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The water level surface that can be defined from the mapping of water level elevations in wells tapping into a confined aquifer.

Any permanent combination of facilities which supplies the energy to move gas at increased pressure from fields, in transmission lines, or into storage. A small cavity bubble in an igneous rock that was formerly occupied by a bubble of escaping gas.

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The process whereby strong winds blowing down the length of a lake cause water to "pile up" at the downwind end, raising water levels there and lowering them at the upwind end of the lake. The soil area just above the water table where water can rise up slightly through the cohesive force of capillary action. An aquifer whose upper boundary is defined by the water table water is at atmospheric pressure.

A drilling technique whereby gases typically compressed air or nitrogen are used to cool the drill bit and lift cuttings out of the wellbore, instead of the more conventional use of liquids.

Impermeable rock overlaying an oil or gas reservoir that tends to prevent migration of the reservoir fluids from the reservoir.

Relatively small and simple animals that have a rigid external skeleton, three body sections, three pairs of legs, and antennae. True shape of the Earth, which deviates from a perfect sphere because of a slight bulge at the equator. Pertaining to the environment and conditions of organisms living at the water bottom, or benthos.

Physical, chemical and biological changes in a water body as a result of the input nitrogen and phosphorus. Fog formed by the movement of cooler, more dense Pokies Slot Antenna With Reflector from higher elevations to the warm valley bottom. A detailed written agreement between the working interest owners of a property setting forth the terms under which that property will be developed. The amount at which property is recorded in plant accounts without deduction of related provisions for accrued depreciation, depletion, amortization, or for other purposes.

Process where two or more falling raindrops join together into a single larger drop because of a midair collision.

A satellite based part of the Global Maritime Distress and Safety System GMDSS for automatically disseminating safety information, including weather warnings and forecasts, to mariners almost anywhere on the world's oceans.

The time when the upper limb of the sun disappears below the sensible horizon as a result of the diurnal rotation of the earth no adjustment made for elevation of observer or atmospheric refraction.

The value of a naturally occurring mineral deposit is a function of 1 the market value of the mineral, and 2 the concentration of the mineral in the mineral deposit.

The flow of water through a unit cross-sectional area of soil normal to the direction of flow when the hydraulic gradient is unity. Laboratory procedures used to analyze a sample of water using liquid chemical solutions wet instead of, or in addition Pokies 2018 Images Sparkling, laboratory instruments. The temperature a parcel of dry air would have if brought adiabatically i. Secondary products which are obtained from the processing of a raw material and have commercial value.

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The owner of all rights to a tract of land can sever the rights to his land vertically or horizontally. A topographic or structural low area that generally receives thicker deposits of sediments than adjacent areas; the low areas tend to sink more readily, partly because of the weight of the thicker sediments; the term also denotes an area of relatively deep water adjacent to shallow-water shelf areas.

A type of sedimentary rock made from very small particles, less than 0. Multiuniversity research project that reconstructed the Earth's climate for the last million years by examining proxy data from ocean sediment cores.

A unit formed by the lessee acting under the provision of a pooling clause in a lease or other instrument. Scree slopes and glacial debris, as well as rock tors and outcrops mainly in the Southern Alps above an altitude of m. Process where an alternative and a null hypothesis are statistically tested for the purpose of falsifying a hypothesis.

Tax items which may be subtracted from gross income to arrive at taxable income in Federal income tax computations. An animal that habitually enters or lives permanently within the dark zone of a cave but is also capable of living outside because it is Pokies Slot Antenna With Reflector evolved or adapted specifically to caves.

In Texas, a public water system which has a potential to serve at Pokies Winner Airport Parking 15 residential service connections on a year-round basis or serves at least 25 residents on a year-round basis. A small balloon whose ascent at a constant rate is followed by a theodolite in order to obtain data for the computation of the speed and direction of winds at various levels in the upper air above the station.

Ratio of effect produced to the energy supplied -- effect produced and energy supplied being expressed in the same thermal units. In Greek mythology, a son of Ares Mars who, with brother Deimos, was a constant companion to his father. A written agreement whereby the purchaser agrees to buy certain real estate and the seller agrees to sell upon terms and conditions set forth in the agreement.

The part of the Earth or other rocky body lying between the outer crust and the central core, consisting mostly of iron and silicate minerals. A drain which carries seepage away from the dam and can allow seepage quantities to be measured. The process of continually updating river forecasts for the purpose of incorporating the effects rain that has fallen since the previous forecast was prepared.

The pattern of retirements taking place at various ages in relation to the average service life or, simply, the scattering of retirements about average life. The integrating pressure-instrument registers the total volume of gas metered in cubic feet at a specified base pressure. Predefined area in a gas spacing area where wells can be located without incurring a penalty on production for impacting adjacent spacing areas.

A method to determine the cost of common equity component of return based on cost of the fixed components, debt and preferred stock. One of the four large divisions of geologic time, it includes seven geologic period, from about to million years ago. A device which continuously and automatically compensates to correct gas volume at operating pressure to volume at base pressure, without regard for any correction for temperature.

A natural phenomenon which occurs when liquefied natural gas in a storage vessel warms to its boiling point and gases evolve. Conducting a prescribed fire or slash burn with firing techniques and meteorological conditions that keep the smoke's impact on the environment with acceptable limits. Loose rock and mineral material produced by mechanical disintegration and removed from its place of origin by wind, water, gravity, or ice; also, find particles of organic matter, such as plant debris.

The burning of gas vented through a pipe or stack at a refinery, or a method of disposing of gas while a well is being drilled. A method to allocate demand costs by function to customer classes based on the customer classes' contract quantity or a company's obligation to serve the customer class.

A process involving controlled heating and subsequent controlled, generally slow, cooling applied usually to induce ductility in metals. The process of breaking down the larger, heavier and more complex hydrocarbon molecules into simpler and lighter molecules, thus increasing the gasoline yield from crude oil.

Two dimensional graph that plots a location's air temperature and precipitation on times scales that range from a 24 hour period to a year. A term used to describe the average quantity of solar insolation received by a horizontal surface at the edge of the Earth's atmosphere. An electronic device for locating discontinuities or breaks in the protective coating on a pipe, tubing, or fitting. Profile drainage provides an indication of how long a soil, or part of a soil, is saturated with water, and how quickly it can rid itself of excess water.

Same as plastic pipe except that it is usually of small diameter and sized on the same system commonly used for copper tubing. The number of contracts left open in a market which need to be closed out or taken through to delivery. Rocks formed from material derived from pre-existing rocks by processes of denudation, together with material of organic origin.

