 'Tips', but more often than not, diners do not leave one. Tipping is also not expected in taxis, and drivers will typically return your change to the last 5 cents, unless you indicate that they should round the fare to the nearest dollar it is not unusual for passengers to instruct the driver to round up to the next whole dollar.

Shops usually have a single night of late night trading, staying open until 9PM on Fridays in most cities and on Thursdays in Brisbane and Sydney.

Sunday trading is common but does not exist in all rural areas. Opening hours beyond these base hours vary by the type of store, by location, and by state. See the guides for more local information. Major supermarket chains such as Coles and Woolworths and department stores like K-Mart and Target in main centres are generally open at least until 9pm.

Fast Food restaurant chains are commonly open 24 hours or at least very late. Even in cities with populations exceeding 50, finding a 24 hour petrol station can be difficult, or at least should not be assumed to be easily found.

Make sure to locate one in advance if you have an early morning flight with a rental car to return. Australia's weekend is on Saturday and Sunday of each week. Retail trading is now almost universal in larger cities on weekends, although with slightly reduced hours. Again, Western Australia is an exception with restrictions on large stores opening on Sundays.

In smaller country towns shops are closed on Sundays and often also on Saturday afternoons. Tourist-oriented towns and shops may stay open longer hours. Tourist areas within cities, such as Darling Harbour in Sydney has longer trading hours every night. Australian banks are open Monday-Friday Cash is available through Automatic Teller Machines ATM 24 hours, and currency exchange outlets have extended hours and are open on weekends.

Australia has a sales tax known as the Goods and Services Tax or GST that applies to all goods and services except unprocessed foods, education and medical services. GST is always included in the price of any item you purchase rather than being added at the time of payment. Receipts tax invoices will contain the GST amount, which is one eleventh of the total value of taxable supplies.

Pack the items in hand luggage, and present the item s and the receipt at the TRS, after immigration and security when leaving Australia. Also allow an extra 15 minutes before departure.

The refund payment can be made by either cheque, credit to an Australian bank account, or payment to a credit card. There is no refund available for services. You also cannot get a refund if you are too close to your flight departure time. A flight departure screen assists agents and they will refuse your transaction if your flight is on it. Check for current regulations about buffer time for flights if you want a GST refund.

Vegemite , a salty yeast-based spread, best spread thinly on toast. If you aren't up for buying a jar, any coffee shop will serve vegemite on toast at breakfast time. It may not even be on the menu, but the vegemite will be out the back in the jar next to the marmalade. If you do buy a jar, the secret is it to spread it very thin, and don't forget the butter as well. It tastes similar to Marmite or Cenovis. Australians are quite used to the taste, and may spread the Vegemite very thick; but this is not recommended for first-timers.

The Tim-Tam , is a popular chocolate fudge-filled sandwich of two chocolate biscuits, all dipped in chocolate. You can buy a packet or two from any supermarket or convenience store. Tim-Tams are required to perform the Tim-Tam Slam manoeuvre. This requires biting off both ends of the Tim-Tam, then using it as a straw to drink your favourite hot beverage, typically coffee.

The hot drink melts the fudge centre and creates an experience hard to describe. Finesse is needed to suck the whole biscuit into your mouth in the microseconds between being fully saturated and dissolving. Although performed by some Australians, the manoeuvre is rarely performed and the Tim-Tam is generally eaten by itself. During summer, Tim-Tams are often stored in the freezer, and eaten ice cold. The lamington is a cube of sponge cake covered in chocolate icing and dipped in desiccated coconut.

It's named after Lord Lamington, who served as Governor of Queensland from to The home-baked form can be found at a local Saturday morning market, or you can buy one from a bakery if you are desperate. Avoid at all costs the plastic wrapped varieties sold in supermarkets. The pavlova is a meringue cake with a cream topping usually decorated with fresh fruit. Served on special occasions, or after a lunchtime barbecue. Often the source of dispute with New Zealand over the original source of the recipe.

ANZAC biscuits are a mix of coconut, oats, flour, sugar and golden syrup. They were reputedly sent by wives and care organisations to world war soldiers in care packages, but the story is likely apocryphal. Damper is a traditional soda bread that was baked by drovers and stockmen. It has basic ingredients flour, water and perhaps salt and usually cooked in the embers of a fire.

It is not routinely available in bakeries and only commonly served to tourists on organised tours. Best eaten with butter and jam or golden syrup as it is dry and bland.

A pie floater is a South Australian dish available around Adelaide. It is a pie inverted in a bowl of thick mushy pea soup. Similar pie variations are sometimes available in other regions. A Chiko roll is a deep-fried snack inspired by the egg roll or the spring roll.

Despite the name, it contains no chicken. Its filling is boned mutton, vegetables, rice, barley, and seasonings. Its shell is thicker than an egg roll, meant to survive handling at football matches. Available anywhere you can buy fish and chips.

Cuisines widely available in Australia, often prepared by members of the relevant culture, include:. Eating vegetarian is quite common in Australia and many restaurants offer at least one or two vegetarian dishes. Some will have an entire vegetarian menu section. Vegans may have more difficulty but any restaurant with a large vegetarian menu should offer some flexibility.

In large cities you will find a number of vegetarian and vegan restaurants, as well as in the coastal backpacker-friendly towns along the east coast. The market town of Kuranda or the seaside towns of Byron Bay are a vegetarian's paradise. In other regional areas vegetarians are often poorly catered for, but most towns will have a Chinese restaurant that will provide steamed rice and vegetables. Sydney and Melbourne in particular cater well for vegans and vegetarians with a large number of purely vegetarian restaurants, vegan clothing stores and vegan supermarkets.

People observing halal diets will easily be able to find specialist butchers in the capital cities, and will also find a number of restaurants with appropriate menus and cooking styles.

People observing kosher diets can easily find kosher food in suburbs in Sydney and Melbourne that have a high amount of Jews eg. Caulfield in Melbourne, Bondi in Sydney. In other cities it is very hard to find kosher food, and the little kosher food there is, is usually imported from Melbourne or Sydney, so it is very overpriced. Outside the capital cities, it will be much more difficult to find food prepared in a strict religious manner.

All of the capital cities and many regional towns in Australia host a "farmer's market", which is generally held each week in a designated area on a Saturday or Sunday. These markets mostly sell fresh fruits and vegetables, as hygiene standards in Australia forbid the selling of meat directly from market stalls. Butchers who set up shop at a farmer's market would usually trade their wares from a display cabinet within their truck. The attraction of markets is the lower prices and freshness of the produce.

The attraction for the traveller will be the cheap and excellent fruits on offer - depending on the region and season. In regional areas the market is usually held outside the town itself in an empty paddock or sports field, markets in capital cities are easier to reach but the prices are typically more in line with those you would find in supermarkets.

See the destination guides for details. Drinking beer is ingrained in Australian culture. Although Fosters is promoted as an Australian beer overseas, it is rarely consumed by Australians in Australia, and is almost impossible to find. Beers are strongly regional and every state has its own brews: There are also local microbrew choices, which can be harder to find, but are often worth seeking out.

A wide range of imported European and American bottled beers are available in all but the most basic pub. Light Lite beer refers to lower alcoholic content, and not lower calories. It has around half the alcohol of full strength beer, and is taxed at a lower rate, meaning it is also cheaper than full strength beer.

Because Australians like their beer to stay cold while they drink it, draft beer glasses come in a multitude of sizes, so that you can drink a whole glass before it warms up in the summer heat. The naming of beer glasses varies widely from state to state, often in confusing ways: The local beers and the local descriptions are covered in detail in the state guides.

Bottle naming is a little easier: Cans of beer are known as tinnies and 24 of them make up a slab , box , carton , or a case. Australia produces quality wine on a truly industrial scale, with large multinational brands supplying Australian bottleshops and exporting around the world.

There are also a multitude of boutique wineries and smaller suppliers. The areas of the Barossa Valley , Hunter Valley , McLaren Vale , Clare Valley and Margaret River are particularly renowned for their wineries and opportunities for cellar door sampling, but northern Victoria and Mudgee , also have a large variety. You are never too far from a wine trail anywhere in southern Australia.

Try the local wines wherever you can find them, and ask for local recommendations. Try not to get taken in by the label, or the price tag. The best wine is rarely the one with the best artwork, or the most expensive price. However, it is probably wise to avoid the house wine if it comes straight from a cask 4-litre container.

If you still prefer overseas wines, the Marlborough region of New Zealand is usually well represented on wine lists and in bottle shops in Australia. See also Grape grazing in Australia. Bundaberg Rum Bundy is an Australian dark rum particularly popular in Queensland and many Queenslanders will not touch any other brand of rum, while many other Australians will not touch Bundy. It is probably the most famous Australian made spirit, mass produced in Bundaberg and available everywhere.

You will have to search much harder to find other Australian distilled spirits, mostly from niche players, but there are distilleries in every state of Australia if you look hard enough. Drop into the Lark Distillery on the scenic Hobart waterfront precinct. Mixed drinks are also available, particularly vodka, scotch, bourbon and other whiskey mixers. Jim Beam bourbon is probably the most commonly drunk, so those from Kentucky should feel right at home. Spirits are also available as pre-mixed bottles and cans but are subject to higher taxation in this form, so it is cheaper to mix them yourself.

Spirits are served in all pubs and bars, but not in all restaurants. The legal drinking age throughout Australia is 18 years. It is illegal to purchase alcohol for yourself if you are under 18 years of age. It is illegal to purchase alcohol on behalf of someone who is under 18 years of age.

The only legally acceptable proof-of-age is an Australian drivers licence, state-issued proof-of-age card or a passport, and it would be wise to carry one if you want to purchase alcohol or tobacco and look under It is illegal to go into a gambling area of a pub or club when under Often there is a lounge, restaurant or bistro area in a pub or club that permits under-age people provided they are accompanied by a responsible adult over 18 and don't approach the bar or wander around.

Some city pubs even have video games and playgrounds for children. Some country pubs have large open areas out in the back where kids can run and play. In general, you can take alcohol say a bottle of wine or beer to consume at a park or beach.

However, in the state of Queensland public consumption of Alcohol is illegal. Alcohol consumption is banned in some public places as 'street drinking'.

These are often indicated by signs and is particularly the case in parks and footpaths where public drunkenness has been a problem. However, if you are a family with your picnic basket and blanket out at lunchtime with a bottle of wine, you are unlikely to encounter any problems.

Alcohol can be purchased for consumption on premises only in licensed venues: You can purchase alcohol for private consumption in bottle shops , which are separate stores selling bottled alcohol.

In some but not all states you can buy alcohol in supermarkets. In those states where you can't, bottle shops and major supermarkets are often found in very close proximity. Outside of these hours though, it is almost impossible to buy alcohol to take home; so if you're planning on a party at home, it's a good idea to stock up and check on the local trading hours so you don't run out at In the state of New South Wales, takeaway alcohol cannot be sold after 10pm.

Alcohol is not available at petrol stations or hour convenience stores anywhere in Australia. Public drunkenness varies in acceptability. You will certainly find a great deal of it in close proximity to pubs and clubs at night time but much less so during the day.

Public drunkenness is an offence but you would only likely ever be picked up by the police if you were causing a nuisance. You may spend the night sobering up in a holding cell or be charged. Driving while affected by alcohol is both stigmatized and policed by random breath testing police patrols in Australia, as well as being inherently dangerous. Drink driving is a very serious offence in Australia, punishable by a range of mechanisms including loss of license.

