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Nitrous oxidecommonly known as laughing gas or nitrous[1] is a chemical compoundan oxide of nitrogen with the formula N 2 O. At room temperature, it is a colorless non-flammable gaswith a slight metallic scent and taste.

At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidizer similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide has significant medical usesespecially in surgery and dentistryfor its anaesthetic and pain reducing effects. Its name "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davyis due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic.

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It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicinesthe most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. Nitrous oxide occurs in small amounts in the atmosphere, but recently has been found to be a major scavenger of stratospheric ozonewith an impact comparable to that of CFCs.

Nitrous oxide may be used as an oxidizer in a rocket motor. This has the advantages over other oxidisers, in that, it is not only non-toxic, but also, due to its stability at room temperature, being easy to store, and being relatively safe to carry on a flight. As a secondary benefit, it may be decomposed readily to form breathing air.

Its high density and low storage pressure when maintained at low temperature enable it to be highly competitive with stored high-pressure gas systems.

In a patent, American rocket pioneer Robert Goddard suggested nitrous oxide and gasoline as possible propellants for a liquid-fuelled rocket. The combination of nitrous oxide with hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene fuel has been used by SpaceShipOne and others.

It also is notably used in amateur and high power rocketry with various plastics as the fuel. Nitrous oxide also may be used in a monopropellant rocket. In Pokies Bonus $ Store Pregnancy vacuum thruster, this may provide a monopropellant specific impulse I sp of as much as s. While noticeably less than the I sp available from hydrazine thrusters monopropellant or bipropellant with dinitrogen tetroxidethe decreased toxicity makes nitrous oxide an option worth investigating. In vehicle racingnitrous oxide often referred to as just " nitrous " allows Pokies Wild Videos Girls engine to burn more fuel by providing more oxygen than air alone, resulting in a more powerful combustion.

Therefore, it often is mixed with another fuel that is easier to deflagrate. Nitrous oxide is a strong oxidant, roughly equivalent to hydrogen peroxide, and much stronger than oxygen gas. Sometimes nitrous oxide is injected into or prior to the intake manifold, whereas other systems directly inject, right before the cylinder direct port injection to increase power. Originally meant to provide the Luftwaffe standard aircraft with superior high-altitude performance, technological considerations limited its use to extremely high altitudes.

Accordingly, it was only used by specialized planes such as high-altitude reconnaissance aircrafthigh-speed bombersand high-altitude interceptor aircraft. It sometimes could be found on Luftwaffe aircraft also fitted with another engine-boost system, MW 50a form of water injection for aviation engines that used methanol for its boost capabilities.

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One of the major problems of using nitrous oxide in a reciprocating engine is that it can produce enough power to damage or destroy the engine. Very large power increases are possible, and if the mechanical structure of the engine is not properly reinforced, the engine may be severely damaged, or destroyed, during this kind of operation.

It is very important with nitrous oxide augmentation of petrol engines to maintain proper operating temperatures and fuel levels to prevent "pre-ignition", [10] or "detonation" sometimes referred to as "knock". Most problems that are associated with nitrous oxide do not come from mechanical failure due to the power increases. Since nitrous oxide allows a much denser charge into the cylinder, it dramatically increases cylinder pressures. The increased pressure and temperature can cause problems such as melting the piston or valves.

It also may crack or warp the piston or head and cause pre-ignition due to uneven heating.

Automotive-grade liquid nitrous oxide differs slightly from medical-grade nitrous oxide. A small amount of sulfur dioxide SO 2 is added to prevent substance abuse. The gas is approved for use as a food additive also known as Especifically as an aerosol spray propellant.

Its most common uses in this context are in aerosol whipped cream canisters, cooking spraysand as an inert gas used to displace oxygen in order to inhibit bacterial growth when filling packages of potato chips and other similar snack foods. The gas is extremely soluble in fatty compounds. In aerosol whipped cream, it is dissolved in the fatty cream until it leaves the can, when it becomes gaseous and thus creates foam. Used in this way, it produces whipped cream four times the volume of the liquid, whereas whipping air into cream only produces twice the volume.

If Pokies Big Win Basketball Youtube Intros were used as a propellant, oxygen would accelerate rancidification of the butterfat, but nitrous oxide inhibits such degradation. Carbon dioxide cannot be used for whipped cream because it is acidic in water, which would curdle the cream and give it a seltzer-like "sparkling" sensation.

The whipped cream produced with nitrous oxide is unstable, however, and will return to a more liquid state within half an hour to one hour. During Decembersome manufacturers reported a shortage of aerosol whipped creams in the United States due to an explosion at the Air Liquide nitrous oxide facility in Florida in late August.

With a major facility offline, the disruption caused a shortage resulting Pokies Bonus $ Store Pregnancy the company diverting the supply of nitrous oxide to medical clients rather than to food manufacturing. The shortage came during the Christmas and holiday season when canned whipped cream use is normally at its highest. Similarly, cooking spraywhich is made from various types of oils combined with lecithin an emulsifiermay use nitrous oxide as a propellant.

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Other propellants used in cooking spray include food-grade alcohol and propane. Nitrous oxide has been used in dentistry and surgery, as an anaesthetic and analgesic, since In the early days, the gas was administered through simple inhalers consisting of a breathing bag made of rubber cloth. Nitrous oxide is a weak general anaestheticand so is generally not used alone in general anaesthesia, but used as a carrier gas mixed with oxygen for more powerful general anaesthetic drugs such as sevoflurane or desflurane.

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The use of nitrous oxide in anaesthesia, however, can increase the risk of postoperative nausea and vomiting. The patient is kept conscious throughout the procedure, and retains adequate mental faculties to respond to questions and instructions from the dentist.