A fast moving low pressure system that moves southeast out of Canadian Province of Alberta southwest Canada through the Plains, Midwest, and Great Lakes region usually during the winter. A UN scheme set up under the Kyoto Protocol to allow industrialized countries to invest in emissions reduction projects in other industrialized countries, in return for tradable greenhouse gas offset credits ERUs. Usually refers to the mixing of contaminated water through mechanical dispersion and molecular diffusion due to chemical gradients.

Crude oil containing less than 1 percent sediment and water; "pipeline oil", oil clean enough to send through a pipeline. An employee of a water department who distributes available water supply at the request of water right holders and collects hydrographic data. A scale of pressure differences in which there is a uniform variation of pressure from point to point. A gas-proof, inflatable bag which can be inserted in a gas pipe and inflated to seal off the flow of the gas.

A short ridge, mound or sometimes steeply conical hill of stratified glacial drift deposited by a crack or hole in a stagnant glacier. The bringing together of small tracts sufficient for the granting of a well permit under applicable spacing rules. Any transaction in which the owner of operating rights in a Pokies Slot Antenna With Reflector assigns all or a portion of these rights to any other party. Resins made by the reaction of epoxides or oxiranes with other materials such as amines, alcohols, phenols, Pokies Slot Antenna With Reflector acids, acid anhydrides, and unsaturated compounds.

A Pokies Slot Antenna With Reflector crust or deposit formed from the minerals mainly silica in geothermal water, especially from geysers. A strong water-surface current of short Novomatic Pokies Img Academy flowing seaward from the shore; the return movement of water piled up on the shore by incoming waves and wind.

Liquid hydrocarbons, usually colorless and of high API gravity, recovered from wet gas by a separator that condenses the liquid out of the gas. The amount of cash or other liquid assets that a company must have on hand to meet the current costs of operations until such a time as it is reimbursed by its customers. The steel container on a wellhead that contains packing that seals the oscillating rod that drives the pumping mechanism. The total quantity of gas delivered for a period of time divided by the number of days in the period.

A device installed in and made a part of the vent to provide a positive, induced, or balanced draft. A unit of heat energy, used to describe the amount of heat that can be generated by burning oil or gas.

The internal pressure at which pipe or fitting will, most likely, fail afterhours A contract whose pricing and sales quantity terms can be adjusted to reflect changes in supply and demand conditions. The mean surface level as determined by averaging the heights of the water at equal intervals of time, usually at hourly intervals. A long, small diameter pipe flexible enough to be stored on and deployed from a large, truck-mounted roll.

Fluid or semi-fluid material under the Earth's surface from which lava and other rock is formed by cooling. The evaluation of the risk of a system not adequately meeting the load demand of firm customers under normal operating conditions. Continuous area on the globe that has the highest surface temperatures because of the presence of the Intertropical Convergence Zone.

The total amount of storage capacity available in a reservoir for all purposes, from the dead storage level to the normal water or normal pool level surface level. An intensity-modulated display which has height as the vertical coordinate and time as the horizontal coordinate; usually used for vertically-pointing antennas only. A rain gage that weighs the rain or snow which falls into a bucket set on a platform of a spring or lever balance. A water stage recording device that is capable of attaching to a LARC for data automation purposes.

The maximum or minimum required operating pressure at a receipt or delivery point as specified in the Service Agreement. A gas plant constructed near a transmission company pipeline downstream from the fields where the gas is produced, also referred to as "on-line" plants. The process of checking, calibration, and preparation necessary to convert raw measurements into a form suitable for analysis and application.

Group of plants that have the ability to survive in deserts and other dry climates by having no leaves. Relatively flat area found alongside the stream channel that is prone to flooding and receives alluvium deposits from these inundation events. A metal projection of various design configurations from the exterior surface of tubes in heat exchange equipment to increase the heat transfer area. Is the association that exist between the elements and attributes of a system based on cause and effect.

A material that brings about a chemical reaction without being permanently changed itself in the process. The re-allocation of some of a farm's productive resources such as land, capital, farm equipment or paid labour into new activities.

Revenues applicable to gas or electricity consumed but not yet billed to the customer because of bimonthly or cycle billing or for other reasons. A concentrated ring of convection that develops outside the eye wall in symmetric, mature hurricanes. The quantity of heat transferred through a unit area of a material in a unit time per unit of temperature difference between the two sides of the material.

The opening in an orifice cap, orifice spud, or other device whereby the flow of gas is limited and through which the gas is discharged.

A property of ions or of radicals determining the number of ions with which they can combine in chemical reactions. Insurance that protects lenders and homeowners against loss of their interest in the property because of legal problems with the title.

A preliminary notification that conditions may be favorable for the development of avalanches in mountain regions. The demand which is used to determine demand charges in accordance with the provisions of a rate schedule Pokie Review Clothing Company contract.

Ground water supplies are replenished, or recharged, when water enters the saturation zone by actions like rain or snow melt. The highest temperature that can be reached by a liquid, under a given pressure, when heat is applied externally and evaporation occurs freely from the surface.

A formation which contains water but cannot transmit it rapidly enough to furnish a significant supply to a well or spring. Part of the Earth's outer Pokies Slot Antenna With Reflector that is comprised of the ocean floor, mid-oceanic ridges, continental rise, and continental slope.

A bubbly vesicular volcanic rock fragment that form when molten, gas-filled lava is thrown into the air, then solidifies as it falls. The term applies to the activities and compensation in arranging for the sale of gas between producers and buyers. The volume of gas that can be sold to the market after allowing for removal of impurities and after accounting for any volumes used to fuel surface facilities.

The periodic changes in the intensity of tides caused primarily by the varying relations between the earth, moon, and sun. An instrument used to indicate the division of various owners' interests in a particular property.

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A transition zone in the atmosphere where an advancing cold air mass sandwiches a warm air mass between another cold air mass pushing the warm air into the upper atmosphere. The quantity of gas and related substances that are estimated, at a particular time, to be initially contained in known accumulations that have been penetrated by a well bore. A collective term for all the pyroclastic rocks deposited around a volcano, especially by a volcanic explosion.

The portion of a rate for gas service which is billed to the customer whether they use the service or not. Abusive lending practices that include making a mortgage loan to an individual who does not have the income to repay it or repeatedly refinancing a loan, charging high points and fees each time and "packing" credit insurance on to a loan.

An agreement that provides the general terms and conditions for the purchase, sale, or exchange of electricity but does not list specific contract details or obligate either party to perform. A written report, compiled prior to a production decision, which examines the effects proposed mining activities will have on the natural surroundings of an exploration property. A public product issued by the RFC's containing narrative and numeric information on river ice conditions.

