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Mary Shelley wrote a number of science fiction novels including Frankensteinand is considered a major writer of the Romantic Age. The scholar Tom Shippey asks a perennial question of science fiction: Le Guin has approached an answer by first citing the essay written by the English author Virginia Woolf entitled Mr Bennett and Mrs Brown in which she states:. I believe that all novels, The great novelists have brought us to see whatever they wish us to see through some character. Otherwise they would not be novelists, but poets, historians, or pamphleteers.

Le Guin argues that these criteria may be successfully applied to works of science fiction and so answers in the affirmative her rhetorical question posed at the beginning of her essay: Kornbluth 's The Space Merchants and concludes that the basic building block and distinguishing feature of a science fiction novel is the presence of the novuma term Darko Suvin adapts from Ernst Bloch and defines as "a discrete piece of information recognizable as not-true, but also as not-unlike-true, not-flatly- and in the current state of knowledge impossible.

Orson Scott Cardan author of both science fiction and non-SF fiction, has postulated that in science fiction the message and intellectual significance of the work is contained within the story itself and, therefore, there need not be stylistic gimmicks or literary games; but that some writers and critics confuse clarity of language with lack of artistic merit. Science fiction author and physicist Gregory Benford has declared that: The Squandered Promise of Science Fiction.

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Feminist science fiction poses questions about social issues such as how society constructs gender roles, the role reproduction plays in defining gender and the unequal political and personal power of men over women. Some of the most notable feminist science fiction works have illustrated these themes using utopias to explore a society in which gender differences or gender power imbalances do not exist, or dystopias to explore worlds in which gender inequalities are intensified, thus asserting a need for feminist work to continue.

Le Guin 's work can be thus categorized. Although perhaps most developed as a genre and community in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom, science fiction is a worldwide phenomenon.

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Organisations devoted to promotion and translation in particular countries are commonplace, as are country- or language-specific genre awards. Mohammed Diban Algerian writer, wrote a science fiction allegory about his nation's politics, Qui se souvient de la mer Who Remembers the Sea?

In South Africaa movie titled District 9 came out inan apartheid allegory featuring extraterrestrial life forms, produced by Peter Jackson. Afrofuturism is a genre of science fiction and speculative fiction which consists largely of the work produced by members of the African diaspora in the Americas. The term "afrofuturism" was coined in by Mark Dery in his essay "Black to the Future. Delany said in an interview with Dark Matterrecognizing, too, writers of "proto-science fiction" such as black nationalist Martin Delany and M.

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Since this story was intended as a political polemic, credit for the first science fiction story is often given to later Bengali authors such as Jagadananda RoyHemlal Dutta and the polymath Jagadish Chandra Bose.

Eminent film maker and writer Satyajit Ray also enriched Bengali science fiction by writing many short stories as well as science fiction series, Professor Shonku see Bengali science fiction. Similar traditions exist in Hindi, Marathi, Tamil and English.

In recent years authors in some other Indian languages have begun telling stories in this genre; for example in Punjabi IP Singh and Roop Dhillon have written stories that can clearly be defined as Punjabi Real Money Pokies Rubiks Cube fiction. The latter has coined the term Vachitarvaad to describe such literature. Bangladesh has a strong science fiction literature. This story was later included in a compilation of Iqbal's work in a book by the same name.

Iqbal later transformed his own science fiction cartoon strip Mohakashe Mohatrash Terror in the Cosmos into a novel. Modern science fiction in China mainly depends on the magazine Science Fiction World. A number of works were originally published in it in installments, including the highly successful novel The Three-Body Problemwritten by Liu Cixin.

Until recently, there has been little domestic science fiction literature in Korea. Chalomot Be'aspamia is an Israeli magazine of short science fiction and fantasy stories. The Prophecies Of Karmapublished inPokies Win Nzs Poslovi Pancevo advertised as the first work of science fiction by an Arabic author, the Lebanese writer Nael Gharzeddine.

Jules Vernea 19th-century French novelist known for his pioneering science fiction works Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the SeaJourney to the Center of the EarthFrom the Earth to the Moon is the prime representative of the French legacy of science fiction.