Inhalation of nitrous oxide is used frequently to relieve pain associated with childbirthtraumaoral surgeryand acute coronary syndrome includes heart attacks. Its use during labour has been shown to be a safe and effective aid for birthing women. In Britain and Canada, Entonox and Nitronox are used commonly by ambulance crews including unregistered practitioners as a rapid and highly effective analgesic gas.

The rapid reversibility of its effect would also prevent it from precluding diagnosis. Starting already in the nineteenth century, widespread availability of the gas for medical and culinary purposes allowed the recreational use to expand greatly, throughout the world.

In the United Kingdom, as ofnitrous oxide was estimated to be used by almost half a million young people at nightspots, festivals, and parties.

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The Aristocrat Pokies Iphone App safety hazards of nitrous oxide come from the fact that it is a compressed liquefied gas, an asphyxiation risk, and a dissociative anaesthetic. While relatively non-toxic, nitrous oxide has a number of recognized ill effects on human health, whether through breathing it in or by contact of the liquid with skin or eyes.

Nitrous oxide is a significant occupational hazard for surgeons, dentists, and nurses. Because nitrous oxide is minimally metabolised in humans with a rate of 0.

Where nitrous oxide is administered, a continuous-flow fresh-air ventilation system or N 2 O scavenger system is used to prevent a waste-gas buildup. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health recommends that workers' exposure to nitrous oxide should be controlled during the administration of anaesthetic gas in medical, dental, and veterinary operators.

Exposure to nitrous oxide causes short-term decreases in mental performance, audiovisual ability, and manual dexterity. Like other NMDA antagonistsN 2 O was suggested to produce neurotoxicity in the form of Olney's lesions in rodents upon prolonged several hour exposure. This is especially true of non-medical formulations such as whipped-cream chargers also known as "whippets" or "nangs"[34] which never contain oxygen, since oxygen makes cream rancid.

Additionally, nitrous oxide depletes vitamin B 12 levels.

This can cause serious neurotoxicity with even acute use, if the user has preexisting vitamin B 12 deficiency. If pure nitrous oxide is inhaled without oxygen mixed in, this can eventually lead to oxygen deprivation resulting in loss of blood pressure, fainting and even heart attacks.

This can occur if the user inahles large quantities continuously, as with a strap-on mask connected to a gas canister. It can also happen if the user engages in excessive breath-holding or uses any other inhalation system that cuts off their supply of fresh air [38].

Long-term exposure to nitrous oxide may cause vitamin B Pokies Bonus $ Store Pregnancy deficiency. It inactivates the cobalamin form of vitamin B 12 by oxidation.

Symptoms of vitamin B 12 deficiencyincluding sensory neuropathymyelopathyand encephalopathymay occur within days or weeks of exposure to nitrous oxide anaesthesia in people with subclinical vitamin B 12 deficiency. Symptoms are treated with high doses of vitamin B 12but recovery can be slow and incomplete. People with normal vitamin B 12 levels have stores to make the effects of nitrous oxide insignificant, unless exposure is repeated and prolonged nitrous oxide abuse.

Vitamin B 12 levels should be checked in people with risk factors for vitamin B 12 deficiency prior to using nitrous oxide anaesthesia. Several experimental studies in rats indicate that chronic exposure of pregnant females to nitrous oxide may have adverse effects on the developing fetus. The pressure curve is thus unusually sensitive to temperature. There also have been incidents where nitrous oxide decomposition in Pokies Youtube Url Shortener Pokies Bonus $ Store Pregnancy led to the explosion of large tanks.

The pharmacological mechanism of action of N 2 O in medicine is not fully known. However, it has been shown to directly modulate a broad range of ligand-gated ion channelsand this likely plays a major role in many of its effects.

The effects of inhaling sub-anaesthetic doses of Nitrous Oxide have been known to vary, based on several factors, including settings and individual differences, [51] [52] however, from his discussion, Jay [26] suggests that it has been reliably known to induce the following states and sensations:. A minority of users also will present with uncontrolled vocalisations and muscular spasms. These effects generally disappear minutes after removal of the nitrous oxide source.

In rats, N 2 O stimulates the mesolimbic reward pathway via inducing dopamine release and activating dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area and nucleus accumbenspresumably through antagonisation of NMDA receptors localised in the system. It is remarkable, however, that in mice, N 2 O blocks amphetamine -induced carrier-mediated dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens and behavioural sensitisationabolishes the conditioned place preference CPP of cocaine and morphineand does not produce reinforcing or aversive effects of its own.

In behavioural tests of anxietya low dose of N 2 O is an effective anxiolyticand this anti-anxiety effect is associated with enhanced activity of GABA A receptors, as it is partially reversed by benzodiazepine receptor antagonists. Mirroring this, animals that have developed tolerance to the anxiolytic effects of benzodiazepines are partially tolerant to N 2 O. The analgesic effects of N 2 O are linked to the interaction between the endogenous opioid system and the descending noradrenergic system.

When animals are given morphine chronically, they develop tolerance to its pain-killing effects, and this also renders the animals tolerant to the analgesic effects of N 2 O. Nitrous oxide supports combustion by releasing the dipolar bonded oxygen radical, [Name? N 2 O is inert at room temperature and has few reactions. At elevated temperatures, its reactivity increases. The above reaction is the route adopted by the commercial chemical industry to produce azide salts, which are used as detonators.

The gas was first synthesised in by English natural philosopher and chemist Joseph Priestleywho called it phlogisticated nitrous air see phlogiston [72] or inflammable nitrous air. The first important use of nitrous oxide was made possible by Thomas Beddoes and James Wattwho worked together to publish the book Considerations on the Medical Use and on the Production of Factitious Airs This book was important for two reasons.