A pipeline interchange, located in Vermilion Parish, Louisiana, Pokies Meaning Gratitude Jar serves as the delivery point of natural gas futures contracts. Upward movement of the Earth's crust following isostatic depression from the weight of the continental glaciers. Term used to describe the layered nature of a body or planet in space which has zones of differing density.

Means of reducing the energy resources required to do a task such as heating a house, transporting freight between two points, or producing steel. A National Weather Service product which provides follow up information on severe weather conditions severe thunderstorm or tornadoes which have occurred or are currently occurring. One qualified by education, training, and experience who is hired to estimate the value of real and personal property based upon experience, judgment, Pokies Slot Antenna With Reflector, and the use of the formal appraisal processes.

A rock stratum that can be identified over large areas and from which measurements can be taken to determine geologic structure. Embankments along streams or on floodplains designed to confine river flows to a definite width for the protection Pokies Slot Antenna With Reflector surrounding land from flooding.

One method of temporarily plugging an oil leak by shooting material such as shredded tires and golf balls into the broken wellhead. Energy sales which, although not subject to interruption for economic purposes, may be interrupted under force majeure conditions. That part of a natural gas company's business which is subject to the rules and regulations of the Commission.

The amount of the system's capacity to deliver gas which a natural gas pipeline or distributor agrees to reserve for a particular customer and for which the customer agrees to pay a demand charge as specified in the applicable tariff. The price charged by a supplier of petroleum products for fuel purchased on an FOB basis at the seller's terminal, or "rack".

A partnership in which the general partner or partners manage the partnership's activity and are solely liable for them. The New Zealand soil classification, which describes the characteristics, qualities and limitations of different soils. A geological term describing a fold in the earth's surface with strata sloping downward on both sides from a common crest. A coil of pipe or tubing used as a heat exchanger to cool material inside or outside the coil by means of colder material passing over or through the coil respectively.

Envelopes use moving averages which are sifted up or down by a certain percentage to establish a certain 'normal' band in which the price moves.

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Storage of petroleum products in underground formations of salt whose cavities have been mined or leached out with superheated water. A state of molecular structure in some resins which denotes uniformity and compactness in the molecular chains forming the polymers.

This law states if all the thermal motion of molecules kinetic energy could be removed, a state called absolute zero would result and all energy would be randomly distributed. A process of managing the difference between the quantities received and delivered at various points under a contract during a defined period of time i.

The relationship between the velocity of fluid flowing adjacent to the conduit wall or membrane surface and that flowing at a distance from the wall or surface.

A place with an abrupt inflection in a stream profile, generally formed by the presence of a rock layer resistant to erosion; also, a sharp angle cut by currents at base of a cliff. Reducing water use, such as turning off taps, shortening shower times, and cutting back on outdoor irrigation. Streamline flow in which successive flow particles follow similar path lines and head loss varies with velocity to the first power.

The branch of hydrology that specializes in ground water; its occurrence and movements; its replenishment and depletion; the properties of rocks that control ground water movement and storage; and the methods of investigation and utilization of ground water. A period of human history characterised by the use of copper and its alloy, bronze, as the main material in the production of tools and weapons.

A functional horizon is a soil layer defined by stoniness, texture, structure size and soil density. A convenient mapping unit used on general surveys, and is a grouping of soils with like profiles or like assemblages of profiles.

Aseismic slip, very similar to creep, that occurs along a fault ruptured by a large earthquake in the months following that event. Natural gas storage facilities owned and controlled by a storage operator, quite often the interstate pipeline's affiliate.

The contact of soil with underlying rock where the rock is hard or very hard, maybe cracked and shattered, is impracticable Youtube Weather Women Pokies Through Shirts Wholesale dig with a spade, and is impenetrable to plant roots.

The amount of capacity above planned peak system demand available to provide for scheduled maintenance, emergency outages, system operating requirements, and Pokies Slot Antenna With Reflector demand. Isotope of hydrogen, with a nucleus containing one proton and one neutron, and an atomic mass number of 2.

Made by passing steam over hot coke or other carbonaceous material; it consists of carbon monoxide and hydrogen with varying amounts of carbon dioxide and nitrogen. Energy back scattered from a target precipitation, clouds, etc. A clause in a gas supply contract which provides that a minimum quantity of gas be paid for, whether or not delivery is accepted by the purchaser. A basin draining to some depression or pond within its area, from which water is lost only by evaporation or percolation.

Energy released Igt Pokies Zishy Natalie the nucleus of an atom experiences a nuclear reaction like the spontaneous emission of radioactivity, nuclear fission, or nuclear fusion.

The measure of the rate at which fuel is consumed relative to electric output, expressed in Btu's per kWh. A chemical or biological parameter that can be used to indicate the possible presence of other contaminants. Normally settlement rates are developed using actual cost experience of the base period, as adjusted in the test period, allocated to estimated annual sales volumes. Arrangement for lowering the temperature of water by evaporative cooling of the water in contact with outside air; the water to be cooled is sprayed by nozzles into the space above a body of previously cooled water and allowed to fall into it.

High latitude biome dominated by a few species of dwarf shrubs, a few grasses, sedges, lichens, and mosses. Meteorites are often found in desert areas covered or partially covered in a white encrustation of calcium material. Before the work of drilling can be started but after the derrick has been built, tools and machinery must be installed and a supply of fuel and water must be established.

A long, more or less continuous cliff or relatively steep slope facing in one general direction, produced by erosion or faulting. Natural gas not contaminated by corrosion inducing impurities such as hydrogen sulfide, or with a low level of impurities. A term used to describe tools, equipment, and instruments used in the wellbore, or conditions or techniques applying to the wellbore.

The Fracturing Responsibility and Awareness of Chemicals Act seeks to reverse some of the policies enacted in the energy policy and compel full disclosure of the chemicals, and specifically the concentrations of the chemicals used in hydraulic fracturing.

A fracture within rock structures where relative motion has occurred across the fracture surface. A mixture of hot volcanic ash, gases and entrained atmospheric air that rises vertically above an erupting volcano to heights of several tens of kilometers in the earth's atmosphere.

Groundwater zone within the Earth's bedrock where all available pores spaces are filled by water. A type of plant community common to areas of the world that have a Mediterranean climate for example, California and Italy.

The study of the physics of the Earth, especially its electrical, gravitational and magnetic fields and propagation of elastic seismic waves within it. A dark igneous rock of coarse grain size, which is relatively rich in iron and magnesium minerals. The tendency of air or gas in a duct, vertical passage, or building to rise when heated due to its lower density compared to the surrounding air or gas. Agreement entered into with a host country granting the company the right to explore and produce oil and gas in a designated area, in return for paying to the government licence fees and royalties on production.