The acceptable maximum blood alcohol concentration is 0. Police officers are also empowered to randomly test drivers for the recent use of prohibited drugs.

The operation of a motor vehicle while under the influence of prohibited drugs or alcohol will always result in arrest and a required court appearance many weeks from the date of arrest and it can comprehensively disrupt travel plans. Random breath testing is common early Saturday and Sunday mornings, and many people are caught the morning after.

Buying a round of drinks is a custom in Australia, as in many corners of the world. It is generally expected in a pub that when you arrive and make your first trip to the bar that you will offer to buy a drink for others you are drinking with. This is what's known as a 'shout'. In entering a shout you are expected to take turns buying drinks for everyone in your shout when it is your turn. It is considered poor etiquette to drink something much more expensive that what others in the shout are drinking.

If you cannot keep pace during a shout you are still expected to buy a round of drinks when it is your turn and as such it is advisable to drink with people who pace themselves at a similar rate. If someone from outside the shout offers to buy you a drink politely decline and let them know you are already in a shout. Likewise if someone buys you a drink don't be surprised if they expect one from you later on in the evening as it's now your shout.

If you don't want to join a shout, or would like to drop out of one this can be awkward in some groups, however if you provide a viable reason such as having to drive or being on medication people will normally respect this explanation. It is considered very poor etiquette to leave before your shout.

If you are intending to study in Australia, you may need to be on a visa class that allows this, rather than a tourist visa. Students and academics invited to visit Australian universities will generally also need an appropriate visa, even if their visit is of a short enough period to be covered by a tourist electronic visa.

For extremely short term or part time courses, check with your Australian consulate or embassy. The tips box and the important notes box are both draggable, should you need to move them. This feature allows you to save a quiz as a favorite like a bookmark. To use this feature, you must be signed in and: Customizing a quiz allows you to include only the locations you choose. Customizing this quiz, however, is a premium feature. Learn more about creating a custom quiz.

Anyone with a free account can customize this quiz. Sign in or create an account to customize this quiz. It is not a continent. For information on what constitutes the continent of Australia, you may want to read this Wikipedia article: Wondering what happened to the longer list of questions which included American Samoa, the Cook Islands, French Polynesia, etc?

these are eggshell-craniumed

The Swan River Colony was formally established in at what is today Perth. While Australia began its modern history as a British penal colony, the vast majority of people who came to Australia after were free settlers, mainly from Britain and Ireland , but also from other European countries.

Convict settlements were mostly along the east coast, with scattered pockets of convict settlements in Western Australia. The state of South Australia was settled entirely by free settlers. Many Asian and Eastern European people also came to Australia in the s, during the Gold Rush that started Australia's first resource boom. Although such diverse immigration diminished greatly during the xenophobic years of the White Australia policy, Australia welcomed a successive series of immigrants from Europe, the Mediterranean and later Asia to form a highly diverse and multicultural society by the late 20th century.

The system of separate colonies federated to form the self-governing British dominion of Australia in , each colony became a state of Australia, with New Zealand opting out of the federation. The new country rapidly developed its natural resources including agricultural and manufacturing industries. This development resulted in a large contribution in relation to size of the population to the Allied war effort in World Wars I and II. Australian troops made a valuable, and sometimes controversial, contribution to the wars in Korea, Vietnam and Iraq.

Australian Diggers retain a reputation as some of the hardest fighting troops along with a great social spirit. Australia and Britain passed the Australia Act in , ending the official power that the British parliament may have had to pass laws for Australia, and ended appeals by Australia to British courts. While the parliament lost that power, the Queen of Australia and her appointees retained full rights to exercise all power.

Australia has a prosperous Western-style capitalist economy, with a per capita GDP on par with the four dominant West European economies and that has been remarkably resilient to the recent worldwide economic downturn.

The primary industries - mining and agriculture - account for most of Australia's exports. Iron ore and coal are by far the largest exports, with wheat, beef and wool declining in importance. Australia has a comprehensive social security system, and a minimum wage higher than the United States or the United Kingdom. Australia has a federal system of government, with eight state and territory governments and a national government.

Each of these governments has an elected parliament, with the leader of each government, known as the Premier, being the leader of the largest party represented in the lower house. The national parliament is based on the British "Westminster system", with some elements being drawn from the American congressional system. At the federal level it consists of a Senate and a House of Representatives. Each Member of the House of Representatives colloquially known as a Member of Parliament MP represents an electoral division, with more populous states having more electoral divisions and hence, more MP's.

Similar to the US Senate, each Australian state has an equal number of senators, with 12 senators being directly elected by the people in each state, and 2 senators each from the Northern Territory and Australian Capital Territory. The political party or coalition of parties which has the most members in the House of Representatives becomes the governing party and forms the national government.

Ministers are drawn from both the House of Representatives and the Senate, though by convention, the Prime Minister comes from the House of Representatives. The current Prime Minister, Malcolm Turnbull, is the current leader of the national government and the Liberal-National Coalition which holds a majority in the House of Representatives. The Queen remains the head of state, and her representative in Australia - the Governor-General - according to conventional wisdom and lampoon - has a ceremonial and politically powerless role while holding the ultimate power to dismiss the Prime Minister.

In practice, the Prime Minister is believed to wield the most authority in government. A referendum to change Australia's status to a republic was defeated in , but the issue remains a regularly debated topic.

Emerging in power is the social democratic Greens Party, which maintains an environmentalist policy platform and is effectively a partner of the ALP. It should be noted that the Liberal Party is traditionally a centre-right, conservative party - the term liberal refers to maintaining a free market economy. Australia has a multicultural population practising almost every religion and lifestyle. Over one-quarter of Australians were born outside Australia, and another quarter have at least one foreign-born parent.

Melbourne, Brisbane and Sydney are centers of the multicultural. All three cities are renowned for the variety and quality of global arts, intellectual endeavors, and cuisine available in their many restaurants.

Sydney is a hub of art, culture, and history containing the world class architectural gem, the Sydney Harbour Bridge.

Melbourne especially promotes itself as a centre for the arts, while Brisbane promotes itself through various multicultural urban villages. Adelaide must be mentioned in addition, as it is known for being a centre for festivals as well as Germanic cultural influences. Perth, also, is known for its food and wine culture, pearls, gems and precious metals as well as the international fringe arts festival.

There are quite a few more that deserve mention, but this gives an idea via introduction. Smaller rural settlements generally reflect a majority Anglo-Celtic culture often with a small Aboriginal population. Virtually every large Australian city and town reflects the effect of immigration from Europe, Asia, the Middle East and the Pacific that occurred after World War II and continued into the s, in the half century after the war when Australia's population boomed from roughly 7 million to just over 20 million people.

There are approximately half a million Australians who identify as being of Aboriginal descent. Less maintain elements of traditional Aboriginal culture. Long ago during the involuntary transportation and relocation from Europe and other places, it must be noted that all records were not kept nor available to others, nor have those records that existed all survived the uses of people throughout history. The English of Australia were once known for local colour and colloquialisms but that largely has been lost to outside influence and influx.

People in rural areas still tend to speak in a broader, colloquial accent and have a different manner, using many of the slang words that have become outmoded in metropolitan areas. Accents tend to be broader and slower outside of the large cities. There are overall small pronunciation differences based upon culture of origin in the cities, but these are becoming less common. Speech has become more generic. For example the word "you" colloquially, is often rolled off the tongue sharply on the south east coast, almost as "ewe" as opposed to the west coast and other regions.

Another modern variation based upon migrants from Africa is found in Afrikaans accents on the west coast, modifying the local accents slightly due to the larger population and numbers of Afrikaans and Boer African immigration there.

Regarding other variations in speech, usually native speakers can recognise the subtle regional variations. A trend among Australians is social conservatism compared to some European cultures and an acquired balanced attitude, defining their European origins within a preference for the growing Asian influence.

They tend to be relaxed regarding religious observance. The Australian sense of egalitarianism in its gungho form has moderated; while modes of address still tend to be casual and familiar compared to some other cultures, such as Asian. Most Australians will tend to address you by your first name and will expect that you reciprocate. Many states observe Labour Day , but on different days. Western Australia has Foundation Day typically the first Monday in June recognising the founding of the state since but also celebrates the Queen's Birthday on a different date than the rest of the country, either at the end of September or early October, due to the usual June date's close proximity to Foundation Day.

When a public holiday falls on a Saturday or Sunday, the following Monday and Tuesday if necessary are usually declared holidays in lieu, although both the celebrations and the retail closures will occur on the day itself. Most tourist attractions are closed Christmas Day and Good Friday. Most attractions in Australia remain open year-round, some operating at a reduced frequency or shorter hours during the off-peak season.

Salaried Australians have four weeks of annual leave and school children in the major population centres have January as a long break. Domestic tourism is strongest during January and the Easter school holidays. Summer tends to be the peak travel season through much of the south, with the winter dry season the peak travel season in the tropics. Australian teenagers finishing high school celebrate the end of school colloquially known as "Schoolies" for a week beginning at the end of October to mid to late November depending on area.

The volume of teen revellers can completely change the nature of some of the cities and towns they choose to visit, particularly the nationally popular Gold Coast especially seeing as the vast majority of school-leavers will have reached the legal drinking age of Australia can have up to five different time zones during the daylight savings period, and three at other times.

Queensland doesn't observe daylight saving, so it is an hour behind the other eastern states during that period. In the centre, South Australia and the Northern Territory are half an hour behind during the winter, but the Northern Territory doesn't observe daylight saving while South Australia does.

In the west, Western Australia is two hours behind the eastern states in winter, and also doesn't observe daylight saving. It moves three hours behind the eastern states that observe daylight saving remaining two hours behind Queensland. There are no official abbreviations or names for Australian time zones, and you may see a few variations used.

In conversation, the abbreviations aren't used. People tend to say Sydney time , Brisbane time , or Perth time. Expect blank stares from most if you start talking about Central Summer Time.

In those states which observe daylight saving, it commences on the first Sunday in October and ends on the first Sunday in April. All visitors - apart from citizens of New Zealand - require a visa in advance of travel. If you are visiting for a holiday of less than three months, there are three types of visas you may apply for, depending on your nationality:. In most cases, Electronic Travel Authorities and eVisitors are approved instantly and the visa will be issued and available for use immediately.

Nationals of certain countries, such as Bulgaria and Romania and other Eastern European EU member states, are rarely issued eVisitor visa automatically and must provide additional documentation.

If you are visiting Australia for employment, study or for medical treatment you will need to obtain the appropriate visa.

If you are staying longer than 3 months continuously you are ineligible for an ETA or eVisitor, and should apply for a Visitor Visa subclass For all visitor visa classes, you must be able to demonstrate your ability to support yourself financially for the time you intend to spend in Australia. If you have a criminal conviction, obtain advice from the Australian Embassy or visa processing centre.

All fees are payable in Australian dollars, converted to your local currency at the current rate of exchange. All other passengers who transit through Australia must apply for a free-of-charge Transit Visa subclass prior to travel.

New Zealand citizens may travel to and work in Australia for any length of time without a pre-arranged visa. Non-citizen permanent residents of New Zealand are not eligible for visa-free entry. New Zealand citizens may still be rejected entry on the basis of criminal convictions or being HIV-positive and should seek advice before travel.

