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Charles Livingstone has received funding from Victorian and South Australian governments the funds for which were derived from hypothecation of gambling tax revenue to research purposesfrom the Australian and New Zealand School of Government, and from non-government organisations for research Large Pokies Small Girl Tattoos multiple aspects of poker machine gambling, including regulatory reform, existing harm minimisation practices, and Pokies Win Nz Government Education characteristics of gambling forms.

He is a Chief Investigator on an Australian Research Council funded project researching mechanisms of influence on government by the tobacco, alcohol and gambling industries. He has undertaken consultancy research for local governments and non-government organisations in Australia and the UK seeking to restrict or reduce the concentration of poker machines and gambling impacts, and was a member of the Australian government's Ministerial Expert Advisory Group on Gambling in Republish our articles for free, online or in print, under Creative Commons licence.

Why, then, are pokies so attractive? And why do we spend so much on them? Ubiquity is one reason. Poker machines, invented in the late 19th century, were originally mechanical, usually with three reels and a fixed and limited number of symbols available for display on the win line. Contemporary pokies are fully computerised. Usually housed in a retro-designed box, they refer to the old-fashioned simplicity of their predecessors. But they are as chalk and cheese compared to their mechanical forebears.

Today, the gambling machine industry employs an army of engineers, programmers, composers and graphic designers to produce increasingly sophisticated games and machines, with more ways of persuading people to part with their cash. At the heart of the modern pokie is a series of random number generators.

These are constantly operating and, when the button is pushed, the answer is instantly known. In Australia, unlike some other jurisdictions, the order of symbols on each of the visual reels must be constant, but the number of symbols can be different on each reel.

This includes winning symbols. Electronic pokies have no such limitations.

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And the difference is profound. A contemporary pokie will often have major prize odds of one in 10 million or more.

The number of symbols on each reel is not limited by physical space, so the odds of a major win can be tweaked by limiting the number of winning symbols on certain reels. A five-reel game may have two winning symbols on each of the first three reels, each of 60 symbols in total.

The last two reels may have only one winning symbol, with 80 total symbols.

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This maths is at the heart of machine design. A slot game is just a spreadsheet. These occur when winning symbols appear on some lines, but not all. Current pokies also allow multiline bets, whereby users can select all available lines to bet on in a single spin.

Mechanical machines were limited to a single line of three reels. Pokies now allow users to bet on 50 or more lines, configured from the video display of five reels and three lines. The line across the middle is one such line, as are those above and below that line.

But patterns of symbols are available in bewildering arrangements, combining lines and reels and multiplying the minimum bet by many times. A one-cent credit value game can thus be configured to allow at least a cent minimum bet per spin if 50 lines are selected.

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In a strange way, this reveals risk-averse behaviour. But regular users will also increase their stakes when they can. This is to provide for the possibility of bigger payouts, or in some cases because they believe — incorrectly — that doing so will increase the chances of a win.

Pokies also allow the credits bet per line to be multiplied, often by up to 20 times. Each spin can take as little as three seconds. If you bet on each of 50 lines at one cent per line and win a minor prize on one line say, 20 creditsfor instance, the machine will provide suitable reinforcement — sounds, lights and sometimes a congratulatory message — and acknowledge the credits won.

This allows the amount of reinforcement delivered to the user to be magnified significantly — often doubled. So what does all this stimulation do? Brain chemicals, particularly dopamine, are central to this process.

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Brain imaging has shown in recent years that the pattern of dopamine release that occurs during a gambling session is strikingly similar to that of cocaine and other addictions.

Poker machines are essentially addiction machines that have been developed over a long period of time to be as attractive to their users as drugs are to theirs. This article is part of our special package on poker machines. See the other articles here: How real are claims of poker machine community benefits? YorkTalks — York, York.

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Yet without a clear idea of the socio-economic role of gambling the public health approach to gambling policy must remain empty rhetoric. By , this figure had risen to This should not be taken to mean that the studies discussed above have nothing to say about the social and economic context of gambling.

Social Personhood — Manchester, Manchester. The true language of religion — Egham, Surrey. Available editions United Kingdom. Why are pokies so attractive? Into the machine Poker machines, invented in the late 19th century, were originally mechanical, usually with three reels and a fixed and limited number of symbols available for display on the win line.

How multiline poker machines work. We produce knowledge-based, ethical journalism. Please donate and help us thrive. You might also like Your odds of winning are greatly improved if you own a casino.