A provision in a contract that provides for the automatic extension of the contract for specified periods beyond the primary term unless either party specifically elects to terminate the contract by giving the required notice prior to the anniversary date. Term used to describe sedimentary or metamorphic rocks that tend to split into layer that are cm thick.

The time when the upper limb of the moon appears above the sensible horizon no adjustment made for elevation of observer or atmospheric refraction. Movement of humus, chemical substances, and mineral particles from the upper layers of a soil to lower layers by the downward movement of water through the soil profile.

Input costs that change as the nature of the production activity of its circumstances change; for example, as production levels vary. Process of restoring the surface area of a decommissioned wellsite, access road and related facilities to pre-operational conditions as is technically and economically feasible.

The planning, development, improvement, coordination and evaluation of the safety component of integrated systems of people, materials, equipment and environments to achieve optimum safety effectiveness in terms of protection of people and property.

A well obtaining its water from an artesian or confined aquifer in which the water level in the well rises above the top of the aquifer. An aquifer in Pokies Slot Antenna With Reflector ground water is confined under pressur significantly greater than atmospheric pressure. A rock formed by the accumulation and cementation of mineral grains transported by water and less commonly by wind or iceor by the precipitation of minerals from water.

The natural or physical surface features of a region, considered collectively as to form; the features revealed by the contour lines of a map. Multidisciplinary science that deals with the conservation of genes, species, communities, and ecosystems that make up Earth's biodiversity. The volume of recoverable, salable gas reserves committed to or controlled by the reporting pipeline company as the buyer in gas purchase contracts with independent producers, as sellers, including warranty contracts, and Pokies Slot Antenna With Reflector are used for acts and services for which the company has received certificate authorization from the FERC.

The term MDQ refers to maximum daily quantity of gas which a buyer, seller, or transporter is obligated to receive or deliver at each receipt or delivery point or in the aggregate as specified in an agreement. Pollution that originates from the accumulation of low concentrations of pollutants collected over a large area. A measure of land equaling 43, square feet; or 4, square yards; or square rods; or a tract about Denote that, at the scale of mapping, there are two or more inventory factors or land use capability classes present within the mapping unit.

A combination of evaporation from open bodies of Pokies $ Calculator Google, evaporation from soil surfaces, and transpiration from the soil by plants. The depth in a directional well where the curve begins from the bottom of the vertical portion of a well.

The number of cubic feet of gas per 24 hours that would be produced by a well if the only pressure against the face of the producing sand in the well bore were atmospheric pressure.

Expenditures for tangible property, such as drilling equipment and machinery are recoverable through a depreciation allowance that spans for five to seven years. Central business districts, suburban dwellings, commercial and Pokie Machines Mod Minecraft areas, and horticultural sites dominated by structures and sealed surfaces.

A type of cloud-height indicator that uses a focused light to project vertically a narrow beam of light onto a cloud base. Sediment eroded from the land, or a continent, and deposited in water generally in a marine environment. An estimate of the rate at which a particular classification of space - such as new office space, new housing, new condominium units and the like - will be sold or occupied each year.

Red Data Books are now an established method of presenting factual information abut the status of the rarest and most threatened animals and plants. Desert found in the subtropics or interiors of continents at the middle latitudes where precipitation is low and surface air temperatures are high.

An independent finance professional who specializes in bringing together borrowers and lender to facilitate real estate mortgages. The length of time lost during an operation because of non-scheduled stoppages such as failure, delay, etc. A vaporizer which derives energy for vaporizing and heating LNG from storage conditions to send out conditions from naturally occurring sources such as the atmosphere, sea water, or geothermal waters.

This National Weather Service product will provide the general public with a clear statement of the expected weather conditions within a given county or set of counties. The tendency of a fluid to resist flowing due to internal forces such Microgaming Pokies Reporter Shot the attraction of the molecules for each other cohesion or the friction of the molecules during flow.

An obstacle formed at the shallow entrance to the mouth of a river or bay which empties into the ocean. An abandoned flood plain formed when a stream flowed at a level above the level of its present channel and flood plain. A professional who conducts an analysis of the property, including references to sales of comparable properties in order to develop an estimate of the value of the property.

Restoring a section of a stream that has been confined in a culvert or storm sewer to an above-ground channel. A growth of dinoflagellates single-celled plant-like animals in surface waters in such quantities as to color the sea red and kill fish. An aquifer that is not bounded above by an aquitard; Pokies Slot Antenna With Reflector levels in wells screened in an unconfined aquifer coincide with the elevation of the water table.

A disturbance in the upper atmospheric flow pattern which is usually associated with clouds and precipitation. Elements having an identical number of protons in their nuclei but differing in their number of neutrons.

An average height of 4. Process where insolation is redirect to a new direction of travel after entering another medium. The average height of the surface of the sea at a particular location for all stages of the tide over a year period. Energy contained by fluid because of its pressure, usually expressed in feet of fluid foot pounds per pound. Mechanical dewatering devices that hydraulically compress a filter pack comprising a series of diaphragms incorporating a porous cloth.

An aquifer formed by material laid down by physical Pokies Slot Antenna With Reflector in a river channel or on a floodplain. The energy that causes groundwater to flow.

It is the sum of the gravitational energy and the pressure energy. The fraction of the pore volume occupied by water in a reservoir at maximum hydrocarbon saturation.

A graph with temperature as ordinate and salinity as abscissa, on which the points observed at a single oceanographic serial station are joined by a curve the T-S curve.

The development of a warm ridge or cutoff high aloft at high latitudes which becomes associated with a cold high at the surface, causing a split in the westerly winds.

Any plant which performs one of the following functions: Modification to allow an increase of air entering the furnace above the fire and reduction of air entering near the coal. Adding heat to remove accumulated solid water or carbon dioxide constituents from low-temperature process equipment. Wind ripples are miniature sand dunes between 5 centimeters and 2 meters in length and 0. A temperature inversion created by the cooling of a warm airmass from below by the cool lakes on spring and summer days.