First, James Watt had invented a novel machine to produce "Factitious Airs" i.

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Carbon dioxide cannot be used for whipped cream because it is acidic in water, which would curdle the cream and give it a seltzer-like "sparkling" sensation. The whipped cream produced with nitrous oxide is unstable, however, and will return to a more liquid state within half an hour to one hour. During December , some manufacturers reported a shortage of aerosol whipped creams in the United States due to an explosion at the Air Liquide nitrous oxide facility in Florida in late August.

With a major facility offline, the disruption caused a shortage resulting in the company diverting the supply of nitrous oxide to medical clients rather than to food manufacturing. The shortage came during the Christmas and holiday season when canned whipped cream use is normally at its highest.

Similarly, cooking spray , which is made from various types of oils combined with lecithin an emulsifier , may use nitrous oxide as a propellant.

Other propellants used in cooking spray include food-grade alcohol and propane. Nitrous oxide has been used in dentistry and surgery, as an anaesthetic and analgesic, since In the early days, the gas was administered through simple inhalers consisting of a breathing bag made of rubber cloth. Nitrous oxide is a weak general anaesthetic , and so is generally not used alone in general anaesthesia, but used as a carrier gas mixed with oxygen for more powerful general anaesthetic drugs such as sevoflurane or desflurane.

The use of nitrous oxide in anaesthesia, however, can increase the risk of postoperative nausea and vomiting. The patient is kept conscious throughout the procedure, and retains adequate mental faculties to respond to questions and instructions from the dentist. Inhalation of nitrous oxide is used frequently to relieve pain associated with childbirth , trauma , oral surgery , and acute coronary syndrome includes heart attacks. Its use during labour has been shown to be a safe and effective aid for birthing women.

In Britain and Canada, Entonox and Nitronox are used commonly by ambulance crews including unregistered practitioners as a rapid and highly effective analgesic gas. The rapid reversibility of its effect would also prevent it from precluding diagnosis. Starting already in the nineteenth century, widespread availability of the gas for medical and culinary purposes allowed the recreational use to expand greatly, throughout the world.

In the United Kingdom, as of , nitrous oxide was estimated to be used by almost half a million young people at nightspots, festivals, and parties. The major safety hazards of nitrous oxide come from the fact that it is a compressed liquefied gas, an asphyxiation risk, and a dissociative anaesthetic.

While relatively non-toxic, nitrous oxide has a number of recognized ill effects on human health, whether through breathing it in or by contact of the liquid with skin or eyes. Nitrous oxide is a significant occupational hazard for surgeons, dentists, and nurses. Because nitrous oxide is minimally metabolised in humans with a rate of 0. Where nitrous oxide is administered, a continuous-flow fresh-air ventilation system or N 2 O scavenger system is used to prevent a waste-gas buildup.

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health recommends that workers' exposure to nitrous oxide should be controlled during the administration of anaesthetic gas in medical, dental, and veterinary operators.

Exposure to nitrous oxide causes short-term decreases in mental performance, audiovisual ability, and manual dexterity.

Like other NMDA antagonists , N 2 O was suggested to produce neurotoxicity in the form of Olney's lesions in rodents upon prolonged several hour exposure. This is especially true of non-medical formulations such as whipped-cream chargers also known as "whippets" or "nangs" , [34] which never contain oxygen, since oxygen makes cream rancid.

Additionally, nitrous oxide depletes vitamin B 12 levels. This can cause serious neurotoxicity with even acute use, if the user has preexisting vitamin B 12 deficiency. If pure nitrous oxide is inhaled without oxygen mixed in, this can eventually lead to oxygen deprivation resulting in loss of blood pressure, fainting and even heart attacks.

This can occur if the user inahles large quantities continuously, as with a strap-on mask connected to a gas canister. It can also happen if the user engages in excessive breath-holding or uses any other inhalation system that cuts off their supply of fresh air [38].

Long-term exposure to nitrous oxide may cause vitamin B 12 deficiency. It inactivates the cobalamin form of vitamin B 12 by oxidation. Symptoms of vitamin B 12 deficiency , including sensory neuropathy , myelopathy , and encephalopathy , may occur within days or weeks of exposure to nitrous oxide anaesthesia in people with subclinical vitamin B 12 deficiency.

Symptoms are treated with high doses of vitamin B 12 , but recovery can be slow and incomplete. People with normal vitamin B 12 levels have stores to make the effects of nitrous oxide insignificant, unless exposure is repeated and prolonged nitrous oxide abuse.

Vitamin B 12 levels should be checked in people with risk factors for vitamin B 12 deficiency prior to using nitrous oxide anaesthesia. Several experimental studies in rats indicate that chronic exposure of pregnant females to nitrous oxide may have adverse effects on the developing fetus. The pressure curve is thus unusually sensitive to temperature.

There also have been incidents where nitrous oxide decomposition in plumbing has led to the explosion of large tanks. The pharmacological mechanism of action of N 2 O in medicine is not fully known. However, it has been shown to directly modulate a broad range of ligand-gated ion channels , and this likely plays a major role in many of its effects.

The effects of inhaling sub-anaesthetic doses of Nitrous Oxide have been known to vary, based on several factors, including settings and individual differences, [51] [52] however, from his discussion, Jay [26] suggests that it has been reliably known to induce the following states and sensations:. A minority of users also will present with uncontrolled vocalisations and muscular spasms. These effects generally disappear minutes after removal of the nitrous oxide source.