The Kirner government passed legislation in to enable a duopoly to establish poker machine venues in local hotels and clubs in Victoria. Social Personhood — Manchester, Manchester Poetry: The true language of religion — Egham, Surrey More events.

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  1. Kiwis pumped $ million into pokie machines last year, with 40 per cent going back into the community. It's supposed to be a win-win - but the Government is poised to overhaul the system as it balances grassroots funding and rising addiction levels. By Bethany Tiddy. It. was 5pm and the store was quiet.:
    Australians lose more on gambling than any other nation, mostly because of poker machines. In , Australians lost more than US$ per capita, compared with less than US$ in New Zealand and the US, and less than US$ in Canada and Britain. In –14, state and territory governments. Poker machines cultivate addiction by teaching the brain to associate the sounds and flashing lights that are displayed when a punter “wins” with pleasure. And since the pattern of wins, or rewards, is random, the “reinforcement” of the link between the stimuli and pleasure is much stronger than if it could be. I've spent 20 years playing pokies, propped up by an industry that benefits from my misery. Ungolo. As long as the Govt. keep getting it's cut, $$$ very little will change. Banning them because a minuscule minority waste their money because they believe they can win on these machines is ridiculous.
  2. societies is distributed to pokies trusts, located around the country, as a funding mechanism. After actual, reasonable interventions taken by the New Zealand government, and statistics on problem gambling and profit redistribution concerned with education and treatment surrounding gambling and problem gambling.:
    Corporate societies are licensed by Internal Affairs to operate pokie machines in clubs or in commercial venues (pubs and bars). . Other grants in that period include $ million to South Auckland Health Foundation, $ million to the Life Education Trust (which conducts drug education aimed at school children) $  Missing: win. The Ministry of Education is the Government's lead advisor on the New Zealand education system, shaping direction for sector agencies and coinsluckyz.comg: pokies ‎win. Free spins are another feature of machines to keep you interested by making you think you're getting close to a bigger win. They give you the feeling that you are doing better than you really are. Small wins like free spins are designed to keep you playing for longer with the aim of returning the most money to the pokie owner  Missing: education.
  3. The figures are based on territorial authority boundaries, including Auckland City. A fuller range of Gambling Statistics are available from links on this web page: coinsluckyz.com Footnote: We don't adjust these quarterly stats for inflation.:
    Over the course of several weeks our Auckland team built a relationship with the team at ACM, which culminated in a co-hosted 'boil up' for ACM users at the Hobson Street office plus a special screening of the documentary Ka Ching! Pokie Nation and an educational quiz on gambling. You can check out.
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At the heart of the modern pokie is a series of random number generators. These are constantly operating and, when the button is pushed, the answer is instantly known. In Australia, unlike some other jurisdictions, the order of symbols on each of the visual reels must be constant, but the number of symbols can be different on each reel.

This includes winning symbols. Electronic pokies have no such limitations. And the difference is profound. A contemporary pokie will often have major prize odds of one in 10 million or more. The number of symbols on each reel is not limited by physical space, so the odds of a major win can be tweaked by limiting the number of winning symbols on certain reels.

A five-reel game may have two winning symbols on each of the first three reels, each of 60 symbols in total. The last two reels may have only one winning symbol, with 80 total symbols. This maths is at the heart of machine design. A slot game is just a spreadsheet. These occur when winning symbols appear on some lines, but not all. Current pokies also allow multiline bets, whereby users can select all available lines to bet on in a single spin.

Mechanical machines were limited to a single line of three reels. Pokies now allow users to bet on 50 or more lines, configured from the video display of five reels and three lines.

The line across the middle is one such line, as are those above and below that line. But patterns of symbols are available in bewildering arrangements, combining lines and reels and multiplying the minimum bet by many times. A one-cent credit value game can thus be configured to allow at least a cent minimum bet per spin if 50 lines are selected. In a strange way, this reveals risk-averse behaviour. But regular users will also increase their stakes when they can. This is to provide for the possibility of bigger payouts, or in some cases because they believe — incorrectly — that doing so will increase the chances of a win.

Pokies also allow the credits bet per line to be multiplied, often by up to 20 times. Each spin can take as little as three seconds. If you bet on each of 50 lines at one cent per line and win a minor prize on one line say, 20 credits , for instance, the machine will provide suitable reinforcement — sounds, lights and sometimes a congratulatory message — and acknowledge the credits won.