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  1. a 1dB gain improvement with reference to a slot antenna without a reflector. (a). (b). (c). Fig. 1. Printed CPW-fed slot antenna above an AMC reflector; (a) 3D view,. (b) top view, and antenna with an AMC reflector for a practical frequency band . rectangular waveguide (in the position of one of the radiating slots) feeding.:
    ABSTRACT: A monofilar spiral slot antenna with a cavity-backed reflector is presented, which can achieve the performance of the wide axial ratio beamwave for global positioning system (GPS) system. It comprises an arrangement of a single printed spiral slots fed by a X microstrip line. By using cavity-backed covering. director slots based on the three-slot antenna structure. We note that the five-slot antenna with a feed, reflector, and three directors becomes a complementary structure of the previously reported. Yagi–Uda nanoantenna10, Similar to the two-slot case, multiple slots with reflector or director elements tilted by 45° with. Slot antennas in waveguides provide an economical way of the design of antenna arrays. The position, shape and orientation of the slots will determine how (or if) they radiate. Figure 3 shows a rectangular waveguide with a drawn with red lines snapshot of the schematic current distribution in the waveguide walls. If slots.
  2. A slot antenna consists of a metal surface, usually a flat plate, with one or more holes or slots cut out. When the plate is driven as an antenna by a driving frequency, the slot radiates electromagnetic waves in a way similar to a dipole antenna. The shape and size of the slot, as well as the driving frequency, determine the.:
    rectangular and ring slots with appropriate turning stubs. The impedance bandwidths of these antennas Reflector x z. Figure 1. Geometry of the microstrip line fed slot antenna backed with reflector (units in mm). width W = 32mm (λ0), where λ0 is the free space wavelength at the center frequency GHz. A dielectric. cavity-backed slot antenna array (CBSAA) fed by a single wave- guide is 4 slot antenna array backed by a single cavity and fed by the vertical reflector. (a) Elevation pattern. (b) Azimuth pattern. slot conductance [4]. Since all eight radiation slots are the same in size the most important factor to obtain the. The slot antenna mainly consists of two pairs of arrow-shaped slots along the diagonals of the square patch. Stepped microstrip feedlines are placed It consists of a dual-polarized slot antenna and an AMC surface located underneath the antenna to act as a reflector. The slot antenna is constructed on a 1.
  3. A single slot antenna printed on a thin dielectric substrate is essentially a bi-directional radiator. In Alternatively, the slot can be backed by a ground-reflector in an effort to re-direct the back radiation through the sub- strate(2]. However, this approach can trap the ciency of printed slots backed by a ground reflector.:
  4. :

Substitute talking about them Pokies Slot Antenna With Reflector actuality, there mathematical course that you simply

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Although the theory requires an infinite spread conductive surface, the deviation from the theoretical value is small when the surface is greater than the square of the wavelength.

The feeding of the slot antenna can be done with ordinary two-wire line. The impedance is dependent on the feeding point, as in a dipole. A shift of the feed point from the center to the edge steadily decreases the impedance. The application of slot antennas can be versatile. They can replace dipoles e. If a dipole is used for feeding of a parabolic antenna to generate a vertically orientated but horizontally polarized fan beam , then this dipole must be orientated horizontally.

This would mean that the edge surfaces of the parabolic reflector will not be sufficiently illuminated, but a lot of energy above and below the reflector would be lost. In addition, the length of the dipole is extended in a plane, in which is demanding a point like source of radiation for the focus of the parabolic reflector. If this dipole is replaced by a slot antenna, in this case don't appear these disadvantages. Slot antennas in waveguides provide an economical way of the design of antenna arrays.

The position, shape and orientation of the slots will determine how or if they radiate. If slots are cut into the walls, so the current flow is affected more or less depending on the location of the slot.

If the slots are sufficiently narrow so the slots B and C Fig. These two slots radiate not or very little. The slots A and D represent barriers to the current flow. Thus, this current flow acts as an excitation system for the slot, this one acts as radiator. Since the wave in the waveguide moves forward, these drawn lines migrate in the direction of propagation.

The slot gets one always alternating voltage potential at its slot edges depending on the frequency in the waveguide. The power that the slot radiates can be altered by moving the slots closer or farther from the edge. In order to reduce this coupling, for example the slot A could be moved closer to one of the shorter waveguide walls. Rotating of the slots would have a the same effect an angle between the orientations of A and B or C and D.

Basic geometry of a slotted waveguide antenna The slot radiators are on the wider wall of the rectangular waveguide. Several slot radiators in a waveguide form a group antenna. The effects of key design parameters such as , , , and the number of AMC units on the antenna -parameter are investigated.

In particular, when the narrow rectangular slot width increases, the second resonant frequency shifts to higher frequency whereas the first resonant frequency almost keeps unchanged as it appears in Figure 5. Simultaneously, the middle band is significantly deteriorated. This means that plays an important role in controlling the second resonant frequency and in the improvement of the impedance matching.

Figure 6 shows the frequency behavior of of the proposed antenna for different values of parameter. From this figure it appears that as increases from 0. In the process of designing the antenna with the AMC reflector, the distance between the slot antenna and the AMC structure has to be considered. Figure 7 illustrates the frequency behavior of of the dual-polarized slot antenna, placed over the AMC plane, for different values of the distance. From this figure it appears that the bandwidth is almost unaffected, while the impedance matching strongly depends on parameter.

In particular, an increase of the distance between the antenna and the AMC surface leads to a good impedance matching. In addition, the frequency behavior of of the proposed antenna for different sizes of the AMC unit is represented in Figure 8.

It is clear that as parameter increases from When increase to Thus, the optimum parameter is set at Figure 9 depicts the simulated of the proposed antenna with different number of AMC units. From this figure it appears that the number of AMC units mainly affects both the working bandwidth at the higher frequency and impedance matching in the lower band. To further investigate the dual-polarized operation mechanism of the slot antenna, inspired by [ 18 ], the simulated electric-field distributions on the proposed antenna excited by Port 1 and Port 2 at 2.

From this figure it appears that the maximum electric-field intensity is concentrated in the two pairs of arrow-shaped slots, meaning that these give the main contributions to the total field radiated by the antenna.

So, when Port 1 is excited the resulting electric field is linearly polarized along the -axis see in Figure 10 a. Similarly, as shown in Figure 10 b , the -directed linearly polarized radiation is produced when Port 2 is excited. To validate the design concept, the proposed dual-polarized slot antenna employing an AMC structure as reflector has been realized and measured.

The photograph of the antenna prototype is depicted in Figure In Figure 12 the frequency behavior of the computed and measured results concerning the antenna scattering parameters is reported. From an analysis of this figure it results that while the numerical results show a The slight discrepancies observed between the computed and measured results are mainly due to the fabrication tolerance and the soldering of the SMA connectors employed to excite the antenna.

Since the antenna is symmetrical the radiation patterns related with Port 1 and Port 2 are similar. So, for the sake of brevity only the radiation patterns for Port 1 at 2, 2. From these diagrams it can be observed that the main beams are always in the broadside direction without unwanted tilting or splitting. The comparisons of the measured performances of the proposed antenna and of those having dual-polarization characteristics reported in literature [ 1 — 4 , 8 , 11 , 13 , 17 ] are listed in Table 2.