In rats, N 2 O stimulates the mesolimbic reward pathway via inducing dopamine release and activating dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area and nucleus accumbens , presumably through antagonisation of NMDA receptors localised in the system. It is remarkable, however, that in mice, N 2 O blocks amphetamine -induced carrier-mediated dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens and behavioural sensitisation , abolishes the conditioned place preference CPP of cocaine and morphine , and does not produce reinforcing or aversive effects of its own.

In behavioural tests of anxiety , a low dose of N 2 O is an effective anxiolytic , and this anti-anxiety effect is associated with enhanced activity of GABA A receptors, as it is partially reversed by benzodiazepine receptor antagonists.

Mirroring this, animals that have developed tolerance to the anxiolytic effects of benzodiazepines are partially tolerant to N 2 O. The analgesic effects of N 2 O are linked to the interaction between the endogenous opioid system and the descending noradrenergic system. When animals are given morphine chronically, they develop tolerance to its pain-killing effects, and this also renders the animals tolerant to the analgesic effects of N 2 O.

Nitrous oxide supports combustion by releasing the dipolar bonded oxygen radical, [Name? N 2 O is inert at room temperature and has few reactions. At elevated temperatures, its reactivity increases. The above reaction is the route adopted by the commercial chemical industry to produce azide salts, which are used as detonators. The gas was first synthesised in by English natural philosopher and chemist Joseph Priestley , who called it phlogisticated nitrous air see phlogiston [72] or inflammable nitrous air.

The first important use of nitrous oxide was made possible by Thomas Beddoes and James Watt , who worked together to publish the book Considerations on the Medical Use and on the Production of Factitious Airs This book was important for two reasons. First, James Watt had invented a novel machine to produce "Factitious Airs" i.

Second, the book also presented the new medical theories by Thomas Beddoes, that tuberculosis and other lung diseases could be treated by inhalation of "Factitious Airs". The machine to produce "Factitious Airs" had three parts: The breathing apparatus consisted of one of the portable air bags connected with a tube to a mouthpiece.

With this new equipment being engineered and produced by , the way was paved for clinical trials , [ clarification needed ] which began in when Thomas Beddoes established the " Pneumatic Institution for Relieving Diseases by Medical Airs" in Hotwells Bristol.

In the basement of the building, a large-scale machine was producing the gases under the supervision of a young Humphry Davy , who was encouraged to experiment with new gases for patients to inhale. Researches, Chemical and Philosophical In that publication, Davy notes the analgesic effect of nitrous oxide at page and its potential to be used for surgical operations at page Despite Davy's discovery that inhalation of nitrous oxide could relieve a conscious person from pain, another 44 years elapsed before doctors attempted to use it for anaesthesia.

The use of nitrous oxide as a recreational drug at "laughing gas parties", primarily arranged for the British upper class , became an immediate success beginning in While the effects of the gas generally make the user appear stuporous, dreamy, and sedated, some people also "get the giggles" in a state of euphoria, and frequently erupt in laughter. One of the earliest commercial producers in the U.

The first time nitrous oxide was used as an anaesthetic drug in the treatment of a patient was when dentist Horace Wells , with assistance by Gardner Quincy Colton and John Mankey Riggs , demonstrated insensitivity to pain from a dental extraction on 11 December The reason for this was most likely that Wells, in January at his first public demonstration to the medical faculty in Boston, had been partly unsuccessful, leaving his colleagues doubtful regarding its efficacy and safety.

Nitrous oxide was not found to be a strong enough anaesthetic for use in major surgery in hospital settings, however. Instead, diethyl ether , being a stronger and more potent anaesthetic, was demonstrated and accepted for use in October , along with chloroform in Clover's gas-ether inhaler was designed to supply the patient with nitrous oxide and ether at the same time, with the exact mixture being controlled by the operator of the device.

It remained in use by many hospitals until the s. Colton's popularization of nitrous oxide led to its adoption by a number of less than reputable quacksalvers , who touted it as a cure for consumption , scrofula , catarrh , and other diseases of the blood, throat, and lungs.

Nitrous oxide treatment was administered and licensed as a patent medicine by the likes of C. Nitrous oxide is prepared on an industrial scale by careful heating of ammonium nitrate at about C, which decomposes into nitrous oxide and water vapour. The addition of various phosphate salts favours formation of a purer gas at slightly lower temperatures. The amount tofeedis determined by body weight.

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Since nitrous oxide allows a much denser charge into the cylinder, it dramatically increases cylinder pressures. The increased pressure and temperature can cause problems such as melting the piston or valves. It also may crack or warp the piston or head and cause pre-ignition due to uneven heating. Automotive-grade liquid nitrous oxide differs slightly from medical-grade nitrous oxide. A small amount of sulfur dioxide SO 2 is added to prevent substance abuse.

The gas is approved for use as a food additive also known as E , specifically as an aerosol spray propellant. Its most common uses in this context are in aerosol whipped cream canisters, cooking sprays , and as an inert gas used to displace oxygen in order to inhibit bacterial growth when filling packages of potato chips and other similar snack foods.

The gas is extremely soluble in fatty compounds. In aerosol whipped cream, it is dissolved in the fatty cream until it leaves the can, when it becomes gaseous and thus creates foam. Used in this way, it produces whipped cream four times the volume of the liquid, whereas whipping air into cream only produces twice the volume. If air were used as a propellant, oxygen would accelerate rancidification of the butterfat, but nitrous oxide inhibits such degradation. Carbon dioxide cannot be used for whipped cream because it is acidic in water, which would curdle the cream and give it a seltzer-like "sparkling" sensation.