French science fiction of the 19th century was also represented with such artists as Albert Robida and Isidore Grandville. Metal Hurlant magazine known in US as Heavy Metal was one of the largest contributors to francophone science-fiction comics. A number of artists from neighboring countries, such as Spain and Italy, create science fiction and fantasy comics in French aimed at a Franco-Belgian market. In the French-speaking world, the colloquial use of the term sci-fi is an accepted Anglicism for the term science fiction.

Nevertheless, France has made a tremendous contribution to science fiction in its seminal stages of development.

Although the term "science fiction" is understood in France, their penchant for the "weird and wacky" has a long tradition and is sometimes called "le culte du merveilleux. Italy has a vivid history in science fiction, though almost unknown outside its borders.

The history of Italian science fiction recognizes a varied roadmap of this genre which spread to a popular level after World War Two, and in particular in the second half of the s, on the wave of American and British literature. The earliest pioneers may be found in the literature of the fantastic voyage and of the Renaissance Utopia, even in previous masterpieces such as "The Million" of Marco Polo. In the second half of the 19th century stories and short novels of "scientific fantasies" also known as "incredible stories" or "fantastic" or "adventuristic", "novels of the future times" or "utopic", "of the tomorrow" appeared in Sunday newspaper supplements, in literary magazines, and as booklets published in installments.

Added to these, at the beginning of the 20th century, were the most futuristic masterpieces of the great Emilio Salgariconsidered by most the father of Italian science fiction, and Yambo and Luigi Mottawell known authors of popular novels of the time, with extraordinary adventures in remote and exotic places, and even works of authors representing known figures of the "top" literature, among them Massimo BontempelliLuigi CapuanaGuido GozzanoErcole Luigi Morselli.

The true birth of Italian science fiction is placed inwith the publishing of the first specialized magazines, Scienza Fantastica Fantastic Science and Urania, and with the appearance of the term " fantascienza " which has become the usual translation of the English term "science fiction. From the end of the s science fiction became in Italy one of the most popular genres, although its popular success was not followed by critical success.

Valerio Evangelisti is the best known modern author Pokies Win Nztcy Delisting Of Uwti Italian science fiction and fantasy. In the 20th century, during the years of divided Germany, both East and West spawned a number of successful writers. A well known science fiction book series in the German language is Perry Rhodanwhich started in Having sold over two billion copies in pulppaperback and hardcover formatsit is the most successful science fiction book series ever written, worldwide.

The most prominent German-speaking author, according to Die Zeitis [ when? In the s Germany produced a number of critically acclaimed high-budget science fiction and horror films. Metropolis by director Fritz Lang is credited as one of the most influential science fiction films ever made.

In the second half of the 20th century, East Germany also became a major science fiction film producer, often in a collaboration with fellow Eastern Bloc countries. Russians made their first steps to science fiction in the midth century, with Pokies Win Nzs Poslovi Pancevo by Faddei Bulgarin and Vladimir Odoevsky.

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Soviet writers were prolific, [] despite limitations set up by state censorship. Early Soviet science fiction was influenced by communist ideology and often featured a leftist agenda or anti-capitalist satire. In the second half of the 20th century, a new generation of writers developed a more complex approach.

Social science fictionconcerned with philosophy, ethicsutopian and dystopian ideas, became the prevalent subgenre. He was soon followed by brothers Arkady and Boris Strugatskywho explored darker themes and social satire in their Noon Universe novels, such as Hard to be a God and Prisoners of Poweras well as in their science fantasy trilogy Monday Begins on Saturday A good share of Soviet science fiction was aimed at children.

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Mary Shelley wrote a number of science fiction novels including Frankenstein , and is considered a major writer of the Romantic Age. The scholar Tom Shippey asks a perennial question of science fiction: Le Guin has approached an answer by first citing the essay written by the English author Virginia Woolf entitled Mr Bennett and Mrs Brown in which she states:.

I believe that all novels, The great novelists have brought us to see whatever they wish us to see through some character. Otherwise they would not be novelists, but poets, historians, or pamphleteers. Le Guin argues that these criteria may be successfully applied to works of science fiction and so answers in the affirmative her rhetorical question posed at the beginning of her essay: Kornbluth 's The Space Merchants and concludes that the basic building block and distinguishing feature of a science fiction novel is the presence of the novum , a term Darko Suvin adapts from Ernst Bloch and defines as "a discrete piece of information recognizable as not-true, but also as not-unlike-true, not-flatly- and in the current state of knowledge impossible.