Notably, the antenna profile of our design is only , which is lower than that of designs reported in [ 8 , 11 ]. A wideband dual-polarized slot antenna excited by two stepped microstrip feedlines has been presented.

An AMC surface, acting as reflector, has been employed to drastically reduce the profile of the proposed antenna. The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper. Home Journals About Us. International Journal of Antennas and Propagation. Subscribe to Table of Contents Alerts. Table of Contents Alerts. Introduction Dual-polarized antennas have led to a wide range of applications in modern wireless communication systems since they can effectively mitigate multipath fading problem and enhance channel capacity.

Antenna Configuration and Design Figure 1 shows the geometry of the proposed antenna. Geometry of the proposed dual-polarized antenna. Simulated of the different dual-polarized slot antennas. Simulated input impedance of the different dual-polarized slot antennas. Simulated of the proposed dual-polarized antenna with different. Simulated of the proposed dual-polarized antenna with different number of AMC units. Electric-field distributions of the proposed antenna for a Port 1 and b Port 2.

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This principle relates the radiated fields and impedance of an aperture or slot antenna to that of the field of a dipole antenna. The polarization of a slot antenna is linear. The impedance of the slot antenna Z s is related to the impedance of its complementary dipole antenna Z d by the relation:. The band width of a narrow rectangular slot is equal to that of the related dipole, and is equal to half the bandwidth of a cylindrical dipole with a diameter equal to the slot width.

Although the theory requires an infinite spread conductive surface, the deviation from the theoretical value is small when the surface is greater than the square of the wavelength.

The feeding of the slot antenna can be done with ordinary two-wire line. The impedance is dependent on the feeding point, as in a dipole. A shift of the feed point from the center to the edge steadily decreases the impedance. The application of slot antennas can be versatile. They can replace dipoles e.

If a dipole is used for feeding of a parabolic antenna to generate a vertically orientated but horizontally polarized fan beam , then this dipole must be orientated horizontally. This would mean that the edge surfaces of the parabolic reflector will not be sufficiently illuminated, but a lot of energy above and below the reflector would be lost. In addition, the length of the dipole is extended in a plane, in which is demanding a point like source of radiation for the focus of the parabolic reflector.

If this dipole is replaced by a slot antenna, in this case don't appear these disadvantages. Slot antennas in waveguides provide an economical way of the design of antenna arrays.

The position, shape and orientation of the slots will determine how or if they radiate. If slots are cut into the walls, so the current flow is affected more or less depending on the location of the slot.

If the slots are sufficiently narrow so the slots B and C Fig. These two slots radiate not or very little. The slots A and D represent barriers to the current flow. Thus, this current flow acts as an excitation system for the slot, this one acts as radiator. Since the wave in the waveguide moves forward, these drawn lines migrate in the direction of propagation.

The slot gets one always alternating voltage potential at its slot edges depending on the frequency in the waveguide. The power that the slot radiates can be altered by moving the slots closer or farther from the edge. It consists of a dual-polarized slot antenna and an AMC surface located underneath the antenna to act as a reflector.

As shown in Figure 1 b , the slot antenna selects two identical pairs of arrow-shaped slots along the diagonals as the radiation aperture and two orthogonal stepped strips as feedlines.

Each arrow-shaped slot, formed by three slotline resonators, is composed of a narrow rectangular slot, a triangular slot, and a slightly wide rectangular slot loaded with two circular slots at its end. It is noteworthy that two-circular-slot design is employed in each arrow-shaped slot to increase the operating bandwidth and improve the impedance matching. Both the length and width of each section of the arrow-shaped slot can be adjusted for the slot antenna to achieve broadband property.

In addition, the microstrip feeding lines are provided with stepped strips for a better impedance matching. The excitation network consists of two narrow rectangular strips extending to the end of the stepped feedlines where they electrically join with each other by two slender pins see Figure 1. The AMC surface consists of metallic ground, grounded dielectric substrate, and periodical patches, without any grounded via. Generally, the periodicity of the patches is much smaller than the wavelength.

The unit cell of the proposed AMC surface, shown in Figure 1 a , has a size of As shown in Figure 2 a , the HFSS model is based on simulating scattering parameters of a single port air-filled waveguide with two perfect electric conductors PEC and two perfect magnetic conductors PMC walls.

Figure 2 b plots the simulated phase reflection response of the AMC structure for a normally incident plane wave. This array acts as a reflector to achieve unidirectional radiation patterns with high front-to-back ratios. The antenna combined with the AMC structure is analyzed and optimized. The final values of the parameters defined in Figure 1 are listed in Table 1.

Figure 3 plots the simulated reflection coefficients of three dual-polarized slot antennas. As it can be observed, the antenna over the AMC reflector achieves the widest operating bandwidth with good impedance matching. This behavior is confirmed by the input impedance curves exhibited by the different dual-polarized slot antennas depicted in Figure 4. In particular, the impedance curve related with the AMC reflector shows that one extra resonance, with resistance of about 50 Ohm and null reactance at 2.

The effects of key design parameters such as , , , and the number of AMC units on the antenna -parameter are investigated. In particular, when the narrow rectangular slot width increases, the second resonant frequency shifts to higher frequency whereas the first resonant frequency almost keeps unchanged as it appears in Figure 5.

Simultaneously, the middle band is significantly deteriorated. This means that plays an important role in controlling the second resonant frequency and in the improvement of the impedance matching.

Figure 6 shows the frequency behavior of of the proposed antenna for different values of parameter. From this figure it appears that as increases from 0. In the process of designing the antenna with the AMC reflector, the distance between the slot antenna and the AMC structure has to be considered. Figure 7 illustrates the frequency behavior of of the dual-polarized slot antenna, placed over the AMC plane, for different values of the distance.

From this figure it appears that the bandwidth is almost unaffected, while the impedance matching strongly depends on parameter. In particular, an increase of the distance between the antenna and the AMC surface leads to a good impedance matching. In addition, the frequency behavior of of the proposed antenna for different sizes of the AMC unit is represented in Figure 8. It is clear that as parameter increases from When increase to Thus, the optimum parameter is set at Figure 9 depicts the simulated of the proposed antenna with different number of AMC units.

From this figure it appears that the number of AMC units mainly affects both the working bandwidth at the higher frequency and impedance matching in the lower band. To further investigate the dual-polarized operation mechanism of the slot antenna, inspired by [ 18 ], the simulated electric-field distributions on the proposed antenna excited by Port 1 and Port 2 at 2.