Australia has strict quarantine requirements regarding importing animal and vegetable derived products any food, wooden products, seeds, etc. You must declare all such material and baggage is frequently scanned and may be examined by dogs. Processed and sealed commercially prepared foods chocolates, cookies, etc are often permitted.

They will be examined and returned to you, but still must be declared. Some prohibited items can be treated by quarantine at your expense and picked up at a later time.

Some shells, coral and items made from a protected species are also prohibited to discourage the trade in items that may originate from a threatened ecosystem or species. While there are no restrictions on the amount of money that can be brought in or out, Australian customs also requires you to declare if you are bringing AUD10, or equivalent in foreign currency or more in or out of the country and you will be asked to complete some paperwork.

Australia is a long way from anywhere else in the world, so for most visitors, the only practical way of getting into Australia is by air. After Sydney, significant numbers of travellers also arrive in Australia in Melbourne, Brisbane and Perth. On account of long journey times from some destinations, some travellers from Europe opt to have a stop-over, commonly in Singapore, Hong Kong, Dubai , Bangkok or Kuala Lumpur.

If you have to change to a domestic flight in a gateway city, Sydney, Brisbane and Perth all have distinct domestic terminals, requiring some time and complexity to transit, check the guides. Melbourne, Adelaide, Darwin, Cairns and the Gold Coast have all gates in the one terminal building or within easy walking distance of each other. There are some routes into Australia that are operated by discount airlines. These can often be combined with other fares to make getting to Australia cheaper.

Select your point of entry and exit to give you a cheaper round-trip, and possibly some interesting stopover opportunities on the way. November to February is the cruising season, and there are usually about 10 ships that arrive in Australia from other countries during this time.

You can cruise to Australia, and then fly home. Alternatively, you may sail to Australia in your own yacht, but beware of customs regulations.

See Australian Customs for details. There was a time when a couple of tour operators offered overland trips from London to Sydney, with only a short hop by air from South East Asia to North Western Australia while the bus went by barge. Currently, the only such tour operator is Madventure which runs 4 different routes: For the truly determined overland traveller, you can get a ferry from Singapore to Indonesia and make your way across to Bali, where you can fly to Darwin 2, flight km. For the intrepid, ferries to West Timor, a bus to Dili and a flight to Darwin will mean only km in the air.

Australia is huge but sparsely populated, and you can sometimes travel many hours before finding the next trace of civilisation, especially once you leave the south-eastern coastal fringe. You can locate most things on an Australian map or street directory if you just have the "GPS coordinates".

There are restrictions on carrying fruit and vegetables including honey between states and even between regions of states that are involved in fruit growing. If you are driving long distances or interstate, or flying between states, don't stock up on fruits and vegetables. These restrictions are enforced very strictly at airports and sea ports and it is not very uncommon to see sniffer dogs trained to find these goods.

Australia has a generally well-maintained system of roads and highways, and cars are a commonly used method of transport. Most of the state capitals are linked to each other by good quality highways. Some parts are dual carriageway but many sections are one lane each way.

Major regional areas have sealed paved dual-lane roads, but isolated areas may have poorly maintained dirt roads or even tracks. Distances and speeds are specified in kilometres and fuel is sold by the litre.

There are no tolls on roads or bridges outside of the urban areas of Sydney, Melbourne and Brisbane. Australia drives on the left. Overseas visitors who are used to driving on the right should take care when they first drive, and again when they are driving on country roads with little traffic.

One major frustration for visitors is that many Australian vehicles reverse all controls when they are redesigned to mount the driver's controls on the right front seat, including the levers on the steering column. This causes newly arrived visitors to inadvertently operate the windscreen wipers when they are trying to signal a lane change or turn on headlights, and vice versa. Generally, overseas licenses are valid for driving in Australia for three months after arrival. Licensing regulations and road rules vary slightly from state to state.

Australia's low population density and large size makes for long driving times between major centres. Some indicative travel times, not including any rest periods, are:. It is almost impossible to predict your travel time just by knowing the distance. Seek local advice for the best route, and how much time to allow. While major highways are well serviced, anyone leaving sealed paved roads in inland Australia is advised to take advice from local authorities, check weather and road conditions, carry sufficient spare fuel, spare parts, spare tyres, matches, food and water.

Some remote roads might see one car per month or less. Cellular coverage is non-existent outside of major highways and towns and you should take some precautions in case of emergency. It is a good idea to advise a person you know and trust of your route and advise them to alert authorities if you do not contact them within a reasonable amount of time after your scheduled arrival at your destination.

Carrying a Personal Locator Beacon PLB or satellite phone should be considered when travelling in remote areas, especially where you may not be able to make contact for several days. Police will not automatically start looking for you if you don't report in. Make sure you get one with a GPS built in. These can be borrowed from some local police stations, such as those in the Blue Mountains in New South Wales. If you want to hire one, sort it out before you leave a major city, as you won't find hire places in small towns.

Don't expect an immediate rescue even if you trigger a PLB. Heat and dehydration at any time of year can kill you.

If stranded, stay with your vehicle and do what you can to improve your visibility from the air. Do not take this advice lightly; even local people die out there when their car breaks down and they are not reported missing. If you do have to abandon your car say you break down and then get a lift , call in quickly to the local police station, to avoid the embarrassment and cost of a search being started for you.

Major cities around Australia have multiple outlets providing a wide range of rental vehicles from major international rental companies. In smaller towns car rental can be difficult to find.

One way fees often apply from smaller regional outlets. Contractual restrictions Conditions upon the use of rental vehicles usually exist on travelling into or out of Western Australia and the Northern Territory or on the car ferries to Tasmania, Kangaroo Island and Fraser Island. Rental cars in capital cities usually have unlimited mileage. In small towns they usually only include km a day before a surcharge is applied.

Always ensure you thoroughly check the vehicle for any damage, including all window glass and the roof panels, and document any found in detail with the renter before leaving the depot.

Check the contract conditions carefully if you are under 25 and also check that your licence class matches the vehicle you wish to rent before you book it. Catering to the vast number of young European and American backpackers traversing the country are several low-budget car rental companies which rent cars and campers of varying quality. Check the extra charges very carefully and make sure that you don't end up paying the same or more for a lesser quality vehicle.

The very cheapest cars you can hire can be manual stick-shift. Anything larger will usually be automatic. There is a substantial second hand market in cars and campers for backpackers wishing to do extended road trips around Australia. Take common sense precautions if purchasing a car.

Free state government services are available to ensure it is unencumbered by a finance arrangement and that it has not been previously written off as a result of an accident. Due to the large distances involved, flying is well-patronised in Australia. Services along the main business travel corridor Melbourne-Sydney-Brisbane are run almost like a bus service, with flights leaving every 15min during the day. The only way to get the best airfare is to visit each of the airlines pages directly, and compare fares.

Never assume that the Qantas fare will be more expensive, as their online deals are often the cheapest available on a route. The best fares are always available on the most competitive routes. Consolidator websites and travel agents almost invariably add a surcharge to the direct booking price. Use them to compare, but always check the airline website before booking. There are four domestic airlines in Australia that operate jet aircraft linking capital cities and major destinations:.

Several airlines service regional destinations. Expect discounts on these airlines to be harder to come by, and for standard airfares to be above what you would pay for the same distance between major centres.

Visitors from countries with well-developed long distance rail systems such as Europe and Japan may be surprised by the lack of high-speed, inter-city rail services in Australia.

A historical lack of cooperation between the states, combined with sheer distances and a relatively small population to service, have left Australia with a national rail network that is relatively slow and used mainly for freight. As a result, travel between major cities will not only be faster by air, but often cheaper as well. Train travel between cities is, however, more scenic, and tourists are likely to see more of Australia travelling by train than they would otherwise see, as well as cutting down on their carbon footprint.

It is also often a cost effective way of getting to regional towns and cities, which don't have the frequent and cheap flights found between the capital cities. The long-distance rail services that do exist are mainly used to link regional townships with the state capital, such as Bendigo to Melbourne, or Cairns to Brisbane. There are also inter-city train services operated by Great Southern Railways on the routes Melbourne- Adelaide The Overland , Sydney-Adelaide- Perth Indian Pacific , Adelaide-Alice Springs-Darwin The Ghan however as noted above, these are not "high speed" services, so if you do not enjoy train travel as part of your holiday in its own right then this is probably not for you.

Tasmania has no passenger rail services. The Northern Territory has the rail line linking Darwin to Adelaide through Alice Springs only, and the Australian Capital Territory has only a single railway station close to the centre of Canberra. There is no pass that includes all train travel throughout Australia.

However, if you are a train buff that intends travelling extensively by rail, there are some passes that may save you money. Plan your trip carefully before investing in a rail pass.

Country train services are infrequent and can arrive at regional destinations at unsociable hours. Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, Adelaide, Wollongong and Newcastle have train and bus services integrated into the city public transport, with trams also running in Sydney, Melbourne, Adelaide and the Gold Coast and ferries in Sydney, Brisbane, Perth and Newcastle.

The remaining capital cities have bus services only. See those city guides articles for public transport details. Sydney has a subway system known as Sydney Metro that is currently under construction. Some regional cities and towns have local bus services, but see the destination guides for service information, as frequency can be poor and weekend and evening services non-existent.

Some trains allow you to carry your car with you on special car carriages attached to the back of the train. You cannot remove your car at any of the intermediate stations. Bus travel in Australia is cheap and convenient, although the distances involved can be daunting. Greyhound has the largest bus route network. Many major Australian cities have ferries as part of their public transport system. Some smaller roads in the regional areas still have punts to carry cars across rivers and canals.

The islands of the Barrier Reef have some scheduled services, and there are a few cruises that cross the top of Australia as well. It is legal to hitchhike in some states in Australia, so long as certain guidelines are followed. However, it is less commonly done than in neighbouring New Zealand. In Australia hitchhiking is often frowned upon by locals and police, especially in metropolitan areas. Hitch hiking is illegal in Victoria and Queensland. It is also illegal to stand on the verge or walk along freeways often called "motorways" in New South Wales in all states effectively making hitchhiking illegal in many practical places, in all states.

If forced to hitchhike due to an emergency you may find a motorist willing to take you to the nearest town to obtain help. Some major inter-city highways and freeways have telephones to request help. It's most common to see a tourist hitching in rural areas. The best time to hitchhike is early morning.

The best location is near, but not on, the main exit from the town you are in. Cycling the long distances between towns is not particularly common, and most long distance highways in Australia have poorly developed facilities for cyclists.

Nevertheless some intrepid travellers do manage to cover the longer distances by bicycle, and have a different experience of Australia. Trips and routes need careful planning to ensure the correct supplies are carried. To cycle between Sydney and Brisbane you would have to allow weeks with around km per day. There is much to see in Australia that you can't see easily in its natural setting anywhere else:. Australian flora and fauna is unique to the island, the result of having been isolated from the rest of the world for millions of years.

Amongst Australian animals are a large group of marsupials mammals with a pouch and monotremes mammals that lay eggs. Just some of the animal icons of Australia are the kangaroo national symbol and the koala. A visit to Australia would not be complete without taking the chance to see some of these animals in their natural environment. Australia has many landmarks, famous the world over.

See some of the Big things in Australia. Sport is an integral part of the Australian culture from the capital cities to country towns. The majority of games are played over the weekend period from Friday night to Monday night.