The whipped cream produced with nitrous oxide is unstable, however, and will return to a more liquid state within half an hour to one hour. During December , some manufacturers reported a shortage of aerosol whipped creams in the United States due to an explosion at the Air Liquide nitrous oxide facility in Florida in late August.

With a major facility offline, the disruption caused a shortage resulting in the company diverting the supply of nitrous oxide to medical clients rather than to food manufacturing. The shortage came during the Christmas and holiday season when canned whipped cream use is normally at its highest.

Similarly, cooking spray , which is made from various types of oils combined with lecithin an emulsifier , may use nitrous oxide as a propellant. Other propellants used in cooking spray include food-grade alcohol and propane.

Nitrous oxide has been used in dentistry and surgery, as an anaesthetic and analgesic, since In the early days, the gas was administered through simple inhalers consisting of a breathing bag made of rubber cloth. Nitrous oxide is a weak general anaesthetic , and so is generally not used alone in general anaesthesia, but used as a carrier gas mixed with oxygen for more powerful general anaesthetic drugs such as sevoflurane or desflurane.

The use of nitrous oxide in anaesthesia, however, can increase the risk of postoperative nausea and vomiting. The patient is kept conscious throughout the procedure, and retains adequate mental faculties to respond to questions and instructions from the dentist. Inhalation of nitrous oxide is used frequently to relieve pain associated with childbirth , trauma , oral surgery , and acute coronary syndrome includes heart attacks.

Its use during labour has been shown to be a safe and effective aid for birthing women. In Britain and Canada, Entonox and Nitronox are used commonly by ambulance crews including unregistered practitioners as a rapid and highly effective analgesic gas. The rapid reversibility of its effect would also prevent it from precluding diagnosis. Starting already in the nineteenth century, widespread availability of the gas for medical and culinary purposes allowed the recreational use to expand greatly, throughout the world.

In the United Kingdom, as of , nitrous oxide was estimated to be used by almost half a million young people at nightspots, festivals, and parties. The major safety hazards of nitrous oxide come from the fact that it is a compressed liquefied gas, an asphyxiation risk, and a dissociative anaesthetic. While relatively non-toxic, nitrous oxide has a number of recognized ill effects on human health, whether through breathing it in or by contact of the liquid with skin or eyes.

Nitrous oxide is a significant occupational hazard for surgeons, dentists, and nurses. Because nitrous oxide is minimally metabolised in humans with a rate of 0.

Where nitrous oxide is administered, a continuous-flow fresh-air ventilation system or N 2 O scavenger system is used to prevent a waste-gas buildup. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health recommends that workers' exposure to nitrous oxide should be controlled during the administration of anaesthetic gas in medical, dental, and veterinary operators.

Exposure to nitrous oxide causes short-term decreases in mental performance, audiovisual ability, and manual dexterity. Like other NMDA antagonists , N 2 O was suggested to produce neurotoxicity in the form of Olney's lesions in rodents upon prolonged several hour exposure.

This is especially true of non-medical formulations such as whipped-cream chargers also known as "whippets" or "nangs" , [34] which never contain oxygen, since oxygen makes cream rancid. Additionally, nitrous oxide depletes vitamin B 12 levels. This can cause serious neurotoxicity with even acute use, if the user has preexisting vitamin B 12 deficiency.

If pure nitrous oxide is inhaled without oxygen mixed in, this can eventually lead to oxygen deprivation resulting in loss of blood pressure, fainting and even heart attacks. This can occur if the user inahles large quantities continuously, as with a strap-on mask connected to a gas canister. It can also happen if the user engages in excessive breath-holding or uses any other inhalation system that cuts off their supply of fresh air [38].

Long-term exposure to nitrous oxide may cause vitamin B 12 deficiency. It inactivates the cobalamin form of vitamin B 12 by oxidation. Symptoms of vitamin B 12 deficiency , including sensory neuropathy , myelopathy , and encephalopathy , may occur within days or weeks of exposure to nitrous oxide anaesthesia in people with subclinical vitamin B 12 deficiency.

Symptoms are treated with high doses of vitamin B 12 , but recovery can be slow and incomplete. People with normal vitamin B 12 levels have stores to make the effects of nitrous oxide insignificant, unless exposure is repeated and prolonged nitrous oxide abuse. Vitamin B 12 levels should be checked in people with risk factors for vitamin B 12 deficiency prior to using nitrous oxide anaesthesia. Several experimental studies in rats indicate that chronic exposure of pregnant females to nitrous oxide may have adverse effects on the developing fetus.

The pressure curve is thus unusually sensitive to temperature. There also have been incidents where nitrous oxide decomposition in plumbing has led to the explosion of large tanks. The pharmacological mechanism of action of N 2 O in medicine is not fully known. However, it has been shown to directly modulate a broad range of ligand-gated ion channels , and this likely plays a major role in many of its effects.

The effects of inhaling sub-anaesthetic doses of Nitrous Oxide have been known to vary, based on several factors, including settings and individual differences, [51] [52] however, from his discussion, Jay [26] suggests that it has been reliably known to induce the following states and sensations:. A minority of users also will present with uncontrolled vocalisations and muscular spasms. These effects generally disappear minutes after removal of the nitrous oxide source.

In rats, N 2 O stimulates the mesolimbic reward pathway via inducing dopamine release and activating dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area and nucleus accumbens , presumably through antagonisation of NMDA receptors localised in the system.

It is remarkable, however, that in mice, N 2 O blocks amphetamine -induced carrier-mediated dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens and behavioural sensitisation , abolishes the conditioned place preference CPP of cocaine and morphine , and does not produce reinforcing or aversive effects of its own.