From this figure it appears that the maximum electric-field intensity is concentrated in the two pairs of arrow-shaped slots, meaning that these give the main contributions to the total field radiated by the antenna. So, when Port 1 is excited the resulting electric field is linearly polarized along the -axis see in Figure 10 a. Similarly, as shown in Figure 10 b , the -directed linearly polarized radiation is produced when Port 2 is excited. To validate the design concept, the proposed dual-polarized slot antenna employing an AMC structure as reflector has been realized and measured.

The photograph of the antenna prototype is depicted in Figure In Figure 12 the frequency behavior of the computed and measured results concerning the antenna scattering parameters is reported. From an analysis of this figure it results that while the numerical results show a The slight discrepancies observed between the computed and measured results are mainly due to the fabrication tolerance and the soldering of the SMA connectors employed to excite the antenna.

Since the antenna is symmetrical the radiation patterns related with Port 1 and Port 2 are similar.

many prototypes failed and

But also older large phased array antennas used the principle because the slot radiators are a very inexpensive way for frequency scanning arrays.

This slot behaves according to Babinet's principle as resonant radiator. Jacques Babinet - was a French physicist and mathematician, formulated the theorem that similar diffraction patterns are produced by two complementary screens Babinet's principle. This principle relates the radiated fields and impedance of an aperture or slot antenna to that of the field of a dipole antenna. The polarization of a slot antenna is linear.

The impedance of the slot antenna Z s is related to the impedance of its complementary dipole antenna Z d by the relation:. The band width of a narrow rectangular slot is equal to that of the related dipole, and is equal to half the bandwidth of a cylindrical dipole with a diameter equal to the slot width.

Although the theory requires an infinite spread conductive surface, the deviation from the theoretical value is small when the surface is greater than the square of the wavelength. The feeding of the slot antenna can be done with ordinary two-wire line. The impedance is dependent on the feeding point, as in a dipole.

A shift of the feed point from the center to the edge steadily decreases the impedance. The application of slot antennas can be versatile. They can replace dipoles e. If a dipole is used for feeding of a parabolic antenna to generate a vertically orientated but horizontally polarized fan beam , then this dipole must be orientated horizontally.

This would mean that the edge surfaces of the parabolic reflector will not be sufficiently illuminated, but a lot of energy above and below the reflector would be lost.

In addition, the length of the dipole is extended in a plane, in which is demanding a point like source of radiation for the focus of the parabolic reflector. If this dipole is replaced by a slot antenna, in this case don't appear these disadvantages.

Slot antennas in waveguides provide an economical way of the design of antenna arrays. The position, shape and orientation of the slots will determine how or if they radiate. If slots are cut into the walls, so the current flow is affected more or less depending on the location of the slot. If the slots are sufficiently narrow so the slots B and C Fig. These two slots radiate not or very little.

The slots A and D represent barriers to the current flow. Thus, this current flow acts as an excitation system for the slot, this one acts as radiator. In particular, the impedance curve related with the AMC reflector shows that one extra resonance, with resistance of about 50 Ohm and null reactance at 2.

The effects of key design parameters such as , , , and the number of AMC units on the antenna -parameter are investigated. In particular, when the narrow rectangular slot width increases, the second resonant frequency shifts to higher frequency whereas the first resonant frequency almost keeps unchanged as it appears in Figure 5. Simultaneously, the middle band is significantly deteriorated. This means that plays an important role in controlling the second resonant frequency and in the improvement of the impedance matching.

Figure 6 shows the frequency behavior of of the proposed antenna for different values of parameter. From this figure it appears that as increases from 0. In the process of designing the antenna with the AMC reflector, the distance between the slot antenna and the AMC structure has to be considered.

Figure 7 illustrates the frequency behavior of of the dual-polarized slot antenna, placed over the AMC plane, for different values of the distance. From this figure it appears that the bandwidth is almost unaffected, while the impedance matching strongly depends on parameter. In particular, an increase of the distance between the antenna and the AMC surface leads to a good impedance matching. In addition, the frequency behavior of of the proposed antenna for different sizes of the AMC unit is represented in Figure 8.

It is clear that as parameter increases from When increase to Thus, the optimum parameter is set at Figure 9 depicts the simulated of the proposed antenna with different number of AMC units. From this figure it appears that the number of AMC units mainly affects both the working bandwidth at the higher frequency and impedance matching in the lower band. To further investigate the dual-polarized operation mechanism of the slot antenna, inspired by [ 18 ], the simulated electric-field distributions on the proposed antenna excited by Port 1 and Port 2 at 2.

From this figure it appears that the maximum electric-field intensity is concentrated in the two pairs of arrow-shaped slots, meaning that these give the main contributions to the total field radiated by the antenna. So, when Port 1 is excited the resulting electric field is linearly polarized along the -axis see in Figure 10 a. Similarly, as shown in Figure 10 b , the -directed linearly polarized radiation is produced when Port 2 is excited.

To validate the design concept, the proposed dual-polarized slot antenna employing an AMC structure as reflector has been realized and measured. The photograph of the antenna prototype is depicted in Figure In Figure 12 the frequency behavior of the computed and measured results concerning the antenna scattering parameters is reported.

From an analysis of this figure it results that while the numerical results show a The slight discrepancies observed between the computed and measured results are mainly due to the fabrication tolerance and the soldering of the SMA connectors employed to excite the antenna. Since the antenna is symmetrical the radiation patterns related with Port 1 and Port 2 are similar.

So, for the sake of brevity only the radiation patterns for Port 1 at 2, 2. From these diagrams it can be observed that the main beams are always in the broadside direction without unwanted tilting or splitting. The comparisons of the measured performances of the proposed antenna and of those having dual-polarization characteristics reported in literature [ 1 — 4 , 8 , 11 , 13 , 17 ] are listed in Table 2.

Notably, the antenna profile of our design is only , which is lower than that of designs reported in [ 8 , 11 ]. A wideband dual-polarized slot antenna excited by two stepped microstrip feedlines has been presented. An AMC surface, acting as reflector, has been employed to drastically reduce the profile of the proposed antenna. The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper. Home Journals About Us. International Journal of Antennas and Propagation.

Subscribe to Table of Contents Alerts. Table of Contents Alerts. Introduction Dual-polarized antennas have led to a wide range of applications in modern wireless communication systems since they can effectively mitigate multipath fading problem and enhance channel capacity. Antenna Configuration and Design Figure 1 shows the geometry of the proposed antenna.

Geometry of the proposed dual-polarized antenna. Simulated of the different dual-polarized slot antennas. Simulated input impedance of the different dual-polarized slot antennas. Simulated of the proposed dual-polarized antenna with different. Simulated of the proposed dual-polarized antenna with different number of AMC units.

you reach

This slot behaves according to Babinet's principle as resonant radiator. Jacques Babinet - was a French physicist and mathematician, formulated the theorem that similar diffraction patterns are produced by two complementary screens Babinet's principle. This principle relates the radiated fields and impedance of an aperture or slot antenna to that of the field of a dipole antenna.