Orson Scott Card , an author of both science fiction and non-SF fiction, has postulated that in science fiction the message and intellectual significance of the work is contained within the story itself and, therefore, there need not be stylistic gimmicks or literary games; but that some writers and critics confuse clarity of language with lack of artistic merit.

Science fiction author and physicist Gregory Benford has declared that: The Squandered Promise of Science Fiction. Clarke 's Rendezvous with Rama , stands as "a hidden tombstone marking the death of the hope that SF was about to merge with the mainstream. The ongoing, endless war between "literary" fiction and "genre" fiction has well-defined lines in the sand.

Genre's foot soldiers think that literary fiction is a collection of meaningless but prettily drawn pictures of the human condition. The literary guard consider genre fiction to be crass, commercial, whizz-bang potboilers. Or so it goes. Barnett, in an earlier essay had pointed to a new development in this "endless war": What do novels about a journey across post-apocalyptic America, a clone waitress rebelling against a future society, a world-girdling pipe of special gas keeping mutant creatures at bay, a plan to rid a colonizable new world of dinosaurs, and genetic engineering in a collapsed civilization have in common?

They are all most definitely not science fiction. All of these novels use the tropes of what most people recognize as science fiction, but their authors or publishers have taken great pains to ensure that they are not categorized as such.

Science fiction has sometimes been used as a means of social protest. Robots , artificial humans, human clones , intelligent computers , and their possible conflicts with humans has been a major theme of science fiction since the publication of Frankenstein. Feminist science fiction poses questions about social issues such as how society constructs gender roles, the role reproduction plays in defining gender and the unequal political and personal power of men over women.

Some of the most notable feminist science fiction works have illustrated these themes using utopias to explore a society in which gender differences or gender power imbalances do not exist, or dystopias to explore worlds in which gender inequalities are intensified, thus asserting a need for feminist work to continue.

Le Guin 's work can be thus categorized. Although perhaps most developed as a genre and community in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom, science fiction is a worldwide phenomenon. Organisations devoted to promotion and translation in particular countries are commonplace, as are country- or language-specific genre awards. Mohammed Dib , an Algerian writer, wrote a science fiction allegory about his nation's politics, Qui se souvient de la mer Who Remembers the Sea? In South Africa , a movie titled District 9 came out in , an apartheid allegory featuring extraterrestrial life forms, produced by Peter Jackson.

Afrofuturism is a genre of science fiction and speculative fiction which consists largely of the work produced by members of the African diaspora in the Americas. The term "afrofuturism" was coined in by Mark Dery in his essay "Black to the Future. Delany said in an interview with Dark Matter , recognizing, too, writers of "proto-science fiction" such as black nationalist Martin Delany and M.

Shiel , a British writer of Creole descent. Since this story was intended as a political polemic, credit for the first science fiction story is often given to later Bengali authors such as Jagadananda Roy , Hemlal Dutta and the polymath Jagadish Chandra Bose.

Eminent film maker and writer Satyajit Ray also enriched Bengali science fiction by writing many short stories as well as science fiction series, Professor Shonku see Bengali science fiction. Similar traditions exist in Hindi, Marathi, Tamil and English. In recent years authors in some other Indian languages have begun telling stories in this genre; for example in Punjabi IP Singh and Roop Dhillon have written stories that can clearly be defined as Punjabi science fiction.

The latter has coined the term Vachitarvaad to describe such literature. Bangladesh has a strong science fiction literature. This story was later included in a compilation of Iqbal's work in a book by the same name. Iqbal later transformed his own science fiction cartoon strip Mohakashe Mohatrash Terror in the Cosmos into a novel. Modern science fiction in China mainly depends on the magazine Science Fiction World. A number of works were originally published in it in installments, including the highly successful novel The Three-Body Problem , written by Liu Cixin.