In behavioural tests of anxiety , a low dose of N 2 O is an effective anxiolytic , and this anti-anxiety effect is associated with enhanced activity of GABA A receptors, as it is partially reversed by benzodiazepine receptor antagonists.

Mirroring this, animals that have developed tolerance to the anxiolytic effects of benzodiazepines are partially tolerant to N 2 O. The analgesic effects of N 2 O are linked to the interaction between the endogenous opioid system and the descending noradrenergic system. When animals are given morphine chronically, they develop tolerance to its pain-killing effects, and this also renders the animals tolerant to the analgesic effects of N 2 O.

Nitrous oxide supports combustion by releasing the dipolar bonded oxygen radical, [Name? N 2 O is inert at room temperature and has few reactions. At elevated temperatures, its reactivity increases. The above reaction is the route adopted by the commercial chemical industry to produce azide salts, which are used as detonators. The gas was first synthesised in by English natural philosopher and chemist Joseph Priestley , who called it phlogisticated nitrous air see phlogiston [72] or inflammable nitrous air.

The first important use of nitrous oxide was made possible by Thomas Beddoes and James Watt , who worked together to publish the book Considerations on the Medical Use and on the Production of Factitious Airs This book was important for two reasons. First, James Watt had invented a novel machine to produce "Factitious Airs" i. Second, the book also presented the new medical theories by Thomas Beddoes, that tuberculosis and other lung diseases could be treated by inhalation of "Factitious Airs".

The machine to produce "Factitious Airs" had three parts: The breathing apparatus consisted of one of the portable air bags connected with a tube to a mouthpiece. With this new equipment being engineered and produced by , the way was paved for clinical trials , [ clarification needed ] which began in when Thomas Beddoes established the " Pneumatic Institution for Relieving Diseases by Medical Airs" in Hotwells Bristol.

In the basement of the building, a large-scale machine was producing the gases under the supervision of a young Humphry Davy , who was encouraged to experiment with new gases for patients to inhale.

Researches, Chemical and Philosophical In that publication, Davy notes the analgesic effect of nitrous oxide at page and its potential to be used for surgical operations at page Despite Davy's discovery that inhalation of nitrous oxide could relieve a conscious person from pain, another 44 years elapsed before doctors attempted to use it for anaesthesia. The use of nitrous oxide as a recreational drug at "laughing gas parties", primarily arranged for the British upper class , became an immediate success beginning in While the effects of the gas generally make the user appear stuporous, dreamy, and sedated, some people also "get the giggles" in a state of euphoria, and frequently erupt in laughter.

One of the earliest commercial producers in the U. The first time nitrous oxide was used as an anaesthetic drug in the treatment of a patient was when dentist Horace Wells , with assistance by Gardner Quincy Colton and John Mankey Riggs , demonstrated insensitivity to pain from a dental extraction on 11 December Karen and Kevin Clifton take to the ballroom floor with different dance partners for a second week in final amid 'marital woes' The force is strong with them!

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January "Engine Basics: Retrieved 18 December Drug Discovery —A History. Legacy of the past, chapter 8: John Wiley and Sons. Retrieved 21 April Archived from the original on 19 December British Journal of Anaesthesia. Retrieved 9 August Drugs and Alcohol Today. British Journal of Pharmacology.

Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. De Vasconcellos and J. Sneyd , "Nitrous oxide: Are we still in equipoise? A qualitative review of current controversies". British Journal of Anaesthesia, volume , issue 6, pages — Retrieved 2 June British journal of anaesthesia. Air Liquide Gas Encyclopedia. Archived from the original PDF on 1 September Comparison with isoflurane and ethanol". DeWayne; Chenoweth, Dennis E. Cognitive, Emotional, Perceptual and Transcendental Experiences".

Journal of Psychedelic Drugs. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior. The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Drug and Alcohol Dependence.

The group 15 elements". Inorganic Chemistry 3rd ed. Archived from the original on 12 January Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences.

Researches, chemical and philosophical —chiefly concerning nitrous oxide or dephlogisticated nitrous air, and its respiration.

Oxford Textbook of Anaesthesia. Horace Wells of Hartford". The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine. A history of the discovery, of the application of nitrous oxide gas, ether, and other vapours, to surgical operations. Archived from the original on 27 November Retrieved 11 April Retrieved 2 February Retrieved 31 March Temporal variability of nitrous oxide from fertilized croplands: Soil Science Society of America Journal Hotspots of nitrous oxide emission in fertilized and unfertilized perennial grasses on wetness-prone marginal land in New York State.

Chemosphere — Global Change Science. Kroneck and Martha E. Retrieved 19 March Page document header listing. The Physical Sciences Basis". Archived from the original on 1 May Retrieved 30 April Retrieved 21 September Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. Center for Cognitive Liberty and Ethics. California Code — Section b". Retrieved 17 August Calea zacatechichi Silene capensis. Coffee break Coffeehouse Latte art Tea house.

Abuse Date rape drug Impaired driving Drug harmfulness Effects of cannabis Addiction Dependence Prevention Opioid replacement therapy Rehabilitation Responsible use Drug-related crime Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder Long-term effects of cannabis Neurotoxicity Overdose Passive smoking of tobacco or other substances. Alcohol legality Alcohol consumption Anabolic steroid legality Cannabis legality Annual use Lifetime use Cigarette consumption Cocaine legality Cocaine use Methamphetamine legality Opiates use Psilocybin mushrooms legality Salvia legality.