This allows the amount of reinforcement delivered to the user to be magnified significantly — often doubled. So what does all this stimulation do? Brain chemicals, particularly dopamine, are central to this process. Brain imaging has shown in recent years that the pattern of dopamine release that occurs during a gambling session is strikingly similar to that of cocaine and other addictions.

Poker machines are essentially addiction machines that have been developed over a long period of time to be as attractive to their users as drugs are to theirs.

Stuck for a festive gift? Try some fish jandals, or a sensor light for the toilet bowl. Flatmate matchmaking app Flat Candy is the new online tool for flat hunters. Opening of new whale pool in New Brighton is "the best thing that's happened to this place" since the earthquakes. Diamond Harbour residents are being urged to boil water following the discovery of E coli in their water supply. Two boys who allegedly burgled a classmate's home while his mum slept have left their prestigious private school.

Fonterra rival Synlait has clinched a deal to supply Foodstuffs in the South Island. An Afrikaaner Kiwi has backed Day of the Vow and says black people should be thankful for apartheid. An independent panel will review probe into chief executive Mark Flowers. Govt's top financial watchdog will investigate the Waikato DHB's virtual health project.

The 19 year old is one of two women accused of setting fire to Sacred Heart Girls' College. A father and son duo, a year-old sewing machine, floats and metres of chain. Flochella Festival set to drop bombs into the Blue Lake.

This year Vanessa Philp put two cards on the Hospice Remembrance tree. It was an easy "yes" when Jordan Luck was asked to join Bryan Adams on tour. Angry about having his stereo silenced, a drunk man turned violent and confronted his neighbour. His motorbiking brother died when a drink-driver hit him. Now Maurice Wardle's killed someone the same way. A new investigation has been launched into the use of toxic firefighting foam. Meanwhile, police shooting probed by independent watchdog.

He was walking down the middle of the lane when the first car hit him. Three Nelson mums are making Christmas lunch, and everyone is invited. Fire risk runs high with hot, dry, windy weather which can re-start extinguished fires.

Five-time Coast to Coast winner Richard Ussher is calling time as race director. Wai-iti water users will face water restrictions next week as dry spell continues.

Looking for somewhere to sleep, he broke into a car in a Countdown car park. But the owner was inside watching. It's either that or "students learning in marquees out on the field". He had just helped pull a mate's 4WD from the river. But on his way home, the tractor rolled down a bank. Emotional day as Keith Gray gets to travel in his year-old car that's been a 40 year rebuild. An Ashburton man repeatedly raped two young girls over three years, sometimes in their own beds, a jury has found.

It is hoped that being tougher on farmers not complying with animal tagging as well as improving the system itself will help create a clearer picture of stock movement. Operational time is running out for Twizel's newest health care provider. Restored Santa's sleigh due to jingle all the way in Tapanui Christmas parade. Prisoner who bit off part of two fellow inmates' ears and stabbed another was given preventive detention, but now has to only serve at least six years.

The high level of bacteria in the Queenstown lake could have been caused by ducks. Soon-to-be redundant Cadbury workers are pumping out the last Kiwi-made boxes of Roses and Favourites in the lead-up to Christmas.

Farmers spilled out of a Winton hall as hundreds of them gathered at a meeting, concerned about the discovery of Mycoplasma bovis in Southland. Woman whose car slipped into an oncoming truck one of four killed in crashes overnight. Transport costs to move ouvea premix to port proves stumbling block in deal. It's time to get rid of pokie machines in New Zealand.

Have you battled an addiction? Share your stories, photos and videos. Wellbeing and singing help with mental health awareness National Homepage. Black Caps v West Indies - first ODI Christmas reunion ruined after German backpacker's passport stolen hours before flight South African expats revive 'racist' Afrikaans national day in NZ Borrowers turn their backs on the banks Court orders siblings to pay up over farm feud, but legal action likely to go on New Zealand's popular but dangerous swimming beaches Freedom campers no longer welcomed at Taranaki surf break following fouling of beach ANZ tweaks deposit rules for home buyers.

Learning to live after losing a child Kiwi Christmas in the swinging 60s Six out of seven trampolines fail safety tests - Consumer NZ. When chickenpox goes wrong. Life's a beach - or is it? Destiny's date in court. Kiwi thriving on edge of city. A reel oddity for Christmas.

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An investigation uncovered months of serious misconduct by an Auckland pharmacist. The cry of our national bird is being heard in the backyards of Lower Hutt. Wellingtonians urged to sign up for pioneering trial of suburban EV charging stations. Stuck for a festive gift? Try some fish jandals, or a sensor light for the toilet bowl. Flatmate matchmaking app Flat Candy is the new online tool for flat hunters. Opening of new whale pool in New Brighton is "the best thing that's happened to this place" since the earthquakes.