It has been said that if there are two flies crawling up a wall, then you just need to look around to find the Aussie who will be running a book. Gambling is illegal for under's. This can often restrict entry to parts of pubs, clubs, and casinos for children.

Expect everyone you interact with in Australia to be able to speak English, whether it is their first language or not. Locals and more recent arrivals of all ages and backgrounds are expected to and usually do speak at least basic English, as well as the majority of tourists.

As Australia is a multicultural society, you will notice the presence of many other languages and accents. Australians who were born in Australia or immigrated as children will speak English with the Australian accent. Australians who immigrated to Australia as adults generally will not have the Australian accent. The Australian accent has very little if not any geographic variation; although Australians sometimes have their own theories about geographical accents; for example Adelaide, Melbourne and North Queensland "accents".

In reality however, the Broad, General and Cultivated Australian accents which linguists accept all exist, can be found anywhere in Australia. Anywhere in the country you will find some people speak slower with broader accents and use more slang; often associated with regional areas, whilst many more Australians will have the General Australian accent; often associated with major urban areas, or the less common Cultivated accent: Australia is traditionally a land of immigrants, plus there are many people from all over the world working or studying in Australia, plus many tourists from overaeas.

Because of this, Australians are very used to speaking with others whos first language is not English or who are not used to hearing the Australian accent.

They will speak slower and clearer with you and avoid any local vocabulary. It is also worth noting many Australians of non-English speaking family backgrounds will generally always prefer to speak English with people outside their family. Even if they speak your language fluently at home or grew up with that language inside their home they will often pretend they cannot speak it with a visitor from that country.

Australian slang should not present a problem for tourists except possibly in some isolated outback areas. A few words and euphemisms that are considered offensive elsewhere are common vernacular in Australian speech. Fanny, as in the UK, means vagina and is not used widely.

The word "thong" generally refers to flip-flops in Australia, and not necessarily a G-string as it does in most other places. Still, Australians are familiar enough with the differences to know what you mean, but they may still have a laugh at your expense. Visitors who do not speak basic English will find communicating with Australians difficult, and should do some advance planning.

There are some tour companies who specialise in offering package deals for Australian tours complete with guides who speak particular languages. There are over a hundred Aboriginal languages still known and spoken by Aboriginal people. These languages are all different, and you won't see an Aboriginal phrasebook in the travel bookshops. Many Aboriginal place names derive from Aboriginal languages that have been lost, and their meanings remain uncertain.

Aboriginal people living in rural Aboriginal communities continue to speak their respective languages. The Torres Strait Islander people, who originate from a group of islands in northern Queensland near Papua New Guinea also continue to speak their own languages.

Almost all Aboriginal people speak English as well, although some elders may not be fluent. When interpreters are present for public events, they will use Auslan.

Users of BSL or NZSL may be able to understand Auslan; the languages share a significant amount of vocabulary and syntax, plus the same two-handed manual alphabet. Much of the vocabulary and syntax are different, and those languages use a one-handed manual alphabet. There are cents in every dollar. No other currency is officially accepted for transactions in Australia. Although it was not unusual to find some of the older New Zealand coins in your change from time to time, it is now practically unheard of since New Zealand completely overhauled and resized its coinage.

It no longer matches the size of Australian coins. The Australian coins are large and heavy relative to their value. For example, the Australian ten cent coin is the size of a US 25 cent coin and the Australian fifty cent coin is among the largest circulating coins anywhere in the world by size. Australian notes are produced in plastic polymer rather than paper. If the total of a transaction is not a multiple of 5 cents the amount will be rounded to the nearest five cents if you are paying in cash.

The exact amount will be charged if paying by card. Old paper notes or bronze 1c and 2c coins will be exchanged at a bank but will be difficult at shops. The dollar is not pegged to any other currency, and is highly traded on world foreign exchange markets, particularly by currency speculators.

Money changers in Australia operate in a free market, and charge a range of flat commissions, percentage fees, undisclosed fees built into the exchange rate, and a combination of all three. Generally the best bet is to avoid airports and tourist centres when changing money, and use banks in major centres.

Expect fees to vary considerably between institutions. Always get a quote before changing money. Australian ATMs are deregulated and may impose a surcharge over what is charged by your bank or card issuer. The ATM will display the charges and you will have the option to stop the transaction before you are charged.

Check with your bank as to what additional fees they apply to withdrawals in Australia. Dedicated currency exchange outlets are widely available in major cities, and banks can also exchange most non-restricted currencies. Australian banks usually offer an exchange rate around 2. Some outlets advertise commission free exchange, usually accompanied by a worse rate of exchange. Don't assume every bank will offer the same exchange. A simple calculation will let you know what offers the best deal for amount you wish to exchange.

There are vouchers for commission free exchange at American Express available in the tourist brochure at Sydney Airport. Credit cards are widely accepted in Australia. Almost all large vendors such as supermarkets accept cards, as do many, but not all, small stores. Any card showing the Cirrus or Maestro logos can be used at any terminal displaying those logos. American Express and Diners Club are accepted at major supermarket and department store chains and many tourist destinations.

JCB is only accepted at very limited tourist destinations. Discover is never accepted for internet-based payments, but if your card also carries the Diners Club logo, it will work at any physical store that accepts Diners Club.

The big advantage here is you can bring Australian cash acquired at home through proper exchange channels and turn it into plastic with no exchange fees and minimal service charges without need for exchanging currency at the airport or carrying large amounts of cash everywhere.

Excellent for security and you can get two cards with different numbers drawing from the same loaded money, allowing any two people to share a card on the same account. Other prepaid Australian dollar stored value cards bearing MasterCard or Visa emblems are available at larger post offices or grocery stores. Read terms and conditions closely, some can refund unused balances but only to an Australian bank account. Others you just have to spend it all in Australia or abroad.

Be careful using these cards for car hire. Agencies generally accept only cards with raised print for car hires and the name of the renter on it prepaids do not have this. Even if you hire the car with a foreign card but settle the bill on return with a prepaid they often will not accept it, even with the other card as a backup.

You will have to settle using the foreign card most of the time. Sometimes they don't pay attention and you get away with it but don't plan on it. Credit card surcharges are imposed at all car rental agencies, travel agents, airlines, and at some discount retailers and service stations. Bottled water isn't much cheaper. You can make yourself feel better about it by buying brands that are not available in foreign countries, such as the delicious Kirk's Dry Ginger Ale.

Some American brands are not available. A train trip on the state run trains will usually cost slightly less. A bus trip, a little less again. A train trip on the private trains will be the most expensive way to travel. There is usually no admission charge to beaches or city parks.

Art Galleries and some attractions are free. Because of Australia's high wages and taxes compared to other countries such the USA, you will find prices of things involving service such as restaurants especially high by comparison.

A rule of thumb is the restaurants will cost close to double what you would expect of the same thing in the USA, and that holds for beverages also.

Bargaining is uncommon in Australian stores, though vendors are usually willing to meet or beat a quote or advertised price from a competing retailer. It's also worth asking for a "best price" for high-value goods or purchases involving several items. The person you are dealing with may have limited authority to sell items at anything other than the marked price. Tipping is never compulsory and is usually not expected in Australia. Staff are seen to be paid an appropriate wage and will certainly not chase you down for a tip.

It is acceptable to pay the amount stated on the bill. When Australians do tip, it will often be in the form of leaving the change from a cash payment usually as a convenience so the change does not hang around loose on someone's person - not as a gratuity , rather than a fixed percentage.

In a cafe or more informal restaurant, even with table service, and even in tourist centres, leaving a tip is unusual. Sometimes there is a coin jar by the cashier labelled 'Tips', but more often than not, diners do not leave one. Tipping is also not expected in taxis, and drivers will typically return your change to the last 5 cents, unless you indicate that they should round the fare to the nearest dollar it is not unusual for passengers to instruct the driver to round up to the next whole dollar.

Shops usually have a single night of late night trading, staying open until 9PM on Fridays in most cities and on Thursdays in Brisbane and Sydney. Sunday trading is common but does not exist in all rural areas. Opening hours beyond these base hours vary by the type of store, by location, and by state. See the guides for more local information. Major supermarket chains such as Coles and Woolworths and department stores like K-Mart and Target in main centres are generally open at least until 9pm.

Fast Food restaurant chains are commonly open 24 hours or at least very late. Even in cities with populations exceeding 50, finding a 24 hour petrol station can be difficult, or at least should not be assumed to be easily found. Make sure to locate one in advance if you have an early morning flight with a rental car to return. Australia's weekend is on Saturday and Sunday of each week. Retail trading is now almost universal in larger cities on weekends, although with slightly reduced hours.

Again, Western Australia is an exception with restrictions on large stores opening on Sundays. In smaller country towns shops are closed on Sundays and often also on Saturday afternoons.

Tourist-oriented towns and shops may stay open longer hours. Tourist areas within cities, such as Darling Harbour in Sydney has longer trading hours every night.

Australian banks are open Monday-Friday Cash is available through Automatic Teller Machines ATM 24 hours, and currency exchange outlets have extended hours and are open on weekends. Australia has a sales tax known as the Goods and Services Tax or GST that applies to all goods and services except unprocessed foods, education and medical services. GST is always included in the price of any item you purchase rather than being added at the time of payment.

Receipts tax invoices will contain the GST amount, which is one eleventh of the total value of taxable supplies. Pack the items in hand luggage, and present the item s and the receipt at the TRS, after immigration and security when leaving Australia. Also allow an extra 15 minutes before departure.

The refund payment can be made by either cheque, credit to an Australian bank account, or payment to a credit card. There is no refund available for services. You also cannot get a refund if you are too close to your flight departure time. A flight departure screen assists agents and they will refuse your transaction if your flight is on it. Check for current regulations about buffer time for flights if you want a GST refund. Vegemite , a salty yeast-based spread, best spread thinly on toast.

If you aren't up for buying a jar, any coffee shop will serve vegemite on toast at breakfast time. It may not even be on the menu, but the vegemite will be out the back in the jar next to the marmalade. If you do buy a jar, the secret is it to spread it very thin, and don't forget the butter as well. It tastes similar to Marmite or Cenovis. Australians are quite used to the taste, and may spread the Vegemite very thick; but this is not recommended for first-timers. The Tim-Tam , is a popular chocolate fudge-filled sandwich of two chocolate biscuits, all dipped in chocolate.

You can buy a packet or two from any supermarket or convenience store. Tim-Tams are required to perform the Tim-Tam Slam manoeuvre. This requires biting off both ends of the Tim-Tam, then using it as a straw to drink your favourite hot beverage, typically coffee. The hot drink melts the fudge centre and creates an experience hard to describe. Finesse is needed to suck the whole biscuit into your mouth in the microseconds between being fully saturated and dissolving.

Although performed by some Australians, the manoeuvre is rarely performed and the Tim-Tam is generally eaten by itself. During summer, Tim-Tams are often stored in the freezer, and eaten ice cold. The lamington is a cube of sponge cake covered in chocolate icing and dipped in desiccated coconut. It's named after Lord Lamington, who served as Governor of Queensland from to The home-baked form can be found at a local Saturday morning market, or you can buy one from a bakery if you are desperate.

Avoid at all costs the plastic wrapped varieties sold in supermarkets. The pavlova is a meringue cake with a cream topping usually decorated with fresh fruit. Served on special occasions, or after a lunchtime barbecue.