The polarization of a slot antenna is linear. The impedance of the slot antenna Z s is related to the impedance of its complementary dipole antenna Z d by the relation:. The band width of a narrow rectangular slot is equal to that of the related dipole, and is equal to half the bandwidth of a cylindrical dipole with a diameter equal to the slot width.

Although the theory requires an infinite spread conductive surface, the deviation from the theoretical value is small when the surface is greater than the square of the wavelength. The feeding of the slot antenna can be done with ordinary two-wire line. The impedance is dependent on the feeding point, as in a dipole. A shift of the feed point from the center to the edge steadily decreases the impedance. The application of slot antennas can be versatile.

They can replace dipoles e. If a dipole is used for feeding of a parabolic antenna to generate a vertically orientated but horizontally polarized fan beam , then this dipole must be orientated horizontally. This would mean that the edge surfaces of the parabolic reflector will not be sufficiently illuminated, but a lot of energy above and below the reflector would be lost.

In addition, the length of the dipole is extended in a plane, in which is demanding a point like source of radiation for the focus of the parabolic reflector. If this dipole is replaced by a slot antenna, in this case don't appear these disadvantages. Slot antennas in waveguides provide an economical way of the design of antenna arrays. The position, shape and orientation of the slots will determine how or if they radiate.

If slots are cut into the walls, so the current flow is affected more or less depending on the location of the slot. If the slots are sufficiently narrow so the slots B and C Fig. These two slots radiate not or very little.

The slots A and D represent barriers to the current flow. Thus, this current flow acts as an excitation system for the slot, this one acts as radiator. Since the wave in the waveguide moves forward, these drawn lines migrate in the direction of propagation. In addition, the microstrip feeding lines are provided with stepped strips for a better impedance matching. The excitation network consists of two narrow rectangular strips extending to the end of the stepped feedlines where they electrically join with each other by two slender pins see Figure 1.

The AMC surface consists of metallic ground, grounded dielectric substrate, and periodical patches, without any grounded via. Generally, the periodicity of the patches is much smaller than the wavelength. The unit cell of the proposed AMC surface, shown in Figure 1 a , has a size of As shown in Figure 2 a , the HFSS model is based on simulating scattering parameters of a single port air-filled waveguide with two perfect electric conductors PEC and two perfect magnetic conductors PMC walls.

Figure 2 b plots the simulated phase reflection response of the AMC structure for a normally incident plane wave. This array acts as a reflector to achieve unidirectional radiation patterns with high front-to-back ratios. The antenna combined with the AMC structure is analyzed and optimized. The final values of the parameters defined in Figure 1 are listed in Table 1. Figure 3 plots the simulated reflection coefficients of three dual-polarized slot antennas. As it can be observed, the antenna over the AMC reflector achieves the widest operating bandwidth with good impedance matching.

This behavior is confirmed by the input impedance curves exhibited by the different dual-polarized slot antennas depicted in Figure 4.

In particular, the impedance curve related with the AMC reflector shows that one extra resonance, with resistance of about 50 Ohm and null reactance at 2. The effects of key design parameters such as , , , and the number of AMC units on the antenna -parameter are investigated. In particular, when the narrow rectangular slot width increases, the second resonant frequency shifts to higher frequency whereas the first resonant frequency almost keeps unchanged as it appears in Figure 5.

Simultaneously, the middle band is significantly deteriorated. This means that plays an important role in controlling the second resonant frequency and in the improvement of the impedance matching.

Figure 6 shows the frequency behavior of of the proposed antenna for different values of parameter. From this figure it appears that as increases from 0. In the process of designing the antenna with the AMC reflector, the distance between the slot antenna and the AMC structure has to be considered.

Figure 7 illustrates the frequency behavior of of the dual-polarized slot antenna, placed over the AMC plane, for different values of the distance. From this figure it appears that the bandwidth is almost unaffected, while the impedance matching strongly depends on parameter. In particular, an increase of the distance between the antenna and the AMC surface leads to a good impedance matching.

In addition, the frequency behavior of of the proposed antenna for different sizes of the AMC unit is represented in Figure 8. It is clear that as parameter increases from When increase to Thus, the optimum parameter is set at Figure 9 depicts the simulated of the proposed antenna with different number of AMC units. From this figure it appears that the number of AMC units mainly affects both the working bandwidth at the higher frequency and impedance matching in the lower band. To further investigate the dual-polarized operation mechanism of the slot antenna, inspired by [ 18 ], the simulated electric-field distributions on the proposed antenna excited by Port 1 and Port 2 at 2.

From this figure it appears that the maximum electric-field intensity is concentrated in the two pairs of arrow-shaped slots, meaning that these give the main contributions to the total field radiated by the antenna. So, when Port 1 is excited the resulting electric field is linearly polarized along the -axis see in Figure 10 a. Similarly, as shown in Figure 10 b , the -directed linearly polarized radiation is produced when Port 2 is excited.

To validate the design concept, the proposed dual-polarized slot antenna employing an AMC structure as reflector has been realized and measured. The photograph of the antenna prototype is depicted in Figure In Figure 12 the frequency behavior of the computed and measured results concerning the antenna scattering parameters is reported.

From an analysis of this figure it results that while the numerical results show a The slight discrepancies observed between the computed and measured results are mainly due to the fabrication tolerance and the soldering of the SMA connectors employed to excite the antenna. Since the antenna is symmetrical the radiation patterns related with Port 1 and Port 2 are similar. So, for the sake of brevity only the radiation patterns for Port 1 at 2, 2.

From these diagrams it can be observed that the main beams are always in the broadside direction without unwanted tilting or splitting. The comparisons of the measured performances of the proposed antenna and of those having dual-polarization characteristics reported in literature [ 1 — 4 , 8 , 11 , 13 , 17 ] are listed in Table 2.

Notably, the antenna profile of our design is only , which is lower than that of designs reported in [ 8 , 11 ]. A wideband dual-polarized slot antenna excited by two stepped microstrip feedlines has been presented.

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Radar Basics. Basics. Slot Antenna. Slot radiators or slot antennas are antennas that are used in the , but a lot of energy above and below the reflector. Efficient 2 meter Disguise Antenna. Made From a TV Satellite Dish. This horizontal “slot” antenna, cut into the reflector of a TV dish, is both the master of. This letter presents a new design for a circularly polarized one-sided directional slot antenna with reflector metal for GHz dedicated short-range comm.

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