Until recently, there has been little domestic science fiction literature in Korea. Chalomot Be'aspamia is an Israeli magazine of short science fiction and fantasy stories. The Prophecies Of Karma , published in , is advertised as the first work of science fiction by an Arabic author, the Lebanese writer Nael Gharzeddine. Jules Verne , a 19th-century French novelist known for his pioneering science fiction works Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea , Journey to the Center of the Earth , From the Earth to the Moon is the prime representative of the French legacy of science fiction.

French science fiction of the 19th century was also represented with such artists as Albert Robida and Isidore Grandville. Metal Hurlant magazine known in US as Heavy Metal was one of the largest contributors to francophone science-fiction comics. A number of artists from neighboring countries, such as Spain and Italy, create science fiction and fantasy comics in French aimed at a Franco-Belgian market. In the French-speaking world, the colloquial use of the term sci-fi is an accepted Anglicism for the term science fiction.

Nevertheless, France has made a tremendous contribution to science fiction in its seminal stages of development. Although the term "science fiction" is understood in France, their penchant for the "weird and wacky" has a long tradition and is sometimes called "le culte du merveilleux.

Italy has a vivid history in science fiction, though almost unknown outside its borders. The history of Italian science fiction recognizes a varied roadmap of this genre which spread to a popular level after World War Two, and in particular in the second half of the s, on the wave of American and British literature.

The earliest pioneers may be found in the literature of the fantastic voyage and of the Renaissance Utopia, even in previous masterpieces such as "The Million" of Marco Polo. In the second half of the 19th century stories and short novels of "scientific fantasies" also known as "incredible stories" or "fantastic" or "adventuristic", "novels of the future times" or "utopic", "of the tomorrow" appeared in Sunday newspaper supplements, in literary magazines, and as booklets published in installments.

Added to these, at the beginning of the 20th century, were the most futuristic masterpieces of the great Emilio Salgari , considered by most the father of Italian science fiction, and Yambo and Luigi Motta , well known authors of popular novels of the time, with extraordinary adventures in remote and exotic places, and even works of authors representing known figures of the "top" literature, among them Massimo Bontempelli , Luigi Capuana , Guido Gozzano , Ercole Luigi Morselli.

The true birth of Italian science fiction is placed in , with the publishing of the first specialized magazines, Scienza Fantastica Fantastic Science and Urania, and with the appearance of the term " fantascienza " which has become the usual translation of the English term "science fiction.

From the end of the s science fiction became in Italy one of the most popular genres, although its popular success was not followed by critical success. Valerio Evangelisti is the best known modern author of Italian science fiction and fantasy. In the 20th century, during the years of divided Germany, both East and West spawned a number of successful writers.

A well known science fiction book series in the German language is Perry Rhodan , which started in Having sold over two billion copies in pulp , paperback and hardcover formats , it is the most successful science fiction book series ever written, worldwide. The most prominent German-speaking author, according to Die Zeit , is [ when? In the s Germany produced a number of critically acclaimed high-budget science fiction and horror films.

Metropolis by director Fritz Lang is credited as one of the most influential science fiction films ever made. In the second half of the 20th century, East Germany also became a major science fiction film producer, often in a collaboration with fellow Eastern Bloc countries.

Russians made their first steps to science fiction in the midth century, with utopias by Faddei Bulgarin and Vladimir Odoevsky.

Soviet writers were prolific, [] despite limitations set up by state censorship. Early Soviet science fiction was influenced by communist ideology and often featured a leftist agenda or anti-capitalist satire.

In the second half of the 20th century, a new generation of writers developed a more complex approach. Social science fiction , concerned with philosophy, ethics , utopian and dystopian ideas, became the prevalent subgenre. He was soon followed by brothers Arkady and Boris Strugatsky , who explored darker themes and social satire in their Noon Universe novels, such as Hard to be a God and Prisoners of Power , as well as in their science fantasy trilogy Monday Begins on Saturday A good share of Soviet science fiction was aimed at children.

Probably the best known [] [] was Kir Bulychov , who created Alisa Selezneva , a children's space adventure series about a teenage girl from the future. The Soviet film industry also contributed to the genre, starting from the film Aelita.

Some of early Soviet films, namely Planet of the Storms and Battle Beyond the Sun , were pirated, re-edited and released in the West under new titles.