Often the source of dispute with New Zealand over the original source of the recipe. ANZAC biscuits are a mix of coconut, oats, flour, sugar and golden syrup. They were reputedly sent by wives and care organisations to world war soldiers in care packages, but the story is likely apocryphal. Damper is a traditional soda bread that was baked by drovers and stockmen. It has basic ingredients flour, water and perhaps salt and usually cooked in the embers of a fire.

It is not routinely available in bakeries and only commonly served to tourists on organised tours. Best eaten with butter and jam or golden syrup as it is dry and bland. A pie floater is a South Australian dish available around Adelaide. It is a pie inverted in a bowl of thick mushy pea soup. Similar pie variations are sometimes available in other regions.

A Chiko roll is a deep-fried snack inspired by the egg roll or the spring roll. Despite the name, it contains no chicken. Its filling is boned mutton, vegetables, rice, barley, and seasonings. Its shell is thicker than an egg roll, meant to survive handling at football matches. Available anywhere you can buy fish and chips. Cuisines widely available in Australia, often prepared by members of the relevant culture, include:. Eating vegetarian is quite common in Australia and many restaurants offer at least one or two vegetarian dishes.

Some will have an entire vegetarian menu section. Vegans may have more difficulty but any restaurant with a large vegetarian menu should offer some flexibility. In large cities you will find a number of vegetarian and vegan restaurants, as well as in the coastal backpacker-friendly towns along the east coast.

The market town of Kuranda or the seaside towns of Byron Bay are a vegetarian's paradise. In other regional areas vegetarians are often poorly catered for, but most towns will have a Chinese restaurant that will provide steamed rice and vegetables.

Sydney and Melbourne in particular cater well for vegans and vegetarians with a large number of purely vegetarian restaurants, vegan clothing stores and vegan supermarkets. People observing halal diets will easily be able to find specialist butchers in the capital cities, and will also find a number of restaurants with appropriate menus and cooking styles.

People observing kosher diets can easily find kosher food in suburbs in Sydney and Melbourne that have a high amount of Jews eg. Caulfield in Melbourne, Bondi in Sydney.

In other cities it is very hard to find kosher food, and the little kosher food there is, is usually imported from Melbourne or Sydney, so it is very overpriced.

Outside the capital cities, it will be much more difficult to find food prepared in a strict religious manner. All of the capital cities and many regional towns in Australia host a "farmer's market", which is generally held each week in a designated area on a Saturday or Sunday. These markets mostly sell fresh fruits and vegetables, as hygiene standards in Australia forbid the selling of meat directly from market stalls.

Butchers who set up shop at a farmer's market would usually trade their wares from a display cabinet within their truck. The attraction of markets is the lower prices and freshness of the produce. The attraction for the traveller will be the cheap and excellent fruits on offer - depending on the region and season. In regional areas the market is usually held outside the town itself in an empty paddock or sports field, markets in capital cities are easier to reach but the prices are typically more in line with those you would find in supermarkets.

See the destination guides for details. Drinking beer is ingrained in Australian culture. Although Fosters is promoted as an Australian beer overseas, it is rarely consumed by Australians in Australia, and is almost impossible to find. Beers are strongly regional and every state has its own brews: There are also local microbrew choices, which can be harder to find, but are often worth seeking out.

A wide range of imported European and American bottled beers are available in all but the most basic pub. Light Lite beer refers to lower alcoholic content, and not lower calories. It has around half the alcohol of full strength beer, and is taxed at a lower rate, meaning it is also cheaper than full strength beer.

Because Australians like their beer to stay cold while they drink it, draft beer glasses come in a multitude of sizes, so that you can drink a whole glass before it warms up in the summer heat. The naming of beer glasses varies widely from state to state, often in confusing ways: The local beers and the local descriptions are covered in detail in the state guides. Bottle naming is a little easier: Cans of beer are known as tinnies and 24 of them make up a slab , box , carton , or a case.

Australia produces quality wine on a truly industrial scale, with large multinational brands supplying Australian bottleshops and exporting around the world. There are also a multitude of boutique wineries and smaller suppliers. The areas of the Barossa Valley , Hunter Valley , McLaren Vale , Clare Valley and Margaret River are particularly renowned for their wineries and opportunities for cellar door sampling, but northern Victoria and Mudgee , also have a large variety.

You are never too far from a wine trail anywhere in southern Australia. Try the local wines wherever you can find them, and ask for local recommendations. Try not to get taken in by the label, or the price tag. The best wine is rarely the one with the best artwork, or the most expensive price.

However, it is probably wise to avoid the house wine if it comes straight from a cask 4-litre container.

If you still prefer overseas wines, the Marlborough region of New Zealand is usually well represented on wine lists and in bottle shops in Australia. See also Grape grazing in Australia. Bundaberg Rum Bundy is an Australian dark rum particularly popular in Queensland and many Queenslanders will not touch any other brand of rum, while many other Australians will not touch Bundy.

It is probably the most famous Australian made spirit, mass produced in Bundaberg and available everywhere. You will have to search much harder to find other Australian distilled spirits, mostly from niche players, but there are distilleries in every state of Australia if you look hard enough.

Drop into the Lark Distillery on the scenic Hobart waterfront precinct. Mixed drinks are also available, particularly vodka, scotch, bourbon and other whiskey mixers. Jim Beam bourbon is probably the most commonly drunk, so those from Kentucky should feel right at home. Spirits are also available as pre-mixed bottles and cans but are subject to higher taxation in this form, so it is cheaper to mix them yourself.

Spirits are served in all pubs and bars, but not in all restaurants. The legal drinking age throughout Australia is 18 years. It is illegal to purchase alcohol for yourself if you are under 18 years of age. It is illegal to purchase alcohol on behalf of someone who is under 18 years of age. The only legally acceptable proof-of-age is an Australian drivers licence, state-issued proof-of-age card or a passport, and it would be wise to carry one if you want to purchase alcohol or tobacco and look under It is illegal to go into a gambling area of a pub or club when under Often there is a lounge, restaurant or bistro area in a pub or club that permits under-age people provided they are accompanied by a responsible adult over 18 and don't approach the bar or wander around.

Some city pubs even have video games and playgrounds for children. Some country pubs have large open areas out in the back where kids can run and play. In general, you can take alcohol say a bottle of wine or beer to consume at a park or beach. However, in the state of Queensland public consumption of Alcohol is illegal. Alcohol consumption is banned in some public places as 'street drinking'.

These are often indicated by signs and is particularly the case in parks and footpaths where public drunkenness has been a problem. However, if you are a family with your picnic basket and blanket out at lunchtime with a bottle of wine, you are unlikely to encounter any problems.

Alcohol can be purchased for consumption on premises only in licensed venues: Cities in the Midwest. Cities in the Northeast. Cities in the South. Cities in the West. States and Union Territories. Oceans, Seas and Lakes. The 25 Largest Cities. Seterra for Android , iPhone and iPad is here! The Seterra app offers high score lists to keep track of your progress and offline play! Seterra is a challenging educational geography game that will help you memorize countries, provinces, cities, rivers, mountains and much more all around the world.

This is the online version, which is written in HTML5. It runs under the latest version of most web browsers, e. Geography games, quiz game, blank maps, geogames, educational games, outline map, exercise, classroom activity, teaching ideas, classroom games, middle school, interactive world map for kids, geography quizzes for adults, human geography. Cities in California and Texas. Oceania and the Caribbean. All the flags of Africa! The 22 largest cities of South America.

Surrounding Countries Printables Australia: States and Territories Australia and New Zealand: Capitals Australia and Oceania: North America North and Central America: Countries North and Central America: State Abbreviations The U.

States in the Midwest and the West The U.

what your specific

Seterra is a challenging educational geography game that will help you memorize countries, provinces, cities, rivers, mountains and much more all around the world. This is the online version, which is written in HTML5. It runs under the latest version of most web browsers, e. Geography games, quiz game, blank maps, geogames, educational games, outline map, exercise, classroom activity, teaching ideas, classroom games, middle school, interactive world map for kids, geography quizzes for adults, human geography.

Cities in California and Texas. Oceania and the Caribbean. All the flags of Africa! The 22 largest cities of South America. Surrounding Countries Printables Australia: States and Territories Australia and New Zealand: Capitals Australia and Oceania: North America North and Central America: Countries North and Central America: State Abbreviations The U.

States in the Midwest and the West The U. States in the South and the Northeast The U. State Capitals The Contiguous U. Major Cities The U.

Cities in the Midwest The U. Cities in the Northeast The U. Cities in the South The U. Cities in the West The U. Cities difficult version Canada: Provinces and territories The Caribbean: Tipping is also not expected in taxis, and drivers will typically return your change to the last 5 cents, unless you indicate that they should round the fare to the nearest dollar it is not unusual for passengers to instruct the driver to round up to the next whole dollar.

Shops usually have a single night of late night trading, staying open until 9PM on Fridays in most cities and on Thursdays in Brisbane and Sydney. Sunday trading is common but does not exist in all rural areas. Opening hours beyond these base hours vary by the type of store, by location, and by state.

See the guides for more local information. Major supermarket chains such as Coles and Woolworths and department stores like K-Mart and Target in main centres are generally open at least until 9pm.

Fast Food restaurant chains are commonly open 24 hours or at least very late. Even in cities with populations exceeding 50, finding a 24 hour petrol station can be difficult, or at least should not be assumed to be easily found. Make sure to locate one in advance if you have an early morning flight with a rental car to return. Australia's weekend is on Saturday and Sunday of each week. Retail trading is now almost universal in larger cities on weekends, although with slightly reduced hours.

Again, Western Australia is an exception with restrictions on large stores opening on Sundays. In smaller country towns shops are closed on Sundays and often also on Saturday afternoons. Tourist-oriented towns and shops may stay open longer hours. Tourist areas within cities, such as Darling Harbour in Sydney has longer trading hours every night. Australian banks are open Monday-Friday Cash is available through Automatic Teller Machines ATM 24 hours, and currency exchange outlets have extended hours and are open on weekends.

Australia has a sales tax known as the Goods and Services Tax or GST that applies to all goods and services except unprocessed foods, education and medical services. GST is always included in the price of any item you purchase rather than being added at the time of payment.

Receipts tax invoices will contain the GST amount, which is one eleventh of the total value of taxable supplies. Pack the items in hand luggage, and present the item s and the receipt at the TRS, after immigration and security when leaving Australia. Also allow an extra 15 minutes before departure.

The refund payment can be made by either cheque, credit to an Australian bank account, or payment to a credit card. There is no refund available for services. You also cannot get a refund if you are too close to your flight departure time. A flight departure screen assists agents and they will refuse your transaction if your flight is on it.

Check for current regulations about buffer time for flights if you want a GST refund. Vegemite , a salty yeast-based spread, best spread thinly on toast. If you aren't up for buying a jar, any coffee shop will serve vegemite on toast at breakfast time. It may not even be on the menu, but the vegemite will be out the back in the jar next to the marmalade.

If you do buy a jar, the secret is it to spread it very thin, and don't forget the butter as well. It tastes similar to Marmite or Cenovis.