Analgesics N02A , N02B. Meclofenamic acid Mefenamic acid. Cannabidiol Cannabis Nabilone Nabiximols Tetrahydrocannabinol dronabinol. Gabapentin Gabapentin enacarbil Pregabalin Ziconotide. Carbamazepine Lacosamide Local anesthetics e. Diphenidine Ephenidine Fluorolintane Methoxphenidine. Dextrallorphan Dextromethorphan Dextrorphan Racemethorphan Racemorphan. Apomorphine Aporphine Bromocriptine Cabergoline Lisuride Memantine Nuciferine Pergolide Phenethylamine Piribedil Pramipexole Ropinirole Rotigotine Salvinorin A Also indirect D 2 agonists, such as dopamine reuptake inhibitors cocaine , methylphenidate , releasing agents amphetamine , methamphetamine , and precursors levodopa.

Glaucine Isoaminile Noscapine Pukateine. GABA A receptor positive modulators. Glutethimide Methyprylon Piperidione Pyrithyldione. Ionotropic glutamate receptor modulators. Neomycin Spermidine Spermine ; Other positive allosteric modulators: Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor modulators.

AR-A Beta blockers e. Agomelatine Atypical antipsychotics e. Adatanserin Agomelatine Atypical antipsychotics e. Alosetron AS Atypical antipsychotics e. ABT Atypical antipsychotics e. Molecules detected in outer space. Aluminium monochloride Aluminium monofluoride Aluminium monoxide Argonium Carbon monophosphide Carbon monosulfide Carbon monoxide Carborundum Cyanogen radical Diatomic carbon Fluoromethylidynium Hydrogen chloride Hydrogen fluoride Hydrogen molecular Hydroxyl radical Iron II oxide Magnesium monohydride cation Methylidyne radical Nitric oxide Nitrogen molecular Nitrogen monohydride Nitrogen sulfide Oxygen molecular Phosphorus monoxide Phosphorus mononitride Potassium chloride Silicon carbide Silicon mononitride Silicon monoxide Silicon monosulfide Sodium chloride Sodium iodide Sulfur monohydride Sulfur monoxide Titanium oxide.

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Angelina Jolie wears wintry white dress as she takes her children to watch Star Wars: Two stars who enjoyed a 'steamy one-night stand after live show are mortified' after their identities are leaked on Twitter 'All marriages have their moments': Vancouver , British Columbia , Canada. In order to gain a scholarship and stay in school, pre-law student Marti Perkins tries out for the cheerleading squad.

She eventually makes it by becoming friends with Savannah Monroe, the head cheerleader. Marti does not get along with Alice Verdura, the cheerleader she replaced in the squad after a bad injury, but finds a fast friend in one of the Hellcats bases, Lewis Flynn.

Kevin Murphy Teleplay by: Marti realizes that Wanda is in the audience during qualifiers and banishes her from the stadium. Savannah must choose to stay and compete with the Hellcats or join her sister Charlotte who fell and injured herself when she was competing for the Hellcats' rival Memphis Christian College squad. The Hellcats arrange to switch places with another team, so they can postpone the competition and Savannah may be with her sister.

Savannah leaves to take care of her sister though her sister does not welcome her pleasantly and her mother ignores her presence. Marti decides no to tell Wanda about her competition being postponed so she wouldn't assist. Savannah's mom invites her to a praying circle for Charlotte's health but it's the same time of the competition.

Savannah confides in Marti about her uptight Christian parents disowning her because of her choice in transferring from Memphis Christian to the secular Lancer University; Marti confides in Savannah that in the past her mother's presence also tenses her up and makes her lose her concentration the reason she failed in a past gymnastics competition.

Savannah competes after saying a prayer to God for her family and her sister. Wanda shows up, though Marti initially begins to kick her out, she realizes her mom only assists because she proud of her and decides to let Wanda stay. In the end, Marti is able to perform even with her mother's presence and The Hellcat win the competition. Savannah goes on a date with Dan and asks Marti and the rest of the squad to accompany her.

Things get messy when Lewis spots Alice taking steroids from Lancer's star quarterback. When Lewis confronts Alice about it, a fight breaks out between the quarterback, Lewis and Dan Dan was defending Savannah after she was pushed down while trying to break up the fight.

The three are sent to jail, however, the football-fan sheriff lets the quarterback go. Lewis is worried he might lose his scholarship so Savannah and Marti turn to Marti's law teacher to get the boys out in time.

Meanwhile, Vanessa finally reveals to Derrick that she once had a relationship with Red. Lewis asks Marti out but she rejects him. Marti's mother employs the help of her daughter for a promotion at the bar. Meanwhile, Savannah brings Dan home to meet her family but ends up fighting with her mother who wants her to stop seeing Dan. Things start to get serious between them. Alice seeks Lewis' help for the bid video but ends up getting more than Lewis bargained for.

Marti then changes her mind and decides to go out with Lewis, and things get even more complicated when he has second thoughts. Savannah attempts to get Dan to direct the squad's bid video, but her idea clashes with Alice. Meanwhile, Marti hopes to investigate Julian's case even further concerning a inmate serving a life sentence for a crime he may not have committed.

Also, Derrick punches Red after saying that he has returned to Lancer to get back Vanessa. Lewis coaches the Hellcats cheerleaders in a flag football game against the girls volleyball team.

In an attempt to win the game, Alice secretly copies plays from the playbook of her boyfriend, who is coaching the opposition. Savannah convinces Alice that cheating is not the way to win. Meanwhile, Marti goes to a conference with Julian. Also, Lewis is upset at his father for accepting money from the school booster club. Marti and Lewis share an intimate moment. The Hellcats plan a date auction so they can raise funds to get them to Nationals, but things go awry after Savannah's old boyfriend, Noah, shows up.