Diamond Harbour residents are being urged to boil water following the discovery of E coli in their water supply. Two boys who allegedly burgled a classmate's home while his mum slept have left their prestigious private school.

Fonterra rival Synlait has clinched a deal to supply Foodstuffs in the South Island. An Afrikaaner Kiwi has backed Day of the Vow and says black people should be thankful for apartheid. An independent panel will review probe into chief executive Mark Flowers.

Govt's top financial watchdog will investigate the Waikato DHB's virtual health project. The 19 year old is one of two women accused of setting fire to Sacred Heart Girls' College. A father and son duo, a year-old sewing machine, floats and metres of chain.

Flochella Festival set to drop bombs into the Blue Lake. This year Vanessa Philp put two cards on the Hospice Remembrance tree.

It was an easy "yes" when Jordan Luck was asked to join Bryan Adams on tour. Angry about having his stereo silenced, a drunk man turned violent and confronted his neighbour. His motorbiking brother died when a drink-driver hit him. Now Maurice Wardle's killed someone the same way. A new investigation has been launched into the use of toxic firefighting foam.

Meanwhile, police shooting probed by independent watchdog. He was walking down the middle of the lane when the first car hit him. Three Nelson mums are making Christmas lunch, and everyone is invited. Fire risk runs high with hot, dry, windy weather which can re-start extinguished fires. Five-time Coast to Coast winner Richard Ussher is calling time as race director.

Wai-iti water users will face water restrictions next week as dry spell continues. Looking for somewhere to sleep, he broke into a car in a Countdown car park. But the owner was inside watching. It's either that or "students learning in marquees out on the field". He had just helped pull a mate's 4WD from the river. But on his way home, the tractor rolled down a bank. Emotional day as Keith Gray gets to travel in his year-old car that's been a 40 year rebuild.

An Ashburton man repeatedly raped two young girls over three years, sometimes in their own beds, a jury has found.

It is hoped that being tougher on farmers not complying with animal tagging as well as improving the system itself will help create a clearer picture of stock movement.

Operational time is running out for Twizel's newest health care provider. Restored Santa's sleigh due to jingle all the way in Tapanui Christmas parade. Prisoner who bit off part of two fellow inmates' ears and stabbed another was given preventive detention, but now has to only serve at least six years.

The high level of bacteria in the Queenstown lake could have been caused by ducks. Soon-to-be redundant Cadbury workers are pumping out the last Kiwi-made boxes of Roses and Favourites in the lead-up to Christmas. Farmers spilled out of a Winton hall as hundreds of them gathered at a meeting, concerned about the discovery of Mycoplasma bovis in Southland. Woman whose car slipped into an oncoming truck one of four killed in crashes overnight.

Transport costs to move ouvea premix to port proves stumbling block in deal. It's time to get rid of pokie machines in New Zealand. Have you battled an addiction? Share your stories, photos and videos. Wellbeing and singing help with mental health awareness National Homepage.

Black Caps v West Indies - first ODI Christmas reunion ruined after German backpacker's passport stolen hours before flight South African expats revive 'racist' Afrikaans national day in NZ Borrowers turn their backs on the banks Court orders siblings to pay up over farm feud, but legal action likely to go on New Zealand's popular but dangerous swimming beaches Freedom campers no longer welcomed at Taranaki surf break following fouling of beach ANZ tweaks deposit rules for home buyers.

Learning to live after losing a child Kiwi Christmas in the swinging 60s Six out of seven trampolines fail safety tests - Consumer NZ. When chickenpox goes wrong. Life's a beach - or is it? This is the psychological principle that slot machines operate on and how they can work on you. Often the main graphic on the top box will feature a character with an attractive pair of eyes staring or winking right at you.

This technique is used by designers to grab your attention and pull you into the machine. Game developers design pokies to keep a rhythmic pace. Each spin carries a degree of risk for the player, but a steady tempo of clicks and music gives an illusion of predictability.

A constant soothing tempo can give the player an impression that they have a degree of control over the machine when they really don't.

Dopamine is a chemical in your brain that helps to create an expectation of future rewards. Dopamine neurons light up when they spot a pattern that could lead to pleasure. Dopamine is useful for signalling things that may be good for us.

For example, dopamine levels spike if we get a surprise like an unexpected compliment from someone we like, or when we get a bite on a fishing line.