Australians are quite used to the taste, and may spread the Vegemite very thick; but this is not recommended for first-timers. The Tim-Tam , is a popular chocolate fudge-filled sandwich of two chocolate biscuits, all dipped in chocolate. You can buy a packet or two from any supermarket or convenience store. Tim-Tams are required to perform the Tim-Tam Slam manoeuvre. This requires biting off both ends of the Tim-Tam, then using it as a straw to drink your favourite hot beverage, typically coffee.

The hot drink melts the fudge centre and creates an experience hard to describe. Finesse is needed to suck the whole biscuit into your mouth in the microseconds between being fully saturated and dissolving. Although performed by some Australians, the manoeuvre is rarely performed and the Tim-Tam is generally eaten by itself. During summer, Tim-Tams are often stored in the freezer, and eaten ice cold. The lamington is a cube of sponge cake covered in chocolate icing and dipped in desiccated coconut.

It's named after Lord Lamington, who served as Governor of Queensland from to The home-baked form can be found at a local Saturday morning market, or you can buy one from a bakery if you are desperate. Avoid at all costs the plastic wrapped varieties sold in supermarkets. The pavlova is a meringue cake with a cream topping usually decorated with fresh fruit. Served on special occasions, or after a lunchtime barbecue.

Often the source of dispute with New Zealand over the original source of the recipe. ANZAC biscuits are a mix of coconut, oats, flour, sugar and golden syrup. They were reputedly sent by wives and care organisations to world war soldiers in care packages, but the story is likely apocryphal. Damper is a traditional soda bread that was baked by drovers and stockmen. It has basic ingredients flour, water and perhaps salt and usually cooked in the embers of a fire.

It is not routinely available in bakeries and only commonly served to tourists on organised tours. Best eaten with butter and jam or golden syrup as it is dry and bland.

A pie floater is a South Australian dish available around Adelaide. It is a pie inverted in a bowl of thick mushy pea soup. Similar pie variations are sometimes available in other regions.

A Chiko roll is a deep-fried snack inspired by the egg roll or the spring roll. Despite the name, it contains no chicken. Its filling is boned mutton, vegetables, rice, barley, and seasonings. Its shell is thicker than an egg roll, meant to survive handling at football matches. Available anywhere you can buy fish and chips. Cuisines widely available in Australia, often prepared by members of the relevant culture, include:.

Eating vegetarian is quite common in Australia and many restaurants offer at least one or two vegetarian dishes. Some will have an entire vegetarian menu section. Vegans may have more difficulty but any restaurant with a large vegetarian menu should offer some flexibility.

In large cities you will find a number of vegetarian and vegan restaurants, as well as in the coastal backpacker-friendly towns along the east coast. The market town of Kuranda or the seaside towns of Byron Bay are a vegetarian's paradise. In other regional areas vegetarians are often poorly catered for, but most towns will have a Chinese restaurant that will provide steamed rice and vegetables.

Sydney and Melbourne in particular cater well for vegans and vegetarians with a large number of purely vegetarian restaurants, vegan clothing stores and vegan supermarkets. People observing halal diets will easily be able to find specialist butchers in the capital cities, and will also find a number of restaurants with appropriate menus and cooking styles.

People observing kosher diets can easily find kosher food in suburbs in Sydney and Melbourne that have a high amount of Jews eg. Caulfield in Melbourne, Bondi in Sydney. In other cities it is very hard to find kosher food, and the little kosher food there is, is usually imported from Melbourne or Sydney, so it is very overpriced.

Outside the capital cities, it will be much more difficult to find food prepared in a strict religious manner. All of the capital cities and many regional towns in Australia host a "farmer's market", which is generally held each week in a designated area on a Saturday or Sunday.

These markets mostly sell fresh fruits and vegetables, as hygiene standards in Australia forbid the selling of meat directly from market stalls. Butchers who set up shop at a farmer's market would usually trade their wares from a display cabinet within their truck. The attraction of markets is the lower prices and freshness of the produce.

The attraction for the traveller will be the cheap and excellent fruits on offer - depending on the region and season. In regional areas the market is usually held outside the town itself in an empty paddock or sports field, markets in capital cities are easier to reach but the prices are typically more in line with those you would find in supermarkets.

See the destination guides for details. Drinking beer is ingrained in Australian culture. Although Fosters is promoted as an Australian beer overseas, it is rarely consumed by Australians in Australia, and is almost impossible to find. Beers are strongly regional and every state has its own brews: There are also local microbrew choices, which can be harder to find, but are often worth seeking out. A wide range of imported European and American bottled beers are available in all but the most basic pub.

Light Lite beer refers to lower alcoholic content, and not lower calories. It has around half the alcohol of full strength beer, and is taxed at a lower rate, meaning it is also cheaper than full strength beer. Because Australians like their beer to stay cold while they drink it, draft beer glasses come in a multitude of sizes, so that you can drink a whole glass before it warms up in the summer heat.

The naming of beer glasses varies widely from state to state, often in confusing ways: The local beers and the local descriptions are covered in detail in the state guides. Bottle naming is a little easier: Cans of beer are known as tinnies and 24 of them make up a slab , box , carton , or a case. Australia produces quality wine on a truly industrial scale, with large multinational brands supplying Australian bottleshops and exporting around the world.

There are also a multitude of boutique wineries and smaller suppliers. The areas of the Barossa Valley , Hunter Valley , McLaren Vale , Clare Valley and Margaret River are particularly renowned for their wineries and opportunities for cellar door sampling, but northern Victoria and Mudgee , also have a large variety. You are never too far from a wine trail anywhere in southern Australia.

Try the local wines wherever you can find them, and ask for local recommendations. Try not to get taken in by the label, or the price tag.

The best wine is rarely the one with the best artwork, or the most expensive price. However, it is probably wise to avoid the house wine if it comes straight from a cask 4-litre container.

If you still prefer overseas wines, the Marlborough region of New Zealand is usually well represented on wine lists and in bottle shops in Australia. See also Grape grazing in Australia. Bundaberg Rum Bundy is an Australian dark rum particularly popular in Queensland and many Queenslanders will not touch any other brand of rum, while many other Australians will not touch Bundy.

It is probably the most famous Australian made spirit, mass produced in Bundaberg and available everywhere. You will have to search much harder to find other Australian distilled spirits, mostly from niche players, but there are distilleries in every state of Australia if you look hard enough.

Drop into the Lark Distillery on the scenic Hobart waterfront precinct. Mixed drinks are also available, particularly vodka, scotch, bourbon and other whiskey mixers.

Jim Beam bourbon is probably the most commonly drunk, so those from Kentucky should feel right at home. Spirits are also available as pre-mixed bottles and cans but are subject to higher taxation in this form, so it is cheaper to mix them yourself.

Spirits are served in all pubs and bars, but not in all restaurants. The legal drinking age throughout Australia is 18 years.

It is illegal to purchase alcohol for yourself if you are under 18 years of age. It is illegal to purchase alcohol on behalf of someone who is under 18 years of age.

The only legally acceptable proof-of-age is an Australian drivers licence, state-issued proof-of-age card or a passport, and it would be wise to carry one if you want to purchase alcohol or tobacco and look under It is illegal to go into a gambling area of a pub or club when under Often there is a lounge, restaurant or bistro area in a pub or club that permits under-age people provided they are accompanied by a responsible adult over 18 and don't approach the bar or wander around.

Some city pubs even have video games and playgrounds for children. Some country pubs have large open areas out in the back where kids can run and play. In general, you can take alcohol say a bottle of wine or beer to consume at a park or beach. However, in the state of Queensland public consumption of Alcohol is illegal.

Alcohol consumption is banned in some public places as 'street drinking'. These are often indicated by signs and is particularly the case in parks and footpaths where public drunkenness has been a problem. However, if you are a family with your picnic basket and blanket out at lunchtime with a bottle of wine, you are unlikely to encounter any problems. Alcohol can be purchased for consumption on premises only in licensed venues: You can purchase alcohol for private consumption in bottle shops , which are separate stores selling bottled alcohol.

In some but not all states you can buy alcohol in supermarkets. In those states where you can't, bottle shops and major supermarkets are often found in very close proximity. Outside of these hours though, it is almost impossible to buy alcohol to take home; so if you're planning on a party at home, it's a good idea to stock up and check on the local trading hours so you don't run out at In the state of New South Wales, takeaway alcohol cannot be sold after 10pm.

Alcohol is not available at petrol stations or hour convenience stores anywhere in Australia. Public drunkenness varies in acceptability. You will certainly find a great deal of it in close proximity to pubs and clubs at night time but much less so during the day. Public drunkenness is an offence but you would only likely ever be picked up by the police if you were causing a nuisance. You may spend the night sobering up in a holding cell or be charged. Driving while affected by alcohol is both stigmatized and policed by random breath testing police patrols in Australia, as well as being inherently dangerous.

Drink driving is a very serious offence in Australia, punishable by a range of mechanisms including loss of license. The acceptable maximum blood alcohol concentration is 0. Police officers are also empowered to randomly test drivers for the recent use of prohibited drugs. The operation of a motor vehicle while under the influence of prohibited drugs or alcohol will always result in arrest and a required court appearance many weeks from the date of arrest and it can comprehensively disrupt travel plans.

Random breath testing is common early Saturday and Sunday mornings, and many people are caught the morning after. Buying a round of drinks is a custom in Australia, as in many corners of the world.

It is generally expected in a pub that when you arrive and make your first trip to the bar that you will offer to buy a drink for others you are drinking with. This is what's known as a 'shout'. In entering a shout you are expected to take turns buying drinks for everyone in your shout when it is your turn.

It is considered poor etiquette to drink something much more expensive that what others in the shout are drinking. If you cannot keep pace during a shout you are still expected to buy a round of drinks when it is your turn and as such it is advisable to drink with people who pace themselves at a similar rate. If someone from outside the shout offers to buy you a drink politely decline and let them know you are already in a shout. Likewise if someone buys you a drink don't be surprised if they expect one from you later on in the evening as it's now your shout.

If you don't want to join a shout, or would like to drop out of one this can be awkward in some groups, however if you provide a viable reason such as having to drive or being on medication people will normally respect this explanation. It is considered very poor etiquette to leave before your shout. If you are intending to study in Australia, you may need to be on a visa class that allows this, rather than a tourist visa. Students and academics invited to visit Australian universities will generally also need an appropriate visa, even if their visit is of a short enough period to be covered by a tourist electronic visa.

For extremely short term or part time courses, check with your Australian consulate or embassy. Australian students attend high school for six years, and enter university at seventeen or eighteen years of age. In Australia, neither "school" nor "college" are used to refer to tertiary institutions; they are referred to only as "universities" - in fact, some primary and secondary educational institutions are referred to as 'colleges'. Australian undergraduate programs are usually three to four years in length.

A fifth year is compulsory in some professional undergraduate programs such as engineering, law, medicine and dentistry. Students in three-year degree programs can take an optional fourth year known as honours if they want to proceed into a postgraduate research program, whereas students enrolled in four year programs can typically incorporate their honours thesis into their fourth year.

All tuition at university level is in English , save for courses that specifically focus on other languages. Students who have not previously earned a qualification in an English speaking program or passed high school English will have to take one of a number of English competency tests before being allowed to enrol. Postgraduate studies in Australia fall into two classes: Coursework degrees are generally at the Masters level.

Research degrees are at the Masters and Doctoral level. There are 42 Universities in Australia that all compete vigorously for overseas students. All have administrative departments and sections on their websites which describe the courses available to overseas students, and they will help you to apply and obtain accommodation and transport. Applications for university courses and the appropriate visa will need to be lodged before coming to Australia.