Meanwhile, Lewis and Marti start dating, and Marti wants to keep it a secret from everyone until they find out what's really going on between them. The Hellcats plan an 80s party to celebrate their anniversary. Savannah decides to have a romantic evening with Dan, but the night doesn't end as well as she planned and Marti has conflicting feelings about Savannah and Dan's relationship moving forward. A local magazine shows more interest in doing a story on the Hellcats than the football team, which angers Bill Marsh.

Savannah fights with Marti after she finds out about her and Dan's past. Lewis overhears their argument and gets angry at Marti for keeping her past a secret. Savannah then decides to go home and spend some time re-connecting with her family. After a deep and honest talk with her sister, Charlotte Emma Lahana , Savannah learns she is pregnant. Desperate to stop Charlotte from "flying" in their cheer leading routine, Savannah commits herself to being the flier in Charlotte's place.

Conflicted over her feelings for Dan and Lewis, Marti decides to focus on Travis' case, but when Dan comes along for the stakeout things get worse; especially since Lewis apologizes for getting mad. Marti clashes with Julian over representing Travis. Vanessa is frustrated about Derrick's work schedule and has a talk with Red, which stirs old feelings but in the end Derrick proposes in a very special way and she accepts. Both Dan and Marti are conflicted with their feelings for each other which makes Dan break up with Savannah.

Dan threatens to no longer be Marti's friend if she does not tell him how she feels and he tells her he wants to be with her but she says she's not in the same place.

Savannah is upset and gets too drunk which puts her in a sticky situation with the host of the BBQ night. Marti reveals her relationship with Dan to Savannah, Lewis and the rest of the squad. Dan leaves town, while sectionals are on the way. It is revealed that there is a bigger picture to Travis' case in which Bill Marsh is also involved. Marti gets the cold shoulder on the bus on the way to the sectionals from the squad after admitting to hooking up with Dan.

Lewis is shocked when he finds out Alice hasn't told her dad about the two of them breaking up and her not being a flyer anymore. The Hellcats shoot a sexy calendar for a fundraiser and throw a party with 3OH! Savannah tells her mother that Charlotte is pregnant after Wanda's convincing.

Jake asks Alice to help him get the disk that holds his darkest secret but Alice refuses because she can't betray a fellow Hellcat but explains to Marti about the dire consequences if the secret comes out. Meanwhile, a desperate Marti calls Dan who once again says he can't help her. The Hellcats kidnap Marti for her "Initiation Ceremony" into the group. Savannah, Alice, Lewis and Vanessa flashback on how they became a part of the Hellcats which ultimately makes Marti realize that she can't make a decision on her own.

Travis is beaten by two men in prison on Bill Marsh's appeal so he fires his lawyers "Marti, Morgan and Julian". When Marti receives news of what happened to Travis she and Savannah come clean to the squad and ask for support, which they ultimately get including Alice. The Hellcats decide to throw a toga party as a last farewell. Step 1 of the plan was for Red to have Bill say something threatening and betraying about Jake, which they recorded.

Step 2 they ask that Jake confess to robbing the pharmacy so Travis can be set free but Jake refused and shut them down. They showed Jake the recording of Bill Marsh, but he stormed out angry.

Hopeless, Marti goes to see Travis one more time where she tells him that Jake refused to confess so they are going to take this to the media. She tells him about their situation and Travis tries to stop Marti from letting down the Hellcats but Marti is still determined to set Travis free.

On the other hand, Alice and Savannah invite firemen to their party. In the party Savannah seems to be getting along with the fireman Keith. After Marti comes to the party Alice questions her about Jake and finds him on the football field. Jake resists but Alice finally convinces him to confess and prays with him; regardless of her disbelief in God.

Finally, Jake calls a press conference and confesses but to his surprise, everyone is proud of him and considers him a hero. Red, Julian and Marti blackmail Bill Marsh with his recording so he will retire without pension and he accepts.

As Travis is leaving jail he makes eye contact with Jake while Jake is entering the jail. After Jake gets to his cell, Jake starts to cry. Dan comes back for his brother's wedding, where Marti and Savannah both compete for the affections of Dan. While at the wedding, Marti performs, and she and Savannah both dress up in hope of winning Dan, however they later find out that Dan has a girlfriend whom he kisses in front of Savannah and Marti.

Alice feels guilty about convincing Jake to confess and refuses to visit him in jail. However, a talk with Travis convinces her to go to him. Dan's father reminds him that Marti is not a good match for him as they are both "trainwrecks" but Savannah encourages Dan to be a better person and more mature.

Marti and Dan agreeing to just stay friends and Dan reunites with Savannah after he asks for her forgiveness. Derrick is getting shipped out for a year with the army and asks Vanessa to marry him before he leaves. She initially agrees but at the last second cannot sign the marriage certificate. Derrick guesses that it's because of Red and breaks up with Vanessa, wishing her well for her future with Red. The episode ends with a kiss between Dan and Savannah. The Hellcats and Cyclones have a crisis when Alice discovers they have the same song for nationals, which causes problems.

They compete by doing a routine in front of the band, which gave both teams permission to use the song, where the best routine claims the song for nationals. The band turns out to be lazy and rude drunks who pick the Hellcats due to their skimpier uniform.

The Hellcats reject the song and the band, followed suit by the Cyclones. Savannah finds out the father of Charlotte's baby is her ex-boyfriend, Noah. Charlotte announces wedding plans with the baby's father, but an interrogation from Savannah forces Noah to admit that he has no feelings for Charlotte. Savannah tries to tell Charlotte that marrying Noah is a mistake because he doesn't love her, but she refuses to see sense.

Eventually Charlotte realises that things won't work, and calls off the engagement.

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