Conversely, when there are no patterns or hopes for a future reward, dopamine levels will drop and we lose interest. But pokie machines can distort our expectations. The graphics and sounds give the impression that we are always on the verge of winning.

This keeps our dopamine neurons in an artificial state of stimulation. This false sense of expectation prevents some players from stopping even though they really should.

Did you know that when the brain of a pokies addict is scanned while playing a pokie machine we actually see dopamine neurons light up in the same way as a person with a cocaine addiction?

When dopamine is overstimulated, we start to crave activities that aren't always in our best interests. You can play pokies much faster than other types of gambling. You don't have to wait for horses to run, a dealer to shuffle or deal, or a roulette wheel to stop spinning. As players grow in experience, there can be a tendency to increase the speed of play. However, unlike other skill based games, speed of play is not a sign of mastery.

It just means you are likely to lose faster. Designers have come to realise that forcing gamblers to play faster or slower than their natural tempo creates frustration. To get around this some machines are sophisticated enough to adjust their tempos to match the player's preferred groove. Pokie machines are tailored with different graphics to appeal to different players. Whether the theme is motor racing, farming, adventure or fantasy, the animations play like "mini movies" - pulling you into the world of the pokie machine.

All games start their lives as a spreadsheet, and that's basically what you are playing. The random number generator RNG comes up with approximately combinations per second.

These generated numbers, of which there are typically between one-to-four billion possibilities, are then fed through a set of rules that converts them into stops on the microprocessor's "virtual reel". It doesn't matter what the previous outcomes of the machine were. Each button push is completely independent of the last one.

You're not the only one! Old school pokie machines had only one payline. New machines allow you to bet on more than one payline at a time.

These paylines may run horizontally across the screen, diagonally or even in zig zags! In , some machines introduced 50 paylines. In they introduced lines! This complexity makes it difficult some would say impossible for players to keep track of the logic of winning.

If you choose to play multi-lines, the odds are that the games will pay out more frequently but usually for less than the amount of the initial bet.

This gives you the sense that you are winning all the time. But are you really? Machine designers space out the buttons on the console ergonomically so that you don't even need to move your hand to push the buttons. Incidentally, this results in faster play! It may come as a surprise for some people that there are no mechanical reels spinning around the modern pokie machine.

Behind the scenes is a random number generator RNG which then uses a program to map onto virtual reels. The stops on the virtual reels are then mapped to reel graphics you see on the video screen. Many of your wins on a modern pokie machine are actually net losses. This is enabled by multi-line betting.

However, the machine is likely to celebrate that win with positive graphics and sounds. Machines commonly use positive sounding music in a major key to hold your attention. This may lift your spirits and provide an escape from negative thoughts. With a win you're likely to hear coins dropping or people celebrating This is because game designers do not want to reinforce a loss that could cause you to rethink how much you are losing and whether or not you should continue to play.

The presence of multiple machines in a venue produces a continuous chatter of winning sounds. These may condition your brain into thinking a win is on its way, even though it's just as unlikely as the last spin. A range of buttons allow you to select the number of pay lines and the number of coins you bet on each line. These options give you an interactive experience and can give you the illusion of skill. The truth is that no combination of button pushes will increase your odds of winning.

The odds of winning the top prize on a pokie machine may vary from 1 in 40 thousand to 1 in 33 million. For example, take the game Black Rhinos — if you are playing one line at a time it would take 6. Each machine is programmed to take in more that it pays out. So the longer you play, the higher the chances are that you will lose.

The outcome of each spin is random. So in the short term, you could take a bigger win or experience a bigger loss. The more time you spend playing, the more likely it is that your money will gradually reduce to almost zero. Machines are programmed to give you a feeling that there is a degree of skill involved.

But in reality, there is no action you can take that will increase your odds of winning on any spin. In short, there are no techniques to trick or cheat it. To illustrate, you may have a feeling that you have control over the machine because:.

Every spin is purely random. These thoughts should not be trusted because each outcome is independent of any previous spin. A machine is no more likely to pay out the larger prize after 1,, spins than it was after 10 spins. Your brain is wired to spot patterns. Normally this works in our favour because it helps us make everyday decisions. We can often spot the best waves at the beach before they break, and we can choose the best time to drive to work based on what's happened in the past.

But when playing pokies, this strength becomes our weakness. The outcome of each spin is random, meaning past spins don't have any bearing on the result of future spins. Players who are physically and psychologically comfortable will occupy their seats for longer periods of time.

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