Courses range from single year diplomas to full length undergraduate and post-graduate degrees. There is a choice of the sandstone universities, with their history and prestige, modern city universities with their vocational programs, and regional country town universities, with open space and cheaper accommodation. Undergraduate admission to university is centralised at the state level.

You make a single application for admission to the state admissions body stating your course preferences. The universities select students from this common applicant pool based upon their ranking and preferences. Unless you are applying for a creative arts degree, your ranking will be based solely on previous academic performance at both high school and previous university studies. Postgraduate admission is managed by individual universities and you will need to apply separately to each institution you are considering.

The full fees payable by overseas students are competitive compared to many Western universities. Australian citizens have the option of substantially reduced fees and also have the option of deferring payment until they are earning income.

Other students will generally be required to pay full tuition on enrolment each semester. Scholarships are rarely awarded for undergraduate or postgraduate coursework degrees. A comparatively large number of scholarships are available for postgraduate research usually covering both tuition, where required, and living costs. These are awarded by individual universities.

Accommodation is readily available in most Australian cities and tourist destinations. It comes in a number of different styles. Camping is a popular pastime. Most caravan parks will rent camping sites by the night, where you can pitch a tent, and these are available in most towns and cities. The caravan park will provide showers and toilets, and sometimes washing and cooking facilities.

Sometimes for an additional fee. You can even find caravan parks right on the beach, with lagoon swimming pools and playgrounds all free for guests.

National parks often provide free camping sites, which expect you to be more self-sufficient. Often toilets are provided and sometimes cold showers. Camping permits are sometimes required at popular parks, with some popular spots filling up during the holidays in summer. In Australia it is common to be within an hours drive of a national park or recreation area that will permit some form of camping, even in the capital cities. Wilsons Promontory National Park, Kosciuszko National Park, etc , however entry and camping is free in the majority of national parks further from population and tourist centres.

Some other camping areas are run by government or even local landowners. You can try your luck sleeping on a beach or pitching a tent overnight in a highway rest area, or out in the bush for a free bed. Most rest areas and beaches prohibit camping and many even prohibit overnight parking to discourage this. Generally the closer you are to civilisation or a tourist area, the greater the chance of being hassled by the authorities. Camping in state forests is often preferable to national parks if you're after a camping experience over sightseeing, as collecting of your own fire wood is allowed sometimes felling of trees is permissible dependent on the area and camping is not restricted to camp sites.

Some other activities that are generally allowed in state forests that are not allowed in national parks are: State forests are generally free to stay in, although you will need to check locally if public access is allowed.

Facilities usually include a fully equipped kitchen with adequate refrigeration and food storage areas. Most hostels also have living room areas equipped with couches, dining tables, and televisions. There are several backpacker hostel chains in Australia.

If you are staying many nights in the same brand of hostel, consider their discount cards, which usually offer a loyalty bonus on accommodation, and other attraction and tour discounts negotiated by the chain. Some of these traditional hotels still offer some form of accommodation. It can vary from very basic shabby rooms, to newly renovated boutique accommodation.

The price is usually a good reflection of what you are in for. It is still quite unusual to have a private bathroom, even in the nicer hotels. Unlike motels, traditional hotels usually charge a discounted rate for single rooms. In some smaller towns this might be the only type of accommodation available, though it is also available in the centre of Sydney making getting back to your room after a beer a simple endeavour.

Many of the older pubs in country towns are housed in grande and ornate buildings on the main street of the town and can present a unique accommodation option. Inner city areas of Australian cities are dotted with many old pubs which will often be smaller and less interesting, and less likely to provide accommodation.

A motel won't generally have a public bar. Typically, motel-style accommodation will have a private room with a bed or number of beds, and a private shower and toilet. Many motels have family rooms, that will usually have a double bed and two single beds in the one room.

Usually the cost is the same for one or two adults, with any extra people charged an additional fee. During quiet times its not unusual for motels to offer standby discounts. Most motels will serve a cooked or continental breakfast to your room in the morning, for an additional charge. Some may have a restaurant or serve an evening meal. Some may have a toaster in the room.

All state capitals have at least one major hotel at 5 star standard, with several available in the major capitals. All hotels have a restaurant or bistro, depending on the type of hotel you are staying in. The restaurant or bistro often serves food that is comparable to many other up-market restaurants outside the hotel.

Also on the ground floor would normally be a fully equipped bar. Cabins are an economical way for families to stay while travelling. Much as the name suggests, this usually involves a cabin or homestead accommodation on a working property. Suited for a stay of two or more days, this accommodation usually allows you to get a little involved in the running of the farm if you wish. It is common for dinner to be provided in the homestead, and a breakfast pack to be provided to your cabin. Holiday homes are homes rented by their owners, often using local real estate agents or specialised web sites.

Sometimes they're located in prime positions, but more often in the suburbs of cities and towns. Minimum rental periods of at least 2 days usually apply, rising to a week during periods when they are busy. At a minimum, they will have bedrooms, a lounge, bathroom and kitchen. Bed and Breakfasts tend to be a premium form of accommodation in Australia, often focussed on weekend accommodation for couples.

They certainly don't offer the discount form of accommmodation they do in part of the United Kingdom , and the local motel will usually be cheaper. Sometimes extra rooms in a person's home, but often a purpose built building. You should expect a cosy, well kept room, a common area, and a cooked breakfast. Substantial discounts often apply for mid-week stays at bed and breakfasts.

There are many true resorts around Australia. Many have lagoon pools, tennis, golf, kids clubs, and other arranged activities. The island of the Whitsundays have a choice of resorts, some occupying entire islands. Port Douglas also has many resorts of a world standard. Serviced apartments are widely available, for stays as short as one night. Amenities typically include kitchen, washer and dryer, and separate bedrooms. Caravan parks exist in most towns and cities in Australia that will provide powered and unpowered sites for Caravans.

You will commonly see the Grey Nomad brigade on their trips around Australia in motorhomes and caravans. The camper trailer has also become very popular in Australia. It is perfect for the Australian camping lifestyle, whether it be weekends away or an extended trip into the great outdoors where no facilities exist. You will need to be self-sufficient and carry suitable spares and a good tool kit.

In most parts of Australia it is illegal to sleep in your vehicle but it is possible to get around this by simply rigging up curtains all around the windows so no one can see in from the outside.

Add a mattress, pillow, portable gas cooker, cookware and a 20 lt water container and you are off. But if you are strategic in where you stay you probably won't get caught.

Just be sensible and don't disturb the locals. Also, be aware of parking restrictions in certain parts of the cities and town, including overnight parking restrictions. All cities and towns in Australia have free public toilets.

Many parks, and most beaches have free electric BBQ's as well. Popular beaches have fresh water showers to wash the salt water off after you swim, so for those on a tight budget or for those that just love waking up at the beach simply wash in the ocean please do not pollute the ocean or waterways by using detergents or soaps and rinse off at the showers.

Almost all taps in Australia are drinking water, the ones that aren't will be marked. Some of the best experiences you may have in Australia will be by taking that road on the map that looks like it heads to a beach, creek, waterfall or mountain and following it. You may just find paradise and not another soul in sight. And lucky you, you've got a bed, food and water right there with you. Travelling in a small group lowers the fuel bill per head, as this will likely be your biggest expense.

Australian citizens, New Zealand citizens and permanent residents of Australia can work in Australia without any further permits, but others will require a work visa. All visitors who do not hold Australian permanent residency or citizenship including New Zealand citizens who aren't also Australian permanent residents or citizens are not allowed to access Australian social security arrangements for the unemployed, and will have limited, or more usually, no access to the Australian government's health care payment arrangements.

Minimum wage rates are under the jurisdiction of the federal government; there are other minimum wages depending on your job, years of experience, how much education you have, how long you've been done with your education and your previous job history, so this minimum wage can fluctuate a vast amount.

Most Australian employers pay via direct deposit to Australian bank accounts. Open a bank account as soon as you arrive. Your passport will not be enough ID to open a bank account. You will need to show the bank teller points of ID [22].

You can apply for it online though, only in Australia for free at the Australian Tax Office website [23] , though you can generally get it quicker if you just go to one of their offices. The Australian financial year runs from July 1 to June 30, and tax returns for each financial year are due on October 30, four months after the accounting period concludes. Check with Australian tax agents about Australian tax liability and filing an Australian tax return. Australian employers will make compulsory payments out of your earnings to an Australian superannuation retirement savings fund on your behalf.

Temporary visitors who are not citizens of either Australia or New Zealand can have this money returned to them [24] when they leave Australia. Australia has a working holidaymaker program for yr old citizens of certain countries. It allows a stay in Australia for 12 months from the time of first entry. You may work during that time, but only for 6 months at any one employer.

The idea is for you to take a holiday subsidised by casual or short-term jobs. If you're interested in a working holiday, some useful skills and experience might be: An alternative is seasonal work like fruit-picking, although much seasonal work will require that you work outside the major cities.

Working for 3 months in seasonal work will allow you to apply for a second 12 month visa. You can apply online for a working holiday visa , but you must not be in Australia at the time. On arriving in Australia ask for the working holiday visa to be "evidenced", so you can show your future employer. The easiest way to get a work visa is to find an Australian employer who will sponsor you. However, this is just 'easier', not 'easy' as such.

Your employer will need to demonstrate that they cannot hire anyone with your skills in Australia, and the approval will take several months. If in search of sponsorship, be prepared for a long wait. Note that getting the visa might take a couple of months from the beginning of the application process, and that you will need a medical examination by a doctor approved by the immigration officials before it can be granted among other things, you will need a chest x-ray to show that you do not have tuberculosis.

You can apply to immigrate as a skilled person or business person, but this process will take longer than receiving a work visa. You can also apply for permanent residency as the holder of a work or study visa, but your application will not be automatically accepted.

After four years of permanent residency you are eligible to apply for Australian citizenship. There are several volunteer opportunities in Australia. Unless you are actively trying to insult someone, a traveller is unlikely to insult or cause offence to an Australian through any kind of cultural ignorance. Australian modes of address tend towards the familiar.

It is acceptable and normal to use first names in all situations, even to authority figures or people many years your senior. Australia is a nation that prides itself on witty and imaginative nicknames and thus fond of using and giving nicknames - even to recent acquaintances.

It is likely being called such a name is an indication that you are considered a friend and is it would be rare they are being condescending. While attitudes towards alcohol in Australia have moderated in recent years, there is still much goodwill in venturing and accepting the sharing of a drink mainly beer amongst newly made acquaintances.

In rural locations especially, refusing the offer of a quiet drink is still something that is capable of causing offence. Within the bounds of health, safety and culture, one should try and accommodate this custom, even if you only partake of a glass of lemonade.

It is generally acceptable to wear revealing clothing in Australia. Bikinis and swimming attire is okay on the beach, and usually at the kiosk across the road from the beach. It is normal to wear at least a shirt and footwear before venturing any further. Most beaches are effectively top optional topless while sunbathing. Just about all women wear a top while walking around or in the water. There are some clothing optional nude beaches, usually a little further removed from residential areas.

Thong bikinis more commonly called g-string bikinis in Australia as thongs refer to flip-flop footwear are fine on all beaches and some outdoor pools for both women and men although they are not as common as conventional beachwear.