After the fall of the Soviet Union, science fiction in the former Soviet republics is still written mostly in Russian , which allows an appeal to a broader audience. Aside from Russians themselves, especially notable are Ukrainian writers , who have greatly contributed to science fiction and fantasy in Russian language. Russia's film industry, however, has been less successful recently, producing only a few science fiction films, most of them are adaptations of books by the Strugatskys The Inhabited Island , The Ugly Swans or Bulychov Alice's Birthday.

Science fiction media in Russia is represented with such magazines as Mir Fantastiki and Esli. Gaming machine manufacturer Konami Australia also made an alternative way of gaming by using patterns, where symbols pay adjacent to one another. Most of these games have a hexagonal reel formation, and much like multiway games, any patterns not played are darkened out of use.

On both systems, scatter symbols still pay in the darkened areas just like standard machines where scatters don't have to appear on a payline. The laws regulating the use of gaming machines in Australia are a matter for State governments, and as such they vary between States.

Gaming machines are found in casinos approximately one in each major city as well as pubs and clubs in some states usually sports, social, or RSL clubs. The first Australian state to legalize this style of gambling was New South Wales in when they were made legal in all registered clubs in the state. There are suggestions that the proliferation of poker machines has led to increased levels of problem gambling ; however, the precise nature of this link is still open to research.

The primary reason for this is that gaming machines have been legal in the state of New South Wales since and over that time the number of machines has grown to 97, at December , including the Australian Capital Territory.

This new law also banned machines which would automatically play with the button held. All gaming machines in Victoria have an information screen accessible to the user by pressing the 'i key' button, showing the game rules, paytable, return to player percentage, and the top and bottom five combinations, with the odds shown.

These combinations are stated to be played on a minimum bet usually 1 credit per line, with 1 line or reel played , excluding feature wins.

Western Australia only permits the use of particular forms of gaming machine in Burswood casino , and no gaming machines may be used elsewhere. This policy the most restrictive in Australia had a long historical basis, and was reaffirmed by the Royal Commission into Gambling:. It requires no thought, no skill or social contact. The odds are never about winning. Watching people playing the machines over long periods of time, the impressionistic evidence at least is that they are addictive to many people.

Historically poker machines have been banned from Western Australia and we consider that, in the public interest, they should stay banned. Independent candidate Andrew Wilkie , an anti-pokies campaigner, was elected to the Australian House of Representatives seat of Denison at the federal election. Wilkie was one of four crossbenchers who supported the Gillard Labor government following the hung parliament result. Wilkie immediately began forging ties with Xenophon as soon as it was apparent that he was elected.

In Russia, slot clubs appeared quite late, only in Before slot machines were only in the casino and in small shops, but later slot clubs began to grow over the country. The most popular and numerous clubs were "Vulcan " and "Taj Mahal".

After , when a ban on gambling establishments, almost all slot clubs disappeared, and appeared only in a specially authorized gambling zones. The provision of slot machines is covered by the Gambling Act This superseded the Gaming Act Slot machines in the UK are categorised by definitions produced by the Gambling Commission as part of the legislation brought in with the Gambling Act of Casinos built under the provisions of the Act are allowed to house up to twenty machines categories B to D or any number of C or D machines instead.

As defined by the Act, large casinos will have a maximum of one hundred and fifty machines of any combination of machines in categories B to D, within the total limit of one hundred and fifty subject to machine to table ratio of 5: Category A games were defined in preparation for the planned " Super Casinos. As a result, there are no lawful Category A games in the UK.

Category B games are divided into subcategories. However, the differences between B1, B3 and B4 games are mainly the stake and prizes as defined in the above table. FOBTs are mainly found in licensed betting shops , or bookmakers, usually in the form of electronic roulette.

The games are based on a random number generator and thus the probability of getting the jackpot in each game is independent of any other game, and these probabilities are all equal. If a pseudorandom number generator is used instead of one that is truly random, the probabilities are not truly independent, since each pseudorandom number is determined at least in part by the one generated before it.