Some outdoor pools have a "top required" policy for women. Cover up a little more when visiting places of worship such as churches. In warm conditions casual "t-shirt and shorts" style clothing predominates except in formal situations. Business attire, however, is considered to be long sleeved shirt, tie, and long trousers for men, even in the hottest weather.

In the northern part of the country, a short sleeved, open neck shirt with slacks, known as 'Darwin Rig', is acceptable. Using Australian stereotypical expressions may be viewed as an attempt to mock, rather than to communicate. If you pull it off well, you might raise a smile.

Australians are often self-deprecating, and are rarely arrogant. However, it is rude to ever agree with a self-deprecating remark. Boasting about achievements is rarely received well. Most Australians are happy to help out a lost traveller with directions, however many urban dwellers will assume that someone asking "Excuse me", is going to be asking for money, and may brush past.

Looking lost, holding a map, looking like a backpacker or getting to the point quickly will probably help. Profanities may not hold the same offensive value as they do in other English-speaking countries. It is best not to mention the name of a deceased person to an indigenous Australian. Though Aboriginal custom varies, it is best to avoid the possibility of offence. Permission to photograph an Aboriginal person should always be asked, but in particular in the more remote areas such as Arnhem Land.

There is an old belief among them that having their photograph taken will steal their soul. Many areas of Aboriginal land are free to enter. Some areas carry a request from the Aboriginal people not to enter, and you may choose yourself whether or not to honour or respect that request.

An example of an Aboriginal request is climbing Uluru Ayers Rock. No law prohibits people from climbing the rock except in heat, rain or strong winds , however, local indigenous communities The Anangu request that you do not climb.

Uluru holds great spiritual significance to the Anangu. The Anangu feel themselves responsible if someone is killed or injured on their land as has happened many times during the climb and request tourists not to place themselves in harm through climbing. Many people who travel to Uluru do climb, however, so you certainly won't be on your own if you choose to do this. Some Aboriginal land requires permission or a permit, and some areas are protected and illegal to enter.

You should check before making plans to travel off the beaten track. Permits are usually just a formality for areas which regularly see visitors, or if you have some other business in the area you are travelling through. Often they are just an agreement to respect to the land you are travelling on as Aboriginal land. Some Aboriginal Land Councils make them available online. If you need to refer to race, the politically correct term is Indigenous Australians.

Aboriginal people is usually okay and referring to sacred sites and land as Aboriginal sites, or Aboriginal land is okay too. Avoid using Aborigine or Aboriginal as a noun to describe a person, as some people see negative connotations in these words. The contraction "Abo" is deeply offensive and should never be used.

The word Native should also be avoided when referring to a person, as should colour-based terminology such as Black or White the polite term for Australians of British or Irish descent is Anglo-Celtic. The number called 'triple zero' or 'triple oh' can be dialled from any telephone in Australia free of charge. This number will connect you with emergency operators for the police, fire brigade, and ambulance service. The first question that the operator will ask is which service you need.

If you require assistance during a flood, storm, cyclone, tsunami, earthquake or other natural disaster you can contact the State Emergency Service in each state except for Northern Territory on You will be connected with your local unit and help can be organised from there.

Note that if the emergency is life-threatening, call triple zero. If you want to contact these services but the situation is not an emergency, don't call Poisons information advice, which can also advise on snake, spider and insect bites, is available on Information on locating the nearest medical services can be obtained by calling except for Tasmania. You can dial from all mobile phones. Mobile phones sold in Australia recognise it as the emergency number and will use any available network to place the call.

However, if you have a phone obtained outside Australia, using the universal emergency number is a better idea. Using will use any available network, will work even if your phone is not roaming, and will work even if the phone does not have a SIM. Hearing or speech impaired people with TTY equipment can dial Those with Internet connectivity can use the Internet Relay Service, via the website. Calls from fixed line landline phones may be traced to assist the emergency services to reach you.

The emergency services have limited ability to trace the origin of emergency calls from mobile phones, especially outside of urban areas, so be sure to calmly and clearly provide details of your location.

Nobody will likely respond to your call unless you can effectively communicate to the operator that you need assistance. If you are in need of assistance, but cannot speak, you will be diverted to an IVR and asked to press 55 to confirm that you are in need of assistance and have not called by accident. Your call will then be connected to the police.

Emergency numbers from other countries for example, '' in the USA do not work in Australia. Keep a sense of perspective. Tourists are far more likely to be killed or injured as pedestrians, drivers or passengers on Australian roads than all the other causes of death and injury combined. Driving between cities and towns can take longer than you think, especially if you are used to freeway or motorway driving in Europe or North America.

Speed limits vary by location, road and by state. Avoid the stresses of fatigue by not planning to drive too far in a day. It's also worth noting that speed limits are strictly enforced in Australia and going more than 2 kilometres over the speed limit can result in a large fine.

Note also that in many places the speed limit cannot in practice be safely reached. Speed limits are indeed limits and a certain amount of credit is being given to the driver to adjust their driving habits to the conditions.

Even if weather is not a factor, driving for example in Tasmania is just not possible at the posted speed limit continuously. To attempt to do so will put yourself and others in danger. A danger which magnifies at night with the immense wildlife population, and when weather is inclement. The wise motorist will observe how fast other drivers are travelling and also start out travel on unfamiliar roads well below the posted limit, and work up to a comfortable speed once the road has been evaluated as to its safety at various speeds.

In practice, top limits are generally only possible in a sustained fashion on double lane freeways. Driving between towns and cities comes with a risk of hitting or crashing due to swerving to avoid wildlife. Kangaroos have a habit of being spooked by cars and then, bewilderingly, jumping in front of them. Take extra care when driving through areas with vegetation close to the road and during dawn and dusk when wildlife is most active.

Wildlife is not usually an issue in major urban areas with the exception of Canberra where a series of parks provides ample habitat for kangaroos, which often cross major roads. Urban Australians jaywalk, dodge cars, and anticipate the sequence of lights; Australians from towns and regional cities are more likely to respect the pedestrian lights. Although most drivers will stop for a red light, running the amber light is common, so ensuring the traffic has stopped before stepping from the curb is always a good idea.

People from countries who drive on the right will take a while to get used to looking the correct way when crossing. Complete novices to right hand drive cars and left lane traffic flow will find value in visiting the local police station and picking up a free copy of the booklet used by young people who are trying to get a driving license. It will describe many Australian situations you may not be aware of, and its good as a refresher in any case.

For example, it is not legal to turn left on red or right as the case may be , which is a permitted action in many other major countries.

Around overseas travellers drown in Australia each year. Most of these drownings occur at ocean beaches, where statistics put visitors at significantly higher risk than locals. Check the Beach Safety website. Beach goers should swim between the red and yellow flags which designate patrolled areas. Beaches are not patrolled hours a day or even during all daylight hours. In most cases the local volunteer surf lifesavers or professional lifeguards are only available during certain hours, and at some beaches only on weekends, and often only during summer.

Exact times are generally shown at entrances to most beaches. If the flags aren't up, then there's no one patrolling - and you shouldn't swim. If you do choose to swim, be aware of the risks, check conditions, stay within your depth, and don't swim alone. Hard surfboards and other water craft such as surf skis, kayaks etc. These craft must only be used outside of the blue 'surf craft permitted' flags.

Australian ocean beaches can sometimes have strong rips that even the strongest swimmers are unable to swim against. Rips are invisible channels of water flowing away from the beach. These channels take out the water which the incoming surf waves bring into shore. Beach goers can mistakenly use these channels or areas since they can appear as calm water and look to be an easier area into which to swim. Problems arise when the swimmer tries to swim back into shore against the outgoing current or rip, tire quickly, and end up drowning.

Rips can be recognised by one or more of these signs: If you are caught in a rip at a patrolled beach, conserve your energy, float or tread water and raise one hand.

The surf lifesavers will come out to you. Don't wait until you are so tired you can't swim any more. You will probably find that local swimmers or surfers will also quickly come to your aid. Usually the flags are positioned where there are no rips, but this isn't always the case as rips can move. If you are caught in a rip at an unpatrolled beach stay calm to conserve energy and swim parallel to the beach not against the pull of the current. Most rips are only a few metres wide, and once clear of the undertow, you will be able to swim or catch a wave to return to shore.

Don't think that the right technique will get you out of every situation. In the surf out the back of the beach, treading water can be hard with waves pounding you every few seconds.

Unless you have seen it happen, its hard to appreciate how quickly a rip can take you 50 m out to sea and into much larger wave breaks. If you are at an unpatrolled surf beach, proceed with great caution and never go out of your depth.

Beach signs often have a number or an alphanumeric code on them. This code can be given to emergency services if required so they can locate you quickly. Crocodiles and Box Jellyfish are found on tropical beaches, depending on the time of year and area. Sharks occur on many of Australia's beaches. See the section below on dangerous creatures. Patrolled beaches will be monitoring the ocean for any shark activity.

If you hear a continuous siren, go off at the beach and a red and a red and white quartered flag is waved or held out of the tower as it indicates a shark sighting, so make your way to shore. Once it is clear, a short blast of the siren will be sounded, which usually means that it is safe to return to the water.

Tropical cyclones hurricanes occur in the tropics during summer. In the tropical north the Wet Season occurs over the summer months of December, January and February, bringing torrential rains and frequent floods to those regions. It is not unusual for some coastal areas to be cut off for a day or two while the water recedes. It can still be a good time to visit some of the well populated, tourist-oriented areas, and, except in unusually heavy flooding, you can still get to see the pounding waterfalls and other attractions that can make this an interesting time to visit.

Floods in outback and inland Australia are rare, occurring decades apart, so you would be unlucky to encounter them. However, if you are planning to visit the inland or the outback and the area is flooded, then you should reconsider. The land is flat, so the water can take weeks to move on, leaving the land boggy. Insects and mosquitoes go crazy with all the fresh water pooling around, and these things eat insect repellent for breakfast and are still hungry.

Roads close, often adding many hours to driving times. Many attractions often lie on a short stretch of dirt road off the main highways, and these sections become impassable, even if the main road remains open.

Plan to return in a few weeks, and the land will still be green, the lakes and rivers will still be flowing, and the bird life will still be around. The wettest period for the south of the country is usually around the winter months of June, July, and August. There is rarely enough rain at one time to cause flooding. The capital cities are rarely affected by floods, however, in recent years and Brisbane has been victim to devastating floods, cutting off suburban roads, damaging infrastructure and halting public transport.

Additionally, after long dry periods, sudden storms can cause flooding due to hardened ground, poor infrastructure and blocked drains. National parks and forested areas of southern Australia, including some parts of major cities next to national parks and forests, can be threatened by bushfires wildfires in summer.

If the fire risk is extreme, parks may be closed, especially the backcountry areas, so you will need to have an alternative plan if you intend to camp or hike in parks during summer. If there is a fire in a park, it will usually be closed entirely. Entire country towns can sometimes be evacuated when there is a bushfire threatening them.

Pokie Machines Outils Pour have written

FIFA report on World Cup scandal highly critical of Australia bid. Our locations. Our Australian locations; Clayton. About Clayton campus; Gardens at Clayton. Garden locations map; Learning and Teaching Building. Construction. Accounting - Undergraduate Area of study - Faculty of Business and Economics - Monash University.

Pokies Biggest Wingspan Ever By Human

Oceania 1815 - 2015