Fruit machines are commonly found in pubs , clubs , and arcades. Machines commonly have three reels, but can be found with four or five reels with around sixteen to twenty-four symbols printed around them. The reels are spun each play, and if certain combinations of symbols appear then winnings are paid by the machine, or a subgame is played.

These games often have many extra features, trails and subgames with opportunities to win money; usually more than can be won from just the payouts on the reel combinations. Fruit machines in the UK almost universally have the following features, generally selected at random using a pseudorandom number generator:.

It is known for machines to pay out multiple jackpots, one after the other this is known as a streak or rave but each jackpot requires a new game to be played so as not to violate the law about the maximum payout on a single play. Typically this involves the player only pressing the Start button for which a single credit is taken, regardless of whether this causes the reels to spin or not. Slot machines are a fairly new phenomenon and they can be found in mostly in pachinko parlors and the adult sections of amusement arcades , known as game centers.

The machines are regulated with integrated circuits , and have six different levels changing the odds of a Indeed, Japanese slot machines are "beatable. For example, there must be three reels. All reels must be accompanied by buttons which allow players to manually stop them, reels may not spin faster than 80 RPM, and reels must stop within 0.

In practice, this means that machines cannot let reels slip more than 4 symbols. Other rules include a 15 coin payout cap, a 50 credit cap on machines, a 3 coin maximum bet, and other such regulations. While the machine is in bonus mode, the player is entertained with special winning scenes on the LCD display, and energizing music is heard, payout after payout.

On many machines, when enough money to afford a bonus is taken in, the bonus is not immediately awarded. Typically the game merely stops making the reels slip off the bonus symbols for a few games. If the player fails to hit the bonus during these "standby games", it is added to the "Stock" for later collection.

Many current games, after finishing a bonus round, set the probability to release additional stock gained from earlier players failing to get a bonus last time the machine stopped making the reels slip for a bit very high for the first few games.

As a result, a lucky player may get to play several bonus rounds in a row a "Renchan" , making payouts of 5, or even 10, coins possible. The lure of "Stock" waiting in the machine, and the possibility of "Renchan" tease the gambler to keep feeding the machine. This is called being a " hyena ". They are easy to recognize, roaming the aisles for a "Kamo" " sucker " in English to leave his machine.

Many people may be gambling more than they can afford , and the big payouts also lure unsavory "hyena" types into the gambling halls. To address these social issues, a new regulation Version 5. Moreover, all Pachisuro machines must be re-evaluated for regulation compliance every three years. Only time will tell how these changes will affect the Japanese Pachisuro industry. Mike Dixon, PhD, professor of psychology, University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada [47] studies the relationship between slot players and slot machines.

Slot players were observed experiencing heightened arousal from the sensory stimulus coming from the machines. They "sought to show that these "losses disguised as wins" LDWs would be as arousing as wins, and more arousing than regular losses". Skill stop buttons predated the Bally electromechanical slot machines of the s and 70s.

Stocks across Asia were mixed after Wall Street was buoyed by a recovery in tech stocks. Air New Zealand rose 1. The national carrier today reported another increase in monthly passenger numbers in its May operating metrics. A2 Milk Co rose 0.

Williamson said the stock is trading on good volumes, especially when the ASX opens, with strong Australian demand for the shares. Most power companies gained after state-owned enterprise Transpower was proposing a new operational review of the way it charges access to the national grid after the sector's regulator announced more delays its own methodology in setting that price.

Contact Energy rose 0. Port of Tauranga gained 0. At the event, the port's chairman David Pilkington said local government port owners weren't managing their facilities to generate bigger returns than their cost of capital.

Outdoor equipment chain Kathmandu Holdings gained 0. Outside the benchmark index, Scott Technology rose 1. The Wellington-based BusinessDesk team led by former Bloomberg Asian top editor Jonathan Underhill and Qantas Award-winning journalist and commentator Pattrick Smellie provides a daily news feed for a serious business audience. Contact BusinessDesk Email - editor businessdesk. Business Headlines Sci-Tech Headlines.

Follow Scoop on Facebook. Follow Scoop on Twitter. User account actions Log in. Search Search form Search. Labour is promising to work on getting a free-to-air Pacific Island television channel up and running in New Zealand if it wins the election - a prospect that major broadcasters have been investigating for some